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No sum of money will buy a free-born Mpongwe, and the sale is forbidden by the laws of the land. A half-caste would fetch one hundred dollars a wild nigger near. A man's only attendants being now his avives and serviles, it is evident that plurality and doinestic servitude will extend-. The three grades of Mpongwe may be considered as rude beginnings of caste.

Like the high-caste Hindu, the nobler race will marry women of lower classes for instance, King Njogoni's mother was a Benga; but the inverse proceeding is a disgrace to the woman, apparently an instinctive feeling on the part of the reproducer, still lingering in the most advanced.

If this "breeding-in" ever existed, no trace of it now remains on the contrary, every care is taken to avoid marriages of consanguinity. Bowdich, indeed, assures us that a man may not look at nor converse with his mother-inlaw, on pain of a heavy, perhaps a ruinous fine this singular law is founded on the tradition of an incest.

Marriage amongst the Mpongwe is a purely civil contract, as in Africa generally, and so perhaps it will some day be in Europe, Asia, and America. Coelebs pays a certain sum for the bride, who, where marriage by capture" is unknown, has no voice in the matter.

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Many promises of future dash are made to the girl's parents and drinking, drumming, and dancing form the ceremony. The following is, or rather I should say was, a fair list of articles paid for a virgin bride. One fine silk hat, one cap, one coat five to twenty pieces of various cottons, plain and ornamental; two to twenty silk kerchiefs; three to thirty jars of rum twenty pounds of trade tobacco two hatchets two cutlasses plates and dishes,.

Where the husband acts adjutor or cavaliere to his friend's Omantwe female person or wife-and the friend is equally complaisant, wed! The old immorality endures it is as if the command were reversed by accepting that misprint which so scandalized the Star Chamber, Thou shalt commit adultery. He must indeed be a Solomon of a son who, sur les bords du Gabon, can guess at his own sire; a question so impertinent is never put by the ex-officio father. The son succeeds by inheritance to his father's relict, who, being generally in years, is condemned to be useful when she has ceased to be an ornament, and, if there are several, they are equally divided amongst the heirs.

What with pre-nuptial excesses, with early unions, often infructuous, with a virtual system of community, and with universal drunkenness, it is not to be wondered at if the maritime tribes of Africa degenerate and die out. Weaith and luxury, so generally inveighed against by poets and divines, injure humanity only when they injuriously affect reproduction and poverty is praised only because it breeds more men.

The true tests of the physical prosperity of a race, and of its position in the world, are bodily strength and the excess of births over deaths. Whenever a woman has or fancies she has a grievance, she!

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Quarrels about the sex are very common, yet, in cases of adultery the old murderous assaults are now rare except amongst the backwoodsmen. The habit was simply to shoot some man belonging to the seducer's or to the ravisher's village the latter shot somebody in the nearest settlement, and so on till the affair was decided.

In these days violent retaliation for personal jealousy always be-littles' a man in the eyes of an African community. Polygamy is, of course, the order of the day it is a necessity to the men, and even the women disdain to marry a one-wifer. Yet the Mpongwe do not, like other tribes on the west coast, practise that separation of the sexes during gestation and lactation, which is enjoined to the Hebrews, recommended by Catholicism, and com-.

In Portuguese Guinea the enceinte is claimed by her relatives, especially by the women, for three years, that she may give undivided attention to her offspring, who is rightly believed to be benefited by the separation, and that she may return to her husband with renewed vigour. Meanwhile custom allows the man to cohabit with a slave girl. Poiygamy, also, in Africa is rather a political than a domestic or social institution.

A judicious culture of the marriage tie" is necessary amongst savages and barbarians whose only friends and supporters are blood relations and nuptial connections besides which, a multitude of wives ministers to the great man's pride and influence, as well as to his pleasures and to his efficiency. When the head wife ages, she takes charge of the girlish brides committed to her guardianship by the husband.

WiJson and Du Chaillu both assert that the wives rarely disagree amongst themselves. Everywhere, moreover, amongst polygamists, the husband is strictly forbidden by popular opinion to show preference for a favourite wife if he do so, he is a bad man. On the other hand, after feeding their husbands, what remains out of the fruits of their labours is their own, whoHy out of his reach—a boon not always granted by civilization. As in Unyamwezi, they guard their rights with a truly feminine touchiness and jealousy.

