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First Run at The Little Theatre

It took place during the flooding of the fields, from the end of April to the beginning of June every year, during which the delicate shoots needed to be protected, during the first stages of their development, from temperature differences between the day and the night. It consisted of two phases: transplanting the plants and pruning the weeds. The work of monda was an extremely tiring task, carried out mostly by women known as mondinas rice-weeders that came of the poorest social classes.

The workers would spend their workdays with their bare feet in water up to their knees and their back bent for many hours. The atrocious working conditions, long hours and very low pay led to constant dissatisfaction and led, at times to rebellious movements and riots in the early years of the twentieth century.

The struggles against the supervising padroni was even harder with the abundance of clandestine workers ready to compromise even further the already low wages just to get work. Besides "Bella ciao", similar songs by the mondina women included " Sciur padrun da li beli braghi bianchi " and " Se otto ore vi sembran poche ". Other similar versions of the antecedents of "Bella ciao" appeared over the years, indicating that "Alla mattina appena alzata" must have been composed in the later half of the 19th century. Italian folksinger Giovanna Daffini recorded the song in Alla mattina appena alzata o bella ciao bella ciao bella ciao, ciao, ciao alla mattina appena alzata in risaia mi tocca andar.

E fra gli insetti e le zanzare o bella ciao bella ciao bella ciao ciao ciao e fra gli insetti e le zanzare un dur lavoro mi tocca far. Il capo in piedi col suo bastone o bella ciao bella ciao bella ciao ciao ciao il capo in piedi col suo bastone e noi curve a lavorar. O mamma mia o che tormento o bella ciao bella ciao bella ciao ciao ciao o mamma mia o che tormento io t'invoco ogni doman. In the morning I got up oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao Goodbye beautiful In the morning I got up To the paddy rice fields, I have to go.

And between insects and mosquitoes oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao and between insects and mosquitoes a hard work I have to work. The boss is standing with his cane oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao the boss is standing with his cane and we work with our backs curved. Oh my god, what a torment oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao oh my god, what a torment as I call you every morning. And every hour that we pass here oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao and every hour that we pass here we lose our youth.

But the day will come when us all oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao but the day will come when us all will work in freedom. Una mattina mi son svegliato, o bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao!


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Una mattina mi son svegliato e ho trovato l'invasor. O partigiano portami via, o bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao o partigiano portami via che mi sento di morir. E se io muoio da partigiano, o bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao ciao ciao, e se io muoio da partigiano tu mi devi seppellir. One morning I awakened, oh bella ciao, bella ciao, bella ciao, ciao, ciao! Goodbye beautiful One morning I awakened And I found the invader. Come per l'Iraq, la Libia, la Somalia e altri teatri di guerra, anche per la Siria penso si possa tutto sintetizzare nella citazione che l'autrice riporta a pag.

Finalmente qualcuno che ci ha raccontato la soluzione sbagliata. View 1 comment. Reportage di guerra appassionato e schietto; lucido; reale. Un cammino di consapevolezza, rapido e ripido. Un inno implicito alla vita. La descrizione attonita degli accadimenti bellici Siriani.

A condimento, un contorno di situazioni terze , satellitari alla guerra, che con la guerra hanno a che fare, e dalla guerra di altri traggono nutrimento. Certi aspetti del giornalismo, ad esempio, immutati nel tempo vedi libro equivalente, del , firmato da Evelyn Waugh In Abissinia. Il saprofitismo di alcuni professionismi descritto, anzi fotografato, in tutto il suo sconcio sapore.

Senza paura. Con la franchezza del precariato che non si fa ossequioso. Tanto basti. Un libro che si trangugia. Da applauso. Per tanti buoni e sani motivi. View all 4 comments. As a Syrian I found this book very accurate in many parts, and reflects on how some people are suffering while the others enjoy the luxuries of life, and the contrast in living in such one country.

However, the Syrian crises isn't a matter of "Suni-Shie" fight but of thirst for power like many other countries and dictators before, and also the book covers the early days of the Syrian revolution and crisis, therefore it only gives a peak on how this started but not how it involved. Apr 20, Petra Miocic rated it it was amazing Shelves: reads , warmly-recimmanded. This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. To view it, click here. Borri's writes as a witness to the horrors of the Syrian conflict. Her only side is that of the Syrians themselves.

