The Pope also met with the Maltese youth at the Valletta Waterfront, where an estimated 10, young people turned up to greet him. During his visit the Pope was moved to tears while expressing his shame at cases of abuse on the island during a minute meeting with victims. Prior to , the primary responsibility for investigating allegations of sexual abuse and disciplining perpetrators rested with the individual dioceses.
In , Ratzinger convinced John Paul II to put the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith in charge of all investigations and policies surrounding sexual abuse in order to combat such abuse more efficiently. According to John L. Allen, Jr. From that point forward, he and his staff seemed driven by a convert's zeal to clean up the mess".
In his role as Head of the CDF, he "led important changes made in Church law: the inclusion in canon law of internet offences against children, the extension of child abuse offences to include the sexual abuse of all under 18, the case by case waiving of the statute of limitation and the establishment of a fast-track dismissal from the clerical state for offenders. According to Charles J. Scicluna, a former prosecutor handling sexual abuse cases, "Cardinal Ratzinger displayed great wisdom and firmness in handling those cases, also demonstrating great courage in facing some of the most difficult and thorny cases, sine acceptione personarum without exceptions ".
One of the cases Ratzinger pursued involved Father Marcial Maciel Degollado, a Mexican priest and founder of the Legion of Christ, who had been accused repeatedly of sexual abuse. According to Jason Berry, Angelo Sodano "pressured" Cardinal Ratzinger, who was "operating on the assumption that the charges were not justified", to halt the proceedings against Maciel in When Maciel was honored by the Pope in , new accusers came forward and Cardinal Ratzinger "took it on himself to authorize an investigation of Maciel" After Ratzinger became pope he began proceedings against Maciel and the Legion of Christ that forced Maciel out of active service in the Church.
On 1 May the Vatican issued a statement denouncing Maciel's "very serious and objectively immoral acts", which were "confirmed by incontrovertible testimonies" and represent "true crimes and manifest a life without scruples or authentic religious sentiment. This was not always met with approval in the Vatican". In March , the Pope sent a Pastoral Letter to the Catholic Church in Ireland addressing cases of sexual abuse by Catholic priests to minors, expressing sorrow, and promising changes in the way accusations of abuse are dealt with.
Victim groups claim the letter failed to clarify if secular law enforcement has priority over canon law confidentiality pertaining to internal investigation of abuse allegations. The Pope then promised to introduce measures that would 'safeguard young people in the future' and 'bring to justice' priests who were responsible for abuse.
In April, the Vatican issued guidelines on how existing Church law should be implemented. The guideline dictates that "Civil law concerning reporting of crimes Pope Benedict XVI re-introduced several papal garments which had previously fallen into disuse. Pope Benedict XVI resumed the use of the traditional red papal shoes, which had been used since Roman times by popes but which had fallen into disuse during the pontificate of Pope John Paul II. Contrary to the initial speculation of the press that the shoes had been made by the Italian fashion house Prada, the Vatican announced that the shoes were provided by the Pope's personal shoemaker.
On 21 December , the Pope once only wore the camauro, the traditional red papal hat usually worn in the winter. On 6 September , the Pope began wearing the red cappello romano also called a saturno , a wide-brimmed hat for outdoor use. Rarely used by John Paul II, it was more widely worn by his predecessors. Charlotte Allen describes Benedict as "the pope of aesthetics ": "He has reminded a world that looks increasingly ugly and debased that there is such a thing as the beautiful—whether it's embodied in a sonata or an altarpiece or an embroidered cope or the cut of a cassock—and that earthly beauty ultimately communicates a beauty that is beyond earthly things.
Prior to his election as pope in , Ratzinger had hoped to retire—on account of age-related health problems, a long-held desire to have free time to write, and the retirement age for bishops 75 —and submitted his resignation as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith three times, but continued at his post in obedience to the wishes of Pope John Paul II.
In September , Ratzinger suffered a hemorrhagic stroke, which slightly impaired his eyesight temporarily but he recovered completely. This was never officially made public—the official news was that Ratzinger had fallen and struck his head against a radiator—but was an open secret known to the conclave that elected him pope.