There is atways, in the. African mind, a preference for descent and inheritance through the mother, "the surer side,an unmistakable sign, by the by, of barbarism. The strong-minded of London and New York have not yet succeeded in thoroughly organizing and popularizing their clubs the belles sauvages of the Gaboon have. Dropped a few years ago by the men, it was taken up by their wives, and it now numbers a host of initiated, limited only by heavy entrance fees. This form of freemasonry deals largely in processions, whose preliminaries and. The Rev.

William Walker was once detected playing Peeping Tom" by sixty or seventy viragos, who attempted to exact a fine of forty dollars, and who would have handled him severely had he not managed to escape. The French officers, never standing upon ceremony in -such matters, have often insisted upon being present. Circumcision, between the fourth and eighth year, is universal in Pongo-Iand, and without it a youth could not be married. The operation is performed generally by the chief, often by some old man, who receives a fee from the parents the thumb nails are long, and are used after the Jewish fashion neat rum with red pepper is spirted.

The Hebrews, who almost everywhere retained circumcision, have, in Europe at least, long abandoned excision. The Mpongwe practise a rite so resembling infant baptism that the missionaries have derived it from a corruption of Abyssinian Christianity which, like the nora of the Camarones and Fernandian Highlands, might have travelled across the Dark Continent, where it has now been superseded by El Islam.

It will best be established, not by the single great family of language, but by the similarity of manners, customs, and belief; of arts and crafts of utensils and industry. The baptism of Pongo-land is as follows. When the babe is born, a crier, announcing the event, promises to it in the people's name participation in the rights of the living.

It is placed upon a banana! The man-child is exhorted to be truthful, and' the girl to"tell plenty lie," in order to lead a happy life. Truly a new form of the regenerative rite. A curious prepossession of the African mind, curious and yet general, in a land where population is the one want, and where issue is held the greatest blessing, is the imaginary necessity of limiting the family. Perhaps this form of infanticide is a policy derived from ancestors who found it necessary. The birth of twins is an evil portent to the Mpongwes, as it is in many parts of Central Africa, and even in the New Worid it also involves the idea of moral turpitude, as if the woman were one of the lower animais, capable of superfetation.

There is no greater insult to a man, than to point at him with two fingers, meaning that he is a twin of course he is not one, or he would have been killed at birth. There is no novelty in the Mpongwe funeral rites; the same system prevails from the Oil Rivers to Congo-land, and extends even to the wild races of the interior.

The corpse, being still sentient, is accompanied by stores of raiment, pots, and goats' flesh a bottle is placed in one hand and a glass in the other, and, if the deceased has been fond of play, his draught-board and other materials are buried with him. The system has been well defined as one in which the ghost of a man eats the ghost of a yam, boiled in the ghost of a pot, over the ghost of a fire.

There is an immense show of grief, with keening and crocodiles' tears, perhaps to benefit the living by averting a charge of witchcraft, which would inevitably lead to Sassy or poison-water. The wake continues for five days, when they "pull the cry," that is to say, end mourning. If these pious rites be neglected, the children incur the terrible reproach, Your father he be -hungry.

The slave is thrown out into the bush-no one will take the trouble to dig a hole for him. African generally; every rnan is a host in himself he builds and furnishes his house, he makes his weapons and pipes, and he ignores division of labour, except in the smith and the carpenter in the potter, who works without a wheel, and in the dyer, who knows barks, and who fixes his colours with clay.

These craft easily carry 10 tons, and travel to miles, which, as Mr. Wilson remarks, would land them, under favourable circumstances, in South America. Captain Boteler found that the Mpongwe boat combined symmetry of form, strength, and solidity, with safeness and swiftness either in pulling or sailing. And of late years the people have succeeded in launching large and fast craft built after European models.

The favourite pleasures of the Mpongwe are gross and gorging feeds," drinking and smoking. They recall to mind the old woman who told Monk Lewis that if a glass of gin were at one end of the table, and her immortal soul at the other, she would choose the gin. They soak with. It is not wonderful that the adults can stand but little, and that a few mouthfuls of well-watered spirit make their voices thick, and paralyze their weak brains as well as their tongues.