Her writing is more poetry than prose, and captures in ways no news report I have ever read the horrors of war and the culpability of almost everyone: the hypocrisy of Western governments and their failure to act; NGOs, who happily collect money, but won't cross the border to deliver aid; reporters who are only there for their next big story, and leave as soon as 5th book for Her writing is more poetry than prose, and captures in ways no news report I have ever read the horrors of war and the culpability of almost everyone: the hypocrisy of Western governments and their failure to act; NGOs, who happily collect money, but won't cross the border to deliver aid; reporters who are only there for their next big story, and leave as soon as prize season is past; media organizations who only want to talk about deaths, but never about causes; the horrors of bombing raids, on bread queues and hospitals; people men, women, children dropping in front of you from sniper fire; planes flying overhead deciding who is to die next; women giving birth in underground tombs, living in sewers with their children, under bombed out cities; death everywhere; constant war; no hope.

View all 5 comments. The Italian journalist Francesca Borri texted me last week. Her message read, "I am just back from the Maldives She was back in Ramallah, while awaiting permission to enter Gaza, and wanted to see if we could meet up. She had a book of hers she The Italian journalist Francesca Borri texted me last week.

She had a book of hers she wanted to gift me. We met for ice cream a few days later. Francesca proudly passed me her newly translated book, Syrian Dust, and we chatted about her coverage of the war in Syria and her work elsewhere. An amazing person she is, to say the least. We parted and on my way to the car I opened the book to read the inscription.

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Then I read the book! I now know exactly what she meant. Syrian Dust is about the collapse of Syria, but it's more than that. It's about the Syrian people paying the price for all of this madness. If you have had, like I did, a hard time understanding how millions of Syrians would risk taking their family, or what remains thereof, and cross the Mediterranean Sea by boat to chance making it somewhere, anywhere, read this book. Additionally, Francesca takes on an angle which has become taboo to address, the art and business of journalism in today's day and age.

She bravely calls it out, the journalists, the editors, the papers, the fixers, etc. She rightly points a finger at all those so-called journalists who excitingly write about anything and everything from the comfort of their air conditioned newsrooms, never even seeing the places or people they write about. Francesca, who can now be classified as a war correspondent, is an old-fashion journalist, the few that write from the field, the few that see the eyes of the people thy cover, not only events.

My hat is off to her. All that matters is you. And what kind of a life is a life like that? Francesca, I don't know where I've read it but it also applies to you: You write like breathing. You write like breathing yet, what you write about is so horrible, so horrifying, so absurd; senseless, that it leaves me exhausted: breathless. I can't understand that drive -I'm only a waiter-, the drive to run into a hell while everybody else with a bit of common sense and the possibility to do it is desperately trying to flee away from it, but I thank you. And I fear for you. Even though I don't k Francesca, I don't know where I've read it but it also applies to you: You write like breathing.

Even though I don't know you, even though I'll never meet you, even though this book isn't about you, I fear for you. That's the power of good writing. The power to engage other human beings into alien situations, and make them care. That's what you are fucking doing. And I fucking thank you for it. I first encountered Francesca Borri's writing the same way many did — by reading her much-shared article about the second-class treatment of freelancers on the frontline. And it's exactly this sort of fame which distresses Borri, as she was never the story.

It should always have been Syria. If Borri is still carrying this insidious guilt, she deserves the comfort of knowing that her book will speak to people. And by speak, I mean shout. I dislike pears; In this instance, dislike is transitive, because pear is the direct object.

I go to bed; In this instance, the act of going to bed has no direct object, and therefore is intransitive. Direct objects must be nouns or actions. In Italian, there are verbs that differ in usage based on whether they are transitive or intransitive, but they are rare. Following is a list of commonly used irregular verbs. Partire is used in the sense of to leave, whereas uscire is used more to mean to exit. These two verbs are intransitive, and must be used with a preposition, as such. Lasciare is a transitive verb, used without a preposition. If you were to say that they are leaving New York, there are technically three ways to do so.

Io parto di Nuova York. Uncommon usage Io lascio Nuova York. These are verbs such as capire and finire. Possessive Clauses To express ownership of something, in Italian, you use one of six adjectives. The following table shows the adjectives. Si chiama il suo avvocato Lorenzo. Mia sorella ha tre anni. My sister is three years old. Be careful when writing possessives, as the gender of the possessive changes according to the gender of the possessed noun, not the gender of the possessor. Telling Time In Italian, telling time is very simple. However, unlike English, where the time of day is divided into two periods, AM and PM, Italian separates the day into four periods.