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Since his election in April there were several rumors about the Pope's health, but none of them was confirmed. Early in his pontificate Benedict XVI predicted a short reign, which led to concerns about his health. In May the Vatican announced that he had suffered another mild stroke. French Cardinal Philippe Barbarin said that since the first stroke Ratzinger had been suffering from an age-related heart condition, for which he was on medication. In late November Vatican insiders told the international press that the Pope had had a routine examination of the heart.
A few days later an unconfirmed rumor emerged that Pope Benedict had undergone an operation in preparation for an eventual bypass operation, but this rumor was only published by a small left-wing Italian newspaper and was never confirmed by any Vatican insider. On 17 July Benedict was hospitalized after falling and breaking his right wrist while on vacation in the Alps; his injuries were reported to be minor.
Following the announcement of his resignation, the Vatican revealed that Pope Benedict had been fitted with a pacemaker while he was still a cardinal, before his election as pope in The battery in the pacemaker had been replaced three months earlier, a routine procedure, but that did not influence the decision. The move was considered unexpected. In modern times, all popes have stayed in office until death.
Benedict is the first pope to have resigned without external pressure since Celestine V in In a statement, Benedict cited his deteriorating strength and the physical and mental demands of the papacy; addressing his Cardinals in Latin, Benedict gave a brief statement announcing his resignation. He also declared that he would continue to serve the church "through a life dedicated to prayer". According to a statement from the Vatican, the timing of the resignation was not caused by any specific illness but was to "avoid that exhausting rush of Easter engagements".
On the appointed day and hour, and after two weeks of ceremonial farewells, the Pope left office and the time of sede vacante was declared. On the morning of February 28, , Pope Benedict met with the full college of cardinals, and in the early afternoon flew by helicopter to the papal summer residence of Castel Gandolfo, where he waited for his resignation to take effect.
There he will stay until after the conclave to elect a successor completes its task. Afterwards he will return to the Vatican, where the monastery Mater Ecclesiae located in the Vatican Gardens will serve as a retirement home. After his resignation, Benedict XVI retains his papal name rather than reverting to usage of his birth name, Joseph Ratzinger. Regarding clothing and apparel, Benedict XVI continues to wear white garments, but without the cape that covers the shoulders. He also ceased wearing red papal shoes.
Benedict XVI will also give up his Fisherman's Ring, which is usually destroyed by Vatican officials on the event of the death of a pope to prevent counterfeit documents. Before 1 March , the list of titles also used to contain that of a " Patriarch of the West", which traditionally appeared in that list of titles before "Primate of Italy". From the Orthodox perspective, authority in the Church could be traced to the five patriarchates of Rome, Constantinople , Alexandria , Antioch, and Jerusalem.
However, some Catholic theologians have argued that the term "Patriarch of the West" has no clear historical or theological basis and was introduced into the papal court in at the time of the First Vatican Council. Pope Benedict chose to remove the title at a time when discussions with the Orthodox churches have centered on the issue of papal primacy. In , the Pope listed several ways to combat the spread of HIV, including chastity, fidelity in marriage and anti-poverty efforts; he also rejected the use of condoms. The alleged Vatican investigation of whether there are any cases when married persons may use condoms to protect against the spread of infections surprised many Catholics in the wake of John Paul II's consistent refusal to consider condom use in response to AIDS.
However, the Vatican has since stated that no such change in the Church's teaching can occur. TIME also reported in its 30 April edition that the Vatican's position remains what it always has been with Vatican officials "flatly dismiss[ing] reports that the Vatican is about to release a document that will condone any condom use.
In November , in a book-length interview, the Pope, using the example of male prostitutes, stated that the use of condoms, with the intention of reducing the risk of HIV infection, may be an indication that the prostitute is intending to reduce the evil connected with his or her immoral activity. Further, in December , the Congregation of the Doctrine of the Faith explained that the Pope's statement did not constitute a legitimization of either prostitution or contraception, both of which remain gravely immoral.
The letter condemned a liberal interpretation of the earlier CDF document Declaration on Certain Questions Concerning Sexual Ethics , which had led to a "benign" attitude "to the homosexual condition itself". On the Pastoral Care of Homosexual Persons clarified that the Church's position on homosexuality was that "although the particular inclination of the homosexual person is not a sin, it is a more or less strong tendency ordered toward an intrinsic moral evil; and thus the inclination itself must be seen as an objective disorder.