The Persians, who commence drinking late in life, can swallow strong waters by the tumbler. Men, women, and children when hardly cremnobatic," have always the pipe in mouth. The poor are driven to a Kondukwe," a yard of plantain leaf, hollowed with a wire, and charged at the thicker end. The holy herb" would of course grow in the country, and grow well, but it is imported from the States without trouble, and perhaps with less expense.

Some tribes make a decent snuff of the common trade article, but 1 never saw either sex chew-perhaps the most wholesome, and certainly the most efficacious form. Intoxicating hemp is now grown everywhere, especially in the Nkommi country, and little packages, neatly bound with banana leaves, sell on the river for ten sous each. It is smoked either in the Kondukwe or in the Ojo. The latter, literally meaning a torch, is a polished cow-horn, closed at the thick end with wood, and banded with metal a wooden stem, projecting from the upper or concave side, bears a neat chillam bowl , either of clay or of brown steatite brought from the upper Gaboon River.

This rude hookah is half filled with water the dried hemp in the bowl is covered with what Syrians call a Kurs," a bit of metal about the size of half-a-crown, and upon it rests the fire. After a few puffs the eyes redden, a violent cough is caused by the acrid fumes tickling the throat the brain, whirls with a pleasant swimming, like that of chloroform, and the smoker nnds himself glorid.

My Spanish friends at Po tried but did not like it. The religion of African races is ever interesting to those of a maturer faith it is somewhat like the study of childhood to an old man. The Jew, the high-caste HindU, and the Guebre, the Christian and the Moslem have their Holy Writs, their fixed forms of thought and worship, in fact their grooves in which belief runs.

They no longer. Continuation, resurrection, eternity are hereditary and habituai ideas they have become almost inseparable and congenital parts of the mental system. And there is yet another obstacle in dealing with such people, their intense and childish sensitiveness and secretiveness.

They are not, as some have foolishly. They fear the intentions of the cross-questioner, and they hold themselves safest behind a crooked answer. Moreover, every Mpongwe is his own pontifex maximus," and the want, or rather the scarcity, of a regular priesthood must promote independence and discrepancy of belief. Nothing also can be more illogical than the awe and respect claimed by Mr. Herbert Spencer for a being of which the very essence is that nothing can be known of it. The future of Spiritualism, which may be defined as Hades with Progress," is making serious inroads upon the coarse belief, worthy of the barbarous and the middle ages, in an eternity of punishment, easily expressed by everlasting fire, and in ineffable joys, which no one has ever successfully expressed.

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And the very vagueness of the modern faith serves to assimilate it the more to its most ancient forms, one of which we are studying upon the Gaboon River. The missionary returning from Africa is often asked what is the religion of the people? If an exact man, he will answer, "I don't know. And how can he know when the people themselves, even the princes and priests, are ignorant of it? A missionary of twenty years' standing in West Africa, an able and conscientious student withal, assured me that during the early part of his career he had given much time to collecting and collating, under intelligent native superintendence, negro traditions and religion.

He presently found that no two men thought alike upon any single subject 1 need hardly say that he gave up in despair a work hopeless as psychology, the mere study of the individual. Fetishism, I believe, is held by the orthodox to be a degradation of the pure and primitive "Adamical dispensation," even as the negro has been supposed to represent the accursed and degraded descendants of Ham and Canaan. And it must be studied by casting off ail our preconceived ideas. For instance, Africans believe, not in soul nor in spirit, but in ghost; when they called M.

Chaillu a Mbwiri," they meant that the white man had been bleached by the grave as Dante had been darkened by his visit below, and consequently he was a subject of fear and awe.

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  • They have a material, evanescent, intelligible future, not an immaterial, incomprehensible eternity the ghost endures only for awhile and perishes like the memory of the little-great name. Hence the ignoble dread in East and West Africa of a death which leads to a shadowy world, and eventually to utter annihilation. Seeing nought beyond the present-future, there is no hope for them in the grave; they wail and sorrow with a burden of despair. All is done for ever," sing the West Africans. Any allusion to loss of life turns their black skins blue Yes," they exclaim, it is bad to die, to leave house and home, wife and children no more to wear soft cloth, nor eat meat, nor "drink" tobacco, and rum.

    Dahome, have a distinct future world, have borrowed it, 1 cannot. And when an African chief said in my presence to a Yahoo-like naval officer, When so be 1 die, 1 come up for white man When so be you die, you corne up for monkey! Man would hardly have a future without a distinct priestly class whose interest it is to teach another and a better,or a worse. Certain missionaries in the Gaboon River have detected evidences of Judaism amongst the Mpongwe, which deserve notice but which hardly require detailed refutation.