To indicate AM, attach di mattina to the time. For fractions of an hour, you give the whole hour first, and then the minutes elapsed past that hour. What time is it? Sono le tre e dieci di notte. In , a law called the Legge Casati Casati Act was passed, which made primary education compulsory, in order to reduce illiteracy. Historically, Italy has been a center of higher education, even after the fall of Rome. The University of Bologna was the first university in all of Europe and in Italy.

The Catholic Church used to be in charge of the majority Italy was well known for having preserved the classics of Greek and Roman thinkers, such as Socrates, Plato, Virgil, and Livy. The study of the classics and the classical languages: Latin and Greek, was encouraged by the humanist movement umanesimo. Today, education has evolved into something more reminiscent of the Austrian and French systems, which changed dramatically with the advent of the industrial revolution, and the French Revolution in the latter.

Italian primary education is identical to US primary education, although it includes mandatory instruction of English. In la scuola secondaria di primo grado, lower secondary education, the students are required to take classes in technology and yet another language typically French, Spanish, or German in addition to extended studies in their primary education subjects.

They must then sit through an exam at the end of the three-year period to be admitted to la scuola secondaria di secondo grado. There are three types of scuola secondaria di secondo grado: Liceo, Istituto Tecnico, and Istituto Professionale. The licei are targeted toward the study of the arts and sciences. The istituti professionali are similar to the istituti tecnici, although they may be more specific in vocation course offerings, and enables students to start searching for a job immediately after receiving their diplomas.

These titles can only be conferred by nationally recognized universities. There are three Superior Graduate Schools, three Doctoral Colleges, and nine further university off-shoots not official universities , making for a total of fifteen eligible schools. Esercizi di pratica A.

The Little Theatre

Write out how the given time would be told in Italian. Write the following nouns in possessive clauses for each possessive adjective. Write the number associated with the given noun out in Italian. Note that the answers do not occur in order. Listen to the whole track before answering questions. This track is available on aspirantoflanguage. What classes does Lorenzo take? In this chapter, you will learn about the rich diversity of Italian cuisine, while also learning about how to discuss your own dietary and exercise habits.

Ho freddo. Abbiamo bisogno di acqua.

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We need water. Ha sonno il bambino? Is the child sleepy? Note: In southern regions of Italy, the verb tenere is used instead of avere with these expressions. However, in other parts of Italy, you should generally use avere, and use tenere for the following meanings: to hold to keep to take to contain Avere - The Auxiliary Verb The verb avere has a variety of meanings, depending on the context. One of the most common uses of the verb is as an auxiliary verb.

This means it is used to express other sentiments, that you could express using to be in English. The list previously given can only be used in conjunction with people. Use essere for things that are not people. Come terribile! Allora, classe, cominciamo! I ate an orange six years ago. Sono un membro della squadra de nuoto da tre anni.

I have been a member of the swim team for three years. For voi commands, you simply conjugate the verb in the voi form, and add non before it. Ragazzi, non mangiate i pasticcini prima di cena! Le orrechie La faccia - face Gli occhi - eyes Il sopracciglio - eyebrow pl. Sometimes, the partitive is expressed using qualche or alcuni. The contraction of di and plural article implies that the object is countable, but the amount or number is undetermined.

Using a singular article suggests that both the element and amount in question are uncountable. I want some a little pudding. Ho bisogno di comprare dei frutti. I have to buy some fruits. My dad made some grappa a grape-based pomace brandy at work. Grappa is the uncountable element, so the amount in question is also uncountable, and therefore a singular article is used. Notice that di is combined with the definite article i, to create dei.

The following table shows the pattern for these contractions. The pronoun can help convert longer sentences into shorter ones. See the example. Voglio un pezzo a piece della torta. Lui ha quattro arance. He has four oranges. Italian Cuisine Italian cuisine as we know it in the United States is considerably different from the real cuisine in Italy. In reality, the divide between North and South also divides cuisine, and the variations are great. In addition, many of the ingredients in Italian cooking are not native to Italy, but rather, were introduced to it in the 18th century.

These ingredients include potatoes, tomatoes, and corn introduced by the Spanish, who came by these foods through the New World and interactions with Britain as well as spinach, almonds, and rice from the Arabs. Casseroles, stockfish, and salt cod were introduced by the Normans.