Such treatment deserves condemnation from the Church's pastors wherever it occurs. In he again approved CDF documents declaring that homosexual "inclination itself must be seen as an objective disorder" and extended this principle to civil law. On 22 December , the Pope gave an end of year message to the Roman Curia in which he talked about gender and the important distinction between men and women.
The Pope said that the church viewed the distinction as central to human nature, and "asks that this order, set down by creation, be respected". He characterised gender roles which deviated from his view of what gender roles should be as "a violation of the natural order". The church, he said, "should protect man from the destruction of himself". He said a sort of ecology of man was needed, adding: "The tropical forests do deserve our protection; but man, as a creature, does not deserve any less.
Aurelio Mancuso, head of Arcigay, saying "A divine programme for men and women is out of line with nature, where the roles are not so clear. Father Federico Lombardi, a Vatican spokesman, claimed the Pope had not wished specifically to attack homosexuality, and had not mentioned gays or lesbians in his text. Father Lombardi insisted, however, that there had been an overreaction to the Pope's remarks: "He was speaking more generally about gender theories which overlook the fundamental difference in creation between men and women and focus instead on cultural conditioning.
During a Christmas speech, the Pope made remarks about the present-day interpretation of the notion of " gender ". Although he didn't mention the topic, his words were interpreted by news media as denunciations of same-sex marriage, with some sources adding that Benedict would have called it a threat to world peace similar to abortion and euthanasia.
In March , he stated that heterosexual marriages should be defended from "every possible misrepresentation of their true nature". In a message released 14 November , during a Vatican press conference for the annual observance of World Day for Migrants and Refugees, the Pope urged the ratification of international conventions and policies that defend all migrants, including refugees, exiles, evacuees, and internally displaced persons.
Pope Benedict also promoted various UN events, such as World Refugee Day, on which he offered up special prayers for refugees and called for the international community to do more to secure refugees' human rights. He also called on Catholic communities and organizations to offer them concrete help. In Benedict sent a letter at Easter to Catholics in China that could have wide-ranging implications for the church's relationship with China's leadership.
The letter provides long-requested guidance to Chinese bishops on how to respond to illicitly ordained bishops, as well as how to strengthen ties with the Patriotic Association and the Communist government. On 13 November , Benedict said that the dispute over the North Korea nuclear weapons program should be resolved through negotiations, in his first public comment on the security issue, a news report said. In a Le Figaro interview, Ratzinger said that Turkey, which is demographically Muslim but governmentally secular by virtue of its state constitution, should seek its future in an association of Muslim nations rather than the European Union, which Ratzinger stated has Christian roots.
He said Turkey had always been "in permanent contrast to Europe and that linking it to Europe would be a mistake". Later visiting the country to "reiterate the solidarity between the cultures," it was reported that he made a counter-statement backing Turkey's bid to join the EU. However, the Common Declaration of Pope Benedict XVI and Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople implied that support for Turkey's membership in the European Union would be contingent on the establishment of religious freedom in Turkey: "In every step towards unification, minorities must be protected, with their cultural traditions and the distinguishing features of their religion.
In May he visited Israel. Vatican officials called the meeting "a significant stage in the progress of bilateral relations with Vietnam.
Joseph Ratzinger in Bavaria 1951 - 1959
In , the Pope intervened in global economic and political affairs with his third encyclical, Charity in Truth Latin Caritas in Veritate , which can be viewed on the Vatican's web site. The document sets out the Pope's position on the case for worldwide redistribution of wealth in considerable detail and goes on to discuss the environment, migration, terrorism, sexual tourism, bioethics, energy and population issues.
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Pope Benedict XVI called for nuclear disarmament. At the same time, he supported the peaceful use of nuclear energy as a tool for development and the fight against poverty. In his message for the 50th anniversary of the founding of the International Atomic Energy Agency, he confirmed: "The Holy See, fully approving of the IAEA's goal, has been a member from the organisation's foundation and continues to support its activity. Benedict is known to be deeply interested in classical music, and is an accomplished pianist.