    Exogamy or the rigid interdiction of marriage between clans. Sacrifices with blood-sprinkling upon altars and door-posts a superstition almost universal, found in Peru and Mexico as in Palestine, preserved in Ashanti and probably borrowed by the Hebrews from the African Egyptians. A specified time of mourning for the dead common to all barbarians as to civilized races , during which their survivors wear soiled clothes an instinctive sign of grief, as fine dresses are of joy , and shave their heads doubtless done to make some difference from every-day times ,accompaniedwith ceremonial purifications what ancient people has not had some such whim?

    The system of Runda or forbidden meats but every traveller has found this practice in South as in East Africa, and 1 noticed it among the Somal who, even when starving, will not touch fish nor fowl. Briefly, external resemblances and coincidences like these could be made to establish cousinhood between a cockney and a cockatoo; possibly such discovery of Judaism. The Mpongwe and their neighbours have advanced a long step beyond their black brethren in Eastern Africa.

    No longer contented with mere Fetishes, the Egyptian charms in which the dreaded ghost "sits, meaning, is "bound," they have invented idols. In Eastern Africa 1 know but one people, the Wanyika near Mombasah, who have certain images called Kisukas;" they declare that this great medicine, never shown to Europeans, came from the West, and Andrew Battel found idols amongst the people whom he calls Giagas or Jagas, meaning Congoese chiefs.

    Moreover, the Gaboon pagans lodge their Ido! Behind each larger establishment there is a dwarf hut, the miniature of a dwelling-place, carefully closed 1 thought these were offices, but Hotaloya Andrews taught me otherwise. He called them in his broken English "Compasshouses," a literal translation of Nago Mbwiri," and, sturdily refusing me admittance, left me as 1 See Zanzibar City, Island, and Coast," vol.

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    The reason afterwards proved to be that Ologo he kill man too much. It represents in the highest signification the Columbian Manitou, and thus men talk of the Mbwiri of a tree or a river; as will presently be seen, it is also applied to a tutelar god and I have shown how it means a ghost. Every Mpohgwe, woman as well as man, has some Mbwiri to. I afterwards managed to enter. Behind the little door of matting is a tall threshold of board a bench lines the far end, and in the centre stands Ologo," a rude imitation of a human figure, with a gum-torch planted in the ground before it ready for burnt offerings.

    To the walls are suspended sundry mystic implements, especially basins, smeared with red and white chalk-mixture, and wooden crescents decorated with beads and ribbons. It is a piece of wood, hour-glass-shaped but flat, and some six inches and a half long the girth of the waist is five inches, and about three more round the ends. The wood is eut away, leaving rude and uneven raised bands horizontally striped with white, black, and red. Two brass wires are stretched across the upper and lower breadth, and each is provided with a ring or hinge holding four or five strips of wire acting as clappers.

    This wicker-work rattle to drive the devil out M. The beliefs and superstitions popularly attributed to the Mpongwe are these. They are not without that which we call a First Cause, and they name it Anyambfa, which missionary philologists consider a contraction of Aninla, spirit? Hans Stade," translated by Mr. Albert Tootal, annotated by myself, and published by the Hakluyt Society, Winwood Reade seems to make Anyambfa a mysterious word, as was Jehovah after the date of the Moabite stone.

    Under this unknown God are two chief agencies, working partners who manage the business of the world, and who effect what the civilized call Providence. Onyambe is the Bad God, Typhon, Vejovis, the Ahriman or Semitic devil Shiva the Destroyer, the third person of the Aryan triad and his name is never mentioned but with bated breath. They have not only fear of, but also a higher respect for him than for the giver of good, so difficult is it for the child-man's mind to connect the ideas of benignity and power.

    I once hesitated to believe that these rude people had arrived at the notion of duality, at the Manichxanism which caused Mr. Mill sen. But the same belief also exists amongst the Congoese tribes, and even in the debased races of the Niger. Captain William A!! The Mpongwe Mwetye is a branch of male freemasonry into which women and strangers are never initiated.

