The course is an online postgraduate course aimed at engaging everyday clinical teachers from a variety of different healthcare professions. There is a strong clear focus on comprehensively covering key topics in clinical teaching and learning, hands-on application of theory to practice, peer review, and developing self-sustaining clinical educators. Furthermore, it can be completed as a stand-alone course or as part of the following established programmes in the form of an elective option:.
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The course will provide participants with an analytical understanding of the theories and principles underlying a broad range of key clinical teaching, learning, and assessment activities. It will also equip them with functional knowledge, skills, and first-hand experience which will enable them to independently design, conduct, and evaluate each activity by the end of this course. These are:. Attendance will facilitate completion of some of the assessment tasks.
There will be three assignments, which will enable students to explore aspects of teaching and learning within their own clinical context. There is a reading list for each module, most of which will be available as hyperlinks from the course web pages. Contact us. Ask Auckland. Summary Learning in the clinical setting is the cornerstone of medical school education, but there are strong imperatives to optimise the ways in which students acquire clinical expertise.
Generic learning theories and research Over the past few decades, developments in cognitive learning theories have led to a greater understanding of how students acquire clinical expertise. Deliberate practice Cognitive psychology research has shown deliberate practice to be an important tool for developing and maintaining professional expertise. Specific areas of research in clinical skills development Significant advances have occurred in specific as well as generic domains of clinical skills acquisition.
Diagnostic reasoning Experience with a range of analytical and non-analytical strategies is required for the development of expertise in diagnostic reasoning. Hypothesis generation Hypothesis generation can be enhanced by using strategies such as the contrastive approach, 17 which involves comparing the similarities and discriminating features of two to three competing diagnoses at the same time.
CLINED 719 -Teaching and Learning in Clinical Settings
Evidence-based physical examination Teaching physical examination skills Medical education research has also focused on the most effective methods of teaching students physical examination skills. Acquiring the necessary psychomotor skills Growing awareness of the need to refine the content of the physical examination has been paralleled by research into the way students acquire the psychomotor skills required to perform individual manoeuvres. Hypothesis-driven physical examination Research in this area has been broadened by using the hypothesis-driven physical examination as an educational tool.
Communication skills Effective communication is essential for accurate and efficient data collection, developing rapport with patients and facilitating teamwork with other health professionals. Application of theory and research The successful incorporation of educational theories and research into clinical training requires strategic planning and strong faculty leadership, as well as close collaboration between academic educators, clinical teachers and student representatives. Improving generic teaching skills There are also now many opportunities for teachers wishing to improve their generic teaching skills, for either formal sessions or opportunistic encounters.
Broadening the teaching pool Effective ways of involving patients in clinical teaching include strategic selection of patients to illustrate specific principles or learning frameworks and training patients to lead educational sessions. Supporting students in learning environments Successfully incorporating developments in educational theory and research into clinical education requires students to be well supported in their learning environments.
Conclusion Clinical education is constantly undergoing renewal in response to advances in theory development and research, and to changes in medical knowledge and health care practices. View this article on Wiley Online Library. Spencer J. ABC of learning and teaching in medicine: learning and teaching in the clinical environment. BMJ ; Strategic planning in medical education: enhancing the learning environment for students in clinical settings.
Med Educ ; Clinical skills textbooks fail evidence-based examination. Evid Based Med ; Clinical skills training — practice makes perfect. Schuwirth L, van der Vleuten C. Challenges for educationalists. Kaufman D. ABC of learning and teaching in medicine. Applying educational theory in practice. Woolley N, Jarvis Y.
Situated cognition and cognitive apprenticeship: a model for teaching and learning clinical skills in a technologically rich and authentic learning environment. Nurse Educ Today ; Ericsson KA. Deliberate practice and the acquistion and maintenance of expert performance in medicine and related domains. Acad Med ; 79 10 Suppl : SS Cognitive load theory in health professional education: design principles and strategies.
Mamede S, Schmidt H. The structure of reflective practice in medicine. Teaching from the clinical reasoning literature: combining reasoning strategies help novice diagnosticians overcome misleading information. The benefits of flexibility: the pedagogical value of instructions to adopt multi-faceted diagnostic reasoning strategies. Bowen JL. Educational strategies to promote clinical diagnostic reasoning.
N Engl J Med ; Nendez M, Bordage G.
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Promoting diagnostic problem representation. Bordage G, Zacks R. The structure of medical knowledge in the memories of medical students and general practitioners: categories and prototypes. McKenzie CR. Taking into account the strength of an alternative hypothesis. Historical criteria that distinguish syncope from seizure. J Am Coll Cardiol ; Helping students learn to think like experts when solving clinical problems. Acad Med ; Verghese A, Horwitz RI. In praise of the physical examination.
BMJ ; b A hypothesis-driven physical examination learning and assessment procedure for medical students: initial validity evidence. Sackett D. A primer on the precision and accuracy of the clinical examination. JAMA ; The STARD statement for reporting diagnostic accuracy studies: application to the history and physical examination. J Gen Intern Med ; Simel DL, Rennie D. The rational clinical examination: evidence-based clinical diagnosis. JAMAevidence Join NursingCenter to get uninterrupted access to this Article.
The expansion of simulation in schools of nursing and health care settings, the growing body of research on simulation in nursing, and general excitement among nurse educators about simulation are clear evidence that simulation will continue to be an important method for educating nursing students. As we embrace simulation, though, let us not lose sight about the need for clinical practice in a nursing program and the critical role of the clinical teacher.
Feedback and Reflection: Teaching Methods for Clinical Setti : Academic Medicine
Clinical practice provides the opportunity for students to care for "real" patients and families and transfer what was learned in simulation and class to patient care. Students get to use and adapt the skills they developed through simulation with their own patients. In the clinical setting, students develop as professionals and learn to interact with other health care providers. They can advocate for their patients and are exposed to ethical situations, some of which are resolved differently than the scenarios they examined in class.
Students have an opportunity to collect and analyze data, think through possible approaches to use, and make informed decisions within the context of patient-centered care.
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They have a chance to compare their patient's conditions and responses to the concepts they are learning in class. The exemplars the faculty member used in class or online "come alive" when they relate to a patient for whom the student is caring or is discussed in a postconference. As students practice in clinical settings, they gain awareness of their own learning needs and competencies to be expanded. We know that students learn best in a positive and supportive learning environment; in that environment, students view the teacher as an expert whose goal is to help them learn and develop as professionals.