The Pontiff Emeritus' favorite composer is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , of whose music the Pope said, "His music is by no means just entertainment; it contains the whole tragedy of human existence. Benedict recorded an album of contemporary classical music in which Benedict sings and recites prayers to the Blessed Virgin Mary. The album was set for release on 30 November Benedict is also known to be fond of cats.
As Cardinal Ratzinger he was known according to former neighbours to look after stray cats in his neighbourhood. This story was inspired by an orange tabby Pentling cat, which belonged to the family next door. During his trip to Australia for World Youth Day in the media reported that festival organizers lent the Pope a grey cat called Bella in order to keep him company during his stay.
The Pope has a pilot's license and enjoys flying the papal helicopter. His first tweet was made on 12 December and was "Dear friends, I am pleased to get in touch with you through Twitter. Thank you for your generous response. I bless all of you from my heart. Gregory the Great and the Order of St. The asteroid Ratzinger was named in his honour for the role he played in supervising the opening of Vatican archives in to researchers investigating judicial errors against Galileo and other medieval scientists.
The name was proposed by the asteroid's first discoverers, L. Schmadel and F. Borngen at Tautenburg. Pope Benedict XVI wrote 66 books. The original German first edition publication year is included in parentheses. Title Word Index. Related subjects: Religious figures and leaders. About this schools Wikipedia selection Arranging a Wikipedia selection for schools in the developing world without internet was an initiative by SOS Children. Benedict's coat of arms omitted the papal tiara, which traditionally appears in the background to designate the pope's position as a worldly ruler like a king, replacing it with a simple mitre, emphasising his spiritual authority.
Gules, chape in or, with the scallop shell of the second; the dexter chape with a moor's head in natural colour, crowned and collared of the first, the sinister chape a bear trippant in natural colour, carrying a pack gules belted sable. Scallop shell : The symbolism of the scallop shell is multiple; one reference is to Saint Augustine. While a doctoral candidate in , Fr. Joseph Ratzinger wrote his dissertation on The People of God and the House of God in Augustine's Teaching is always about the Church, and therefore has a personal connection with the thought of this great Doctor of the Church.
Corbinian's bear : A legend states that while travelling to Rome, Saint Corbinian's pack horse was killed by a bear. He commanded the bear to carry the load. Once he arrived, he released it from his service, and it returned to Bavaria. The implication is that "Christianity tamed and domesticated the ferocity of paganism and thus laid the foundations for a great civilisation in the Duchy of Bavaria. Theological Highlights of Vatican II. New York: Paulist Press. Introduction to Christianity.
Faith and Future. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press. Dogma and Preaching. Principles of Christian Morality. San Francisco: Ignatius Press. Feast of Faith: Approaches to a Theology of the Liturgy. The Blessing of Christmas: Meditations for the Season. Eschatology: Death and Eternal Life. New York: Crossroad. Ann Arbor: Redeemer Books.
In September of , having reached military age, Ratzinger is released from the Flak and returns home. In November he started basic training for the German infantry, but due to his poor health, he was exempted from the more physical aspects of the program. In the spring of , as the Allied forces were closing in, Ratzinger left the military and returned to his home at Traunstein. When the American forces finally made it to his city, they established an operations center in the Ratzinger home and, identifying Joseph as a German soldier, he was held as a prisoner of war. On June 19 of that same year he was freed and returned to his home in Traunstein.
His brother, Georg, returned home in July.
Jospeh Aloisius Ratzinger´s Steps as Pope Benedict XVI Essay | Bartleby
In November, both he and his brother Georg reentered the seminary. In Ratzinger entered the Herzogliches Georgianum, a theological institute tied to the University of Munich. Peter and Paul. From to , he was a faculty member of the Higher School of Philosophy and Theology in Freising. In he received his doctorate in theology from the University of Munich. In August of that year, his father passed away.
Why did the shepherds leave their sheep in the night? Why did just the shepherds hear the angel's song? We're anointed children, his prophets are we Gathered. Do Now: When it comes time for you to become parents, which would you prefer— a boy. In many ways, the circumstances that the members of the Church encounter today are similar to those faced by the Apostles at Pentecost. We are called. Similar presentations. Upload Log in. My presentations Profile Feedback Log out. Log in. Auth with social network: Registration Forgot your password? Download presentation.
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