Published in in the popular newspaper, Illustrated London News , the collage was created by German photographer Reinhold Thiele. In the Suez Canal was opened, greatly reducing the distance between Britain and India by some 4, miles as ships no longer needed to travel round southern Africa.
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The Suez Canal, together with the reliable service of steam-powered liners, led to an increase in merchant and passenger shipping. As a result, maritime companies employed Indian lascar sailors in far greater numbers, and considered them able to withstand the heat of engine rooms. In the absence of trade unions for lascars, their campaign for better wages and working conditions became a long drawn-out struggle. Except as otherwise permitted by your national copyright laws this material may not be copied or distributed further. Explore the expansion of trade and Empire and discover the stories of the first South Asians to settle in Britain.
Information Description This early 20th-century collage shows Indian lascar sailors at work and in their lodgings on shore. Shipping, lascar sailors and Britain In the Suez Canal was opened, greatly reducing the distance between Britain and India by some 4, miles as ships no longer needed to travel round southern Africa. Many of these volcanoes are covered by snow and ice.
As of [update] , it had a population of 50 inhabitants. Unlike the neighbouring volcanoes Acamarachi , Licancabur and Quimal , there is no evidence of archeological sites on Lascar,  possibly because of the volcanic activity. Lascar is located in the main volcanic arc , on the western margin of the Altiplano. The 9-kilometre-long 5. Another debris flow from Corona spread towards Salar de Atacama. Lascar is formed by two irregularly shaped truncated cones that extend east—west,   on a trend that includes Aguas Calientes.
Its large crater is filled by another cone,  which forms the highest summit of the Lascar volcano. The eastern cone also known as Activo  is capped off with three distinct craters  which are delimited by arcuate fractures. There are many fumaroles along the rim of the inner crater.
Layers of lava and pyroclastics are discernible in the craters. There are traces of a collapse of the volcano towards the northeast, with an associated horseshoe-shaped scar. Large lava flows are noticeable on the flanks of the volcano,  with a total of eight lava flows recognized.
The flow advanced just north of the head of Quebrada Talabre before passing over cliffs and entering it. Its rocks have a pale gray-blue colour, and their composition resembles the Soncor flow, despite more mafic lavas and pyroclastics being erupted in the time period between the emplacement of the Soncor flow and the Capricorn Lava. An early pyroclastic flow, the Saltar Flow, is exposed on the eastern flank. It was emplaced after the collapse of the oldest edifice, covering Aguas Calientes' western slopes. The flow deposit was later modified by glacial activity.
On the western slope, it buries the even older Piedras Grandes flow, which crops out only at the margins of the Soncor flow. It was accompanied by a Plinian fall deposit. Finally, the andesitic pumice Tumbres flow is found on the northwest—west—southwestern slopes of Lascar. The Quebrada Talabre cuts into the upper flanks of Lascar  and eventually joins the Quebrada Soncor. The volcano sits above a major local geological trend, the north—south Miscanti Line.
Other volcanic centres are also located on this line,  including the Corona and Saltar lava domes, and the Miscanti and Lejia volcanoes. Lascar rocks consist of andesite and dacite. These rocks have a composition mainly characterized as "two-pyroxene" [a] , but the old Piedras Grandes and Soncor rocks contain hornblende. Other minerals include anhydrite ,  augite , plagioclase ,  apatite , ilmenite , magnetite , olivine , orthopyroxene , phyrrotite , quartz, rhyolite in the groundmass , and spinel in inclusions.
Dacite has more plagioclase and rhyolite. The rocks of Lascar belong to the calc-alkaline series. Magma erupted by Lascar appears to form from the mixing of mafic and more evolved magmas; the eruption deposits contain bands of different rocks. The magma chamber of Lascar appears to lie at depths of 10—17 kilometres 6.
The chamber may be surrounded by skarnic alteration. Metasomatism does further affect rocks derived from magma chamber walls. A number of xenoliths occur in Lascar's rocks; a large amount of the phenocrysts are ultimately derived from them. Hornfels , skarn, and rocks that are part of Lascar's lava dome ridge are the source of these xenoliths. Minerals encountered in xenoliths include andradite , anhydrite, anorthite, apatite, biotite, calcite , diopside, fassaite, garnet , gypsum , ilmenite, magnetite, monazite , orthopyroxene, perovskite , plagioclase, prehnite , quartz, sphene , thorite , wilkeite , wollastonite and zircon.