    These are vulgar ghosts of the departed, the causes of Il possession," disease and death they are propitiated by various rites, and everywhere they are worshipped in private. The women and children fly at the approach of this devil on two sticks, and with reason every peccadillo is punished with a merciless thrashing.

    The civilized man would be apt to imagine that these wild African fetishists are easily converted to a purer creed. The negro finds it almost impossible to rid himself of his belief; the spiritual despotism is the expression ofhis organization, a part of himself Progressive races, on the other hand, can throw off or exchange every part of their religion, except perhaps the remnant of original and natural belief in things unseen-in fact, the Fetishist portion, such as ghost-existence and veneration of material objects, places, and things.

    The stereotyped African answer to Europeans ridiculing these institutions, including wizardspearing and witch-burning is, There may be no magic, though 1 see there is, among you whites. But we blacks have known many men who have been bewitched and died. The idea is found amongst Christians, for instance, the reduced Indians" of the Amazonas River; and it is evidently at the bottom of that widely spread superstition, the evil eye," which remains throughout Southern Europe as strong as it was in the days of Pliny. As amongst barbarians generally, no misfortune happens, no accident occurs, no illness nor death can take place without the agency of wizard or witch.

    There is nothing more odious than this crime it is hostile to God and man, and it must be expiated by death in the most terrible tortures. Metamorphosis is a common art amongst Mpongwe magicians this vulgar materialism, of which Ovid sang, must not be confounded with the poetical Hindu metempsychosis or transmigration of souls which explains empirically certain physiological mysteries.

    Here the adept naturally becomes a gorilla or a leopard, as he would be a lion in South Africa, a hyena in Abyssinia and the Somali country, and a loup-garou in Brittany. The poison ordeal is a necessary corollary to witchcraft. The accused, after drinking the potion, is ordered to step over sticks of the same plant, which are placed a pace apart. If the man be affected, he raises his foot like a horse with string-halt, and this convicts him of the fou!

    Of course there is some antidote, as the medicine-man himself drinks large draughts of his own stuff in Old Calabar River for instance, Mithridates boils the poison-nut; but Europeans could not, and natives would not, tell me what the Gaboon dodge" is. According to vulgar Africans, ail test-poisons are sentient and reasoning beings, who search the criminal's stomach, that is his heart, and who find out the deep hidden sin hence the people shout, If they are wizards, let it kill them if they are innocent, let it go forth Moreover, the detected murderer is considered a bungler who has fallen into the pit dug for his.

    Doubtless many innocent lives have been lost by this superstition. But there is reason in the order, Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live," without having recourse to the supernaturalisms and preternaturalisms, which have unobligingly disappeared when Science most wants them. Sorcery and poison are as closely united as the Black Nightingales," and it evidently differs little whether I slay a man with my sword or 1 destroy him by the slow and certain torture of a mind diseased. The Mpongwe have also some peculiarities in their notions of justice.

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    If a man murder another, the criminal is put to death, not by the nearest 6f kin, as amongst the Arabs and almost ail wild people, but by the whole community this already shows an advanced appreciation of the act and its bearings. The penalty is either drowning or burning alive except in the case of a chief or a'very rich man, little or no difference is made between wilful murder, justifiable homicide, and accidental manslaughter-the reason of this, say their jurists, is to make people more careful. Here, again, we find a sense of the sanctity of life the reverse of barbarous.

    Cutting and maiming are punished by the fine of a slave. And now briefly to resume the character of the Mpongwe, a nervous and excitable race of negroes. The men are deficient in courage, as the women'. Yet, despite threats of poison and charges of witchcraft, they have arrived at an inkling of the dogma that honesty is the best policy the East African has never dreamed it in the moments of his wildest imagination.

    Pre-eminent liars, they are, curious to say, often deceived by the falsehoods of others, and they fairly illustrate the somewhat paradoxical proverb. Unblushing mendicants, cunning and calculating, their obstinacy is remarkable yet, as we often find the African, they are at the same time irresolute in the extreme. Their virtues are vivacity, mental activity, acute observation, sociability, politeness, and hospitality the fact that a white man can wander single-handed through the country shows a kindly nature.

    The brightest spot in their character is an abnormal development of adhesiveness, popularly called affection it is somewhat tempered by capricious ruffianism, as in. The language of the Mpongwe has been fairly studied. He first gave Appendix VI. Leighton Wilson, the others being Bakele, Benga, and Fan. In , the same gentleman, who had taken the chiefpartinthenrstpublication.

