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More filters. Sort order. There are no discussion topics on this book yet. About Neil Patrick O'Donnell. Neil Patrick O'Donnell. Books by Neil Patrick O'Donnell. Trivia About The Niagara Front No trivia or quizzes yet. After the glaciers retreated from the Niagara Frontier, the tundra-like environment morphed over the next few millennia, first developing into grassland followed by pockets of spruce woodland and a climate that was somewhat drier than the area is today Webb III et.

The initial grass-rich environment also contained sedge, shrubs and herbaceous plants Miller and Futyma ; Joyce , a rich bounty for herbivores traversing the Niagara Frontier.

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The faunal assemblages from Paleoindian sites indicate the region was home to caribou, giant beaver, hare, stag-moose, mammoth, mastodons, peccary, and a variety of fish and bird species, which included the California condor Laub With insects and bacteria a part of the biome as well, the Niagara Frontier's diversity would have balanced well with the vegetation, making the region suitable for carnivores and herbivores alike. Enter the Paleoindians.

The 'Big Game' Hunters The Niagara Frontier's climate was significantly cooler 12, years ago, conditions that prevented a diversity of edible plant life to exist. Consequently, Paleoindians were dependent on hunting to support their communities, an activity that often focused on the herds of megafauna that populated the region.

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Traveling in bands, likely members of extended families, Paleoindians could collectively kill one or more bison or mastodon, which would provide enough resources to allow Paleoindians to endure. In addition to the meat, megafauna provided hides for clothing and shelters and bone for tools needles, spear points and structural supports.

Aside from bison, mammoth, mastodon and stag-moose, archaeologists know that Paleoindians relied on rodents, berries, birds, seeds, tubers fleshy roots , fish and shellfish for food Krech Since humans remain omnivores to this day, for the most part, such a varied diet amongst Paleoindians is not surprising.

Consequently, other questions about Paleoindians now surface particularly in regards to their impact on the Niagara Frontier's environment and that of the whole New World. Megafauna Extinctions Many megafauna species disappeared approximately 10, years ago in both the Niagara Frontier and across the Americas. What caused these mass extinctions? Some forty years ago, palynologist Paul Martin argued that the arrival of Paleoindians in the New World and subsequent focus on megafauna for sustenance caused the disappearance of mastodon, mammoths and other large mammals Krech This argument, primarily promoting Clovis populations as the cause of megafauna extinctions, quickly gained widespread support through archaeological and paleontological spheres, support that has continued into the 21st century Fiedel and Haynes ; Haynes Significant arguments have been raised that challenge this hypothesis.

First, if Clovis or other Paleoindian populations killed sufficient numbers of mastodons, mammoths and other megafauna to trigger the subsequent extinctions, we would expect to find an extensive amount of corresponding remains at Paleoindian sites. However, from the relatively few Paleoindian sites identified, few megafauna remains have been recovered Grayson and Meltzer Secondly, if Clovis populations were single-handedly responsible for these mass extinctions, then no evidence of the megafauna should appear in contexts later than Clovis.

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So then what caused the extinctions? Some have argued that human-borne diseases played a role in the disappearance of megafauna species Woodman and Athfield , while other researchers promote the notion that meteorites or other extraterrestrial events were instrumental in the onset of the mass extinctions Firestone et. Niagara frontier. Chicago, S. Reviews User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers.

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Online version: Wilner, Merton M. I-II paged continuously. III-IV are biographical.

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