A number of such xenoliths formed from carbonate rocks that were influenced by magma   of Lascar and of other volcanoes such as Tumisa. Lascar emits plumes of gas and white clouds of condensed water vapor ,  mostly over many hundreds of fumarolic vents, which are chiefly located in the active crater. The fumaroles also release carbon monoxide , hydrogen , hydrogen chloride , hydrogen sulfide , and smaller amounts of helium. Hydrocarbons and other organic compounds are also found in the low-temperature fumaroles.
Release rates of SO 2 amounted to 27 tonnes per day 0.
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Gases are partly supplied from shallow magma; the volume of magma erupted is too small to contain all the exhalations. Sulfur and chlorine may be derived from the crust , evaporites such as these found at Salar de Atacama , subducted lithosphere or the mantle. Carbon in the gases may come from skarn assimilation. Lascar rests atop the Atana ignimbrite, a rhyodacitic sheet which was erupted by La Pacana caldera 4. Landforms over this basement include ignimbrites, lava domes, and stratovolcanoes.
The area around Lascar is one of the driest and highest volcanic settings in the world. Lascar is located close to the Atacama Desert , one of the world's driest deserts. During the glacial periods , the volcano most likely featured small glaciers. Due to the dry climate, there is little vegetation at Lascar.
Bunch grass and shrubs grow on the volcano's slopes. In the deep valleys, groundwater and streams support more plants. Volcanic activity at Lascar affects neighbouring ecosystems such as the Aguas Calientes crater lake and Laguna Lejia; flamingos disappeared from the latter after the eruption and did not return until Lascar is the most active volcano in the Andean Central Volcanic Zone,  and a steady pattern of eruptive activity has persisted for centuries. The oldest volcanic activity at Lascar occurred between ,  and less than 50, years ago.
The eastern edifice formed first stage I , erupting andesite containing pyroxene, and eventually forming the Chaile and Saltar pyroclastic flows. The Chaile flows are actually formed by two separate units and are found on the southwest flanks of the volcano, up to a distance of 6 kilometres 3. The Saltar flow reached widths of 0. At least nine units form the Saltar deposit, with the northern flows displaying flow welding. Later volcanic activity buried this edifice beneath thin pyroclastic flows. The western edifice generated a complex of lava domes stage II ,  which was probably surrounded by a horseshoe-shaped crater open to the west.
The unit is about 2 kilometres 1. The lava domes interacted with glaciers , resulting in the formation of a glacier run whose deposits are found as far as 10 kilometres 6. The deposits left contain both andesite and dacite,  with phenocrysts consisting of apatite, augite, biotite, iron - titanium oxides , orthopyroxene and plagioclase in a rhyolite matrix.
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Ignimbrite was channeled to the Salar de Atacama by the Quebrada de Chaile, Quebrada de Soncor and Quebrada de Talabre canyons and some smaller valleys, northeastwards by the Quebrada de Morro Blanco and as far as 11 kilometres 6. Lithic rocks derived both from the pre-Soncor volcano and the basement are also represented. The magma erupted was generated in a magma chamber starting from andesite, which underwent complex petrogenetic processes. At the time preceding the eruption, the magma chamber had a thermal stratification;  injections of mafic magmas had heated the magma chamber and induced convection.
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A volatile phase containing chlorine formed inside the magma chamber and quickly removed most sulfur from the magma. This sulfur extraction was facilitated by the high oxygen content of the magma, which allowed the formation of sulfur dioxide. The previous volcanic edifice was destroyed by this eruption,  which may have formed a caldera.
The Soncor magma chamber may have been too deep to collapse when it was emptied, explaining why no significant caldera was formed. Later, a new stratovolcano grew over the Soncor vent. It has a volume of 5—6 cubic kilometres 1. However, an eruption of the Cerro Corona lava dome occurred during this period,  and activity of stage III did not commence earlier than 22, years ago. The Tumbres eruption occurred around BCE ,  commencing with the eruption of pumice falls that reach thicknesses of less than 1.