    M, du Chaillu further abridged this abridgement in his Appendix without owning his authority, and in changing the examples he did ail possible damage. In the Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London part ii. The other publications known to me are i. The Books of Genesis, part of Exodus, Proverbs, and Acts, by the same, printed at the same place and in the same year. The missionary explorers of the language, if 1 may so call them, at once saw that it belongs to the great South African family Sichwana, Zulu, Kisawahili, Mbundo Congoese , Fiote, and others, whose characteristics are polysyllabism, inflection by systematic prefixes, and an alliteration, the mystery of whose reciprocal letters is theoretically explained by a euphony in many cases unintelligible, like the modes of Hindd music, to the European ear.

    This branch has its peculiarities. Whilst every native child can thread its way safely through its intricate, elaborate, and apparently arbitrary variations, the people comprehend a stranger who blunders over every sentence. John Payne, D. For instance,. Wilson could hardly have had a nice ear, or he would not have written Nchigo Ntyege," or. Njina Engena," which gives a thoroughly unAfrican distinctness to the initial consonant. The adjectival form is archaically expressed by a second and abstract substantive. This peculiarity is common in the South African family, as in Ashanti but, as Bowdich observes, we also find it in Greek, e.

    As we advance north we find this phenomenon ever increasing for instance in Fernando Po but the Mpongwe limits the change to verbs. Another distinguishing point of these three Gaboon tongues, as the Rev. Mackey observes, is the surprizing flexibility of the verb, the almost endless variety of parts regularly derived from a. Liquid and eminently harmonious, concise and capable of contraction, the Mpongwe tongue does not deserve to die out.

    The genius of the language is such that new terms may be introduced in relation to ethics, metaphysics, and science. The people have never invented any form of alphabet, yet the abundance of tale, legend, and proverb which their dialect contains might repay the trouble of acquiring it. Hven betore iandmg, the pilot had assured me that a baby was on sale at the Comptoir, but on inquiry it proved to have died. Y objects in visiting Mbata, the reader will have understood, were to shoot a specimen or specimens of the gorilla, and, if possible, to buy or catch a Even before landing, the pilot had.

    Those who have shot under such circumstances will readily understand that everything depends upon luck one man may beat the- forest assiduously and vainly for five or six weeks another will be successful on the first day. Thus whilst I, without any fault of my own, utterly failed in shooting a gorilla, although 1 saw him and heard him, and came upon his trail, and found his mortal spoils, another traveller had hardly landed in the Gaboon before he was so fortunate as to bring down a fine anthropoid.

    However, as man cannot command success, 1 was obliged to content myself with doing all in my power to deserve it. I offered five dollars, equalling the same number of sovereigns in England, to every huntsman for every fair shot, and ten dollars for each live ape. Indeed luck" was dead against us during the whole of my stay in GorillaJand. We ran a fair risk of drowning in the first day's voyage on the next march we were knocked down by lightning, and on the last trip 1 had a narrow escape from the fall of a giant branch that grazed my hammock. That old villain, "Young Prince," becoming very fou, hospitably offered me his daughter-in-law Azfzeh, Forteune's second wife; and he was vigorously supported by the Nimrod himself, who had drawn a horizontal line of white chalk above the eyebrows, a defence against the Ibambo, those bad ghosts that cause fevers and sickness.

    Forteune then hinted that perhaps 1 might prefer his daughter-" he be piccanniny he be ail same woman. Azfzeh was a stout and sturdy personage of twenty-five, with thick wrists and ankles, a very dark skin, and a face rendered pleasing by good humour. And Azizeh was childless, a sad reproach in these lands, where progeny forms a man's wealth and a woman's honour. The next day was perforce a ha! The 2 ist was also wet and stormy, so Nimrod hid himself and was not to be found. Then the balivernes began. One Asini, a Mpongwe from the Plateau, offered to show me a huge gorilla near his village in the afternoon he was confronted with Young Prince," and he would have blushed scarlet if he could.

    Before dark, Forteune appeared, and swore that he had spent the day in the forest, he had shot at a gorilla, but the gun missed fire-of course he had slept in a snug hut. Nche Mpo! We were received with distinction by Young Prince's" daughter, a huge young woman, whose still huger mamma was from Cape Lopez. She placed mats upon the bamboo couch under the verandah, brought water to wash our feet, and put the kettle on that we might have tea.