Afterwards, up to four different units of pyroclastic flows, each 1—10 metres 3. Activity subsequently shifted to the eastern edifice. Lascar has erupted about thirty times since the 19th century. Eruptions in and are uncertain. For some eruptions, including the January eruption, it is not clear whether they occurred at Lascar or Aguas Calientes,  and some early reports of volcanic activity at Aguas Calientes probably refer to Lascar. In , Lascar awakened to new activity;  satellite images noted the presence of hot spots on the volcano. Observers noted the formation of a cauliflower-shaped cloud that eventually developed into a mushroom cloud with a maximum height of 9.
Ash fall in Salta occurred about one hour after the eruption. Preceding historical eruptions did not exceed 2. This dome began to shrink in October , and in December , white clouds rose 2 kilometres 1. On 20 February , an eruption column rose 8—14 kilometres 5. Some of the material came from the conduit walls.
It probably started shrinking in April , although the shrinkage was directly visible only in November. Small explosions accompanied the shrinkage until, by March , the dome had disappeared again. An alternating cycle of fumarolic activity, an accumulation of fumarolic gases in the conduit and lava dome, and explosive activity followed by renewed fumarolic activity have characterized Lascar's activity since Explosive activity presumably occurs when gases can no longer escape.
Further, fractures permitting gas passage are obstructed when the magma contracts. Vulcanian explosions started on 18 April , and on 19—20 April , a major eruption occurred. Another explosion at sent a column 8. The eruption columns underwent several collapses, creating pyroclastic flows at least seven to nine times. On the southeastern flank, the pyroclastic flows formed a fan extending several hundred metres into Pampa Leija. There is a pronounced morphology characterized by a channel upslope and snout-like toes downslope.
The flows were strongly erosive, extracting rocks and material from the bedrock, even far away from the vent. These flows took a long time to cool down; in the Quebrada Tumbres, they had not cooled down completely by December The ash from the volcano was carried by western wind towards Argentina and the Atlantic Ocean.
This eruption was the most significant eruption of Lascar in the last 9, years, with a volcanic explosivity index of 4   and a duration of 32 hours. The whole volcano did not deform during the eruption sequence. Helens ,  and was sufficient to cause a noticeable increase in atmospheric opacity. The eruption claimed no fatalities,  however it did lead to water pollution in the region, including increases in cadmium , copper and lead concentrations in local rivers.
Regulatory limits on concentrations of other elements in water were also exceeded, although only temporarily. The eruption record at Lascar becomes more irregular after the eruption. It started to shrink again by May. On 17 December , another explosion created an eruption column 8—10 kilometres 5. By 28 December, the dome had subsided completely in the centre, leaving only its margins. Subsequently, a number of fumaroles were active around the crater. The eruption lasted for two hours and formed a 10—kilometre-high 6. Further activity occurred in May , with a 8—kilometre-high 5.
Four eruptions occurred at , , and UTC , forming eruption columns reaching altitudes of 10 kilometres 6. The next day, additional explosions occurred at , and UTC, with a maximum column height of 7 kilometres 4. Weak eruptions, characterized by earthquakes and the release of plumes, occurred in February—March and March—April Glowing was also reported in October and November Because of the volcano's remote location, much information on its activity comes from remote sensing.
Lascar's activity has been monitored by Thematic Mapper , which has been used to monitor volcanic activity since , when hot spots were observed on Lascar. Seismic activity occurs at Lascar. Research has indicated peculiar patterns, including so called "rapid-fire" events on a background of continuous activity,  as well as the occurrence of long-period earthquakes; here and in other volcanoes, this kind of seismic activity is associated with intense fumarolic activity that occurs in the absence of outright eruptions.
Long-period earthquakes with magnitudes not exceeding 1. Explosive eruptions and ash falls are the major threat to humans from Lascar. Heavy metal exposure is a problem for the region. High quantities of arsenic have been observed in local crops. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses of "Lascar", see Lascar disambiguation.
The Lascar volcano, seen from the Chaxas lagoon on the Gran Salar. To the left, in the background, the Aguas Calientes volcano. Lascar is just left of Aguas Calientes, which is the central cone. Acamarachi is the white cone on the right. Images of Lascar and neighbouring volcanoes. San Pedro de Atacama. Images of the crater. Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution.
Retrieved 8 December Report on Lascar Chile. In: Venzke, E ed. Volcanic Tourist Destinations. Retrieved 25 October Latin America, Joint Operations Graphic jpg 1 ed. Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union.