    The sun was fiery and the day sultry; my companions complained of fatigue after a two hours' walk, and then busied themselves ostentatiously in cleaning their muskets, in collecting provisions, and in appointing certain bushmen to meet us on the morrow. Before dark Hotaloya returned to his village, declaring that he could find no bed at his papa's. At dawn on the 23rd we set out for the southern bush, Selim, Forteune, and a carrier Kru-man-to carry nothing. The leaves no longer crackled crisp under. After an hour of cautious walking, listening as we went, we saw evident signs of Mister Gorilla.

    Boughs three inches in diameter strewed the ground the husks of Ntondo or Ibere wild cardamom had been scattered about, and a huge hare's form of leaves lay some five yards from the tree where Forteune declared that Mistress and Master Gorilla had passed the night, Paterfamilias keeping watch below. A little beyond we were shown a spot where two males had been fighting a duel, or where a couple had been indulging in daillance.

    This is explained in the Gorilla Book" chap. Only the bal! Presently we came upon the five bushmen who had been appointed to meet us. They were a queer-looking lot, with wild, unsteady eyes, receding brows, horizontal noses, and projecting muzzles; the cranium and the features seemed disposed nearly at a right angle, giving them a peculiar baboon-like semblance. Each had his water-gourd and his flint-gun, the lock protected by a cover of monkey's skin or wild cow's hide,. A few minutes with this party convinced me that 1 was wilfully wasting time they would not separate, and they talked so loud that game would be startled a mile off.

    So we dismissed them and dispersed about the bush. My factotum shot a fine Mboko. I had heard of it in East and Central Africa, but the tale appeared fabulous here it Is very common, half a dozen will be seen during the day it has great vitality, and it will escape after severe wounds. The bushmen also brought a Shoke Colubus Satanas , a small black monkey, remarkably large limbed the little unfortunate was timid, but not vicious it worried itself to death on the next day. They also showed me the head of the Njlwo antelope, which M.

    Forteune walked in very tired about sunset He had now added streaks of red to the white chalk upon his face, arms, and breast, for he suspected, we were assured, witchcraft. I told him to get ready for a march on the morrow to the Shekyani country, lying south-east, but he begged so hard, and he seemed so assured of showing sport, that the design was deferred, and again perdidi diem.

    We went to the bush, and once more we returned, disgusted by the chattering of the wild men. As we discussed our plans for moving, Forteune threw co! After a two hours' battle with the sand-flies we set off at 7. Our specimen was strung with thin cords made from the fibre of a lliana; I was shown this growth, which looked much like a convolvulus. The people have a long list of instruments, and their music, though monotonous, is soft and plaintive Bowdich gives a specimen of it " Sketch of Gaboon," p. Captain Allen iii. The antnests were those of Yoruba and the Mendi country; not the tall, steepled edifices built by the termites with yellow clay, as in Eastern Africa, but an eruption of blue-black, hard-dried mud and mucus, resembling the miniature pagodas, policeman's lanterns, mushrooms, or umbrellas one or two feet.

    Like most of their congeners, the animais die when exposed to the sun. The Bashikouay and Nchounou Nchu'u of M. It is little feared in the Gaboon when its armies attack the missionhouses, they are easily stopped by lighting spirits of turpentine, or by a strew of quicklime, which combines with the formic acid. The different species are described in Pa! Wilson less sensationally calls it what it is, a "Jive raft. We passed the mortal remains of a gorilla lashed to a pole; the most interesting parts had been sold to Mr.

    Walker, and were on their way to England. Wilson declares chap. Thompson p. The juice is milk-white, thick, and glutinous, soon stiffening, darkening, and hardening without aid of art 1 should like to see the raw material tried for making waterproofs in the tropics, where the best vulcanized articles never last. The Ndambo tree has been traced a hundred miles inland from the Liberian Coast that of the Gallinas and Sherbro is the best at St. Paul's River it is not bad but on the Junk River it is sticky and little prized.

    The difficulty everywhere is to make the negro collect it, and, when he does, to sell it unadulterated in East Africa he uses the small branches of the ficus for flogging canes, but will not take the trouble even to. At a brook of the sweetest water, purling over the cleanest and brightest of golden sands, we filled the canteens, this being the last opportunity for some time. The French Congo began at Brazzaville on 10 September as a protectorate over the Bateke people along the north bank of the Congo River , was formally established as the French Congo on 30 November , was confirmed at the Berlin Conference of —85 , its borders with Cabinda and the Congo Free State were established by treaties over the next decade.

    The plan to develop the colony was to grant massive concessions to some thirty French companies; these were granted huge swaths of land on the promise. This development was limited and amounted to the extraction of ivory and timber; these operations involved great brutality and the near enslavement of the locals. With these measures most of the companies lost money. Only about ten earned profits. Many of the companies' vast holdings existed only on paper with no presence on the ground in Africa. The French Congo was sometimes known as Gabon-Congo.

    Deaths from cancer in France

    It formally added Gabon on in , was renamed Middle Congo in , was temporarily divorced from Gabon in , was reunited as French Equatorial Africa in in an attempt to emulate the relative success of French West Africa. Media related to French Congo at Wikimedia Commons. Gabonese forces are oriented to the defense of the country and have not been trained for an offensive role; the armed forces includes a well-trained, well-equipped 1,member guard that provides security for the President of Gabon.

    The Gabonese Army is the land component of the armed forces, specializing in infantry and mechanized reconnaissance, it was created on December 6, by decree of president Leon Mba from non-commissioned officers who served in the French colonial army the 2nd company of the 21st BIMA. Following independence, Gabon signed defense agreements with France on technical assistance and training; until June , the title of Chief of Staff of the Gabonese Armed Forces was held by a senior French Army officer.

    President Mba promoted the initiative following a visit to Tel Aviv , where he met female staff in its Defense Forces. The navy's core purpose is to monitor the country's coastal waters, including km of coastline. Previous aircraft operated by the Air Force consisted of the CM. It is the capital of the Komo-Mondah Department. Nkan lies along the N1 road and L road, In the census it had a population of 51, In the census it had a population of 6, and in has an estimated population of 11,, it is served by Nkan Airport. It is located on the Trans-Gabon Railway and is the proposed junction for the line to the iron ore exporting port of Santa Clara.

    Ntoum has an integrated cement plant. It lies on the N6 road; the town had been developed by a Minister of Tourism born in a nearby village. The town has a museum, a cinema, an airport and is known for its nightlife; the du Chaillu Mountains and Mbougou Falls lie near Koulamoutou. From all historical accounts, this change resulted from a miscommunication between De Brazza and Mpami Nani Shui, a Shiwe Chief, during some negotiation talks between the two men.

    Thus Mboue, as a village and a town, was founded by the Shiwe people originating from the southeast of Cameroon between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In addition, air tickets may be expensive since there is no regular airline serving this town. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is a list of places in Gabon. Outline Index. Categories : Geography of Gabon Gabon-related lists Lists of places by country. Revision History. Related Images. YouTube Videos. The city is a port on the Komo River, near the Gulf of Guinea, and a trade center for a timber region. As of , its census population was , The Embassy of the United States in Libreville.

    Port-Gentil or Mandji is the second-largest city of Gabon, and its leading seaport. It is the center of Gabon's petroleum and timber industries. Although it lies inshore, the nearby mainland is a remote forest area and it is not connected by road to the rest of the nation. Loango National Park is a national park in western Gabon. Southern Park Camping Ground looking towards Ocean. With a population of 38, as of , it is located 75 kilometres south of the equator.

    Rhodochrosite from a Moanda mine. Gabon is a largely low-lying country with a warm, humid climate. Much of the country is still covered by tropical rainforest and there are also grasslands, savannas, large rivers and coastal lagoons. Mangrove s such as Rhizophora mangle line parts of the coast. Its source is located in Fouta Djallon. The surrounding area has also been known as "Pongoland" or "Bongo Country". The estuary has been designated as a Ramsar site since Gabon, as several countries of Central Africa, invests in telecommunications.

    For these countries, digital economy remains a determining factor for their development. During [ The adoption of a sub-regional bank card is henceforth part of priorities of the governor for the Bank of Central African States, Lucas [ The United Nations summit on climate change held on 23rd September in New York, was the opportunity for the Gabonese president, Ali [ Sucaf Gabon is aiming high.

    The Gabonese company specialized in the sugar canes plantation and exploitation and which also operates in the production [