The northern regions of Italy reflects a mix of Roman and Germanic influences, while the South has many Arab influences in its cooking. Both parts of Italy make extensive use of olive oil, fish, and various vegetables. Cheese is also a popular ingredient in Italy, although it is used sparingly as a condiment, and will only be used in large amounts when a recipe calls for it.

As you may know, Italy has a multitude of pastas of varying shapes and made of different ingredients. They are either dried pasta made without eggs , which can be preserved for long periods of time, or fresh pasta made with eggs , which must be consumed immediately. Sicilian cakes are lavish and decadent. In places like Piedmont, which is famous for its sweets made from chocolate, sweets are often filled, dipped, or are wholly chocolate, along with various dried fruits and nuts. In the realm of beverages, Italy is world-famous for its drinking tradition, which comes from the Mediterranean tradition of moderation, and usually only includes wine, and only good wines at that.

Prosecco, Cinzano, and Vermouth are popular wines enjoyed as aperitifs, alcohol consumed in order to stimulate the appetite. Italians also enjoy having multiple cups of coffee through the day, usually small cups of strong espresso in the morning, or a cappuccino, which usually is mostly milk, more sparingly.

Children are usually only given latti, drinks consisting of mostly milk, and a little coffee. The Italian dining tradition is a long process, as the food is meant to be enjoyed and savored. This is partly a respect to the cook, especially if the cook is a fellow diner, and also simply to enjoy the company. Meals are social occasions, and to eat quickly is to imply impatience, dissatisfaction with the food, and disapproval of the company.

Long, drawn out meals are typical of Italian families, especially in the South, and particularly during festivals and other holidays. The North is generally less traditional when it comes to eating in company. Italian meals consist first of aperitivi alcohol, usually wine , to stimulate the appetite. Then comes the antipasti appetizers; literally meaning before-meal , consisting of cold or hot foods.

Following those are the primi, the first course consisting of pasta, risotto, gnocchi, or soup. The secondi are usually meat or fish dishes, served with contorni, side dishes of salads or cooked vegetables, traditionally accompanying the secondi. Afterward, diners eat an assortment of cheeses and fruits as a first dessert, although some areas serve this part of the meal with the antipasti or the contorni.

This finishes off the meal. The class will sit down for the meal, and try to discuss the food and the experience, all in Italian, if possible. Conjugate the given verb in all the present indicative forms and the imperative forms. Make a diagram of the human body, and label all the body parts in Italian. In this chapter, you will learn to emulate this kind of expression in speech.

Along with various body gestures, you will express many traits that you and others possess. You can see how important emotions and physical conditions and traits were when depicting people in the bust, pictured below. Stare is used in auxiliary patterns, idiomatic expressions, and also to describe precise locations. Io sono uno studente. I am a student. Sei in Emilia-Romagna. Where is Maria now? Answer: Maria sta nel treno per Palermo.

Maria is on the train to Palermo. You use stare in the last sentence, because you know for a fact where Maria physically is at that moment. Look at the table below for the rules. It is especially common in poetry and song lyrics. This is characteristic of northern and southern dialects, but standardized, Florentine Italian does not do this, and enunciates each vowel.


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  4. To imitate these dialects, to an extent, follow the pattern below. Hai bisogno di far lavoro di casa. Notice how fare is truncated to far. All you need to do is drop the terminating -e from the verb in question. This also applies to nouns ending in -ore, -ire, -are, and -ere.

    That man is Doctor Emilio. The general rule is that if it sounds smoother without the terminating -e, then drop it. Prepositional Articles There are several prepositional articles in Italian, each of which denote a different kind of physical position. Six of them have inflections based on the definite article, and combined with a noun, they create prepositional clauses. The uses of each are listed below. These are a, in, and da. A is used to denote location in a city, small island, or other very specific location. In, on the other hand, denotes location in a more general area, for countries, states, and such.

    However, da is used to denote the residence of a specific person. This is simply an idiomatic convention that needs to be obeyed. Io sono dal dottore. Vado da Lorenzo oggi. Translate the given phrase into Italian, using the correct demonstrative pronouns. These blue books 2. This orange sunset 4. That sad man 5. This tired woman 6. These talented children 7.

    Those six people 8. This old man 9. These gray clouds These marvelous people B. Write a prepositional clause for the given noun for each adjective. However, within the cities of Italy, there also things that pose a threat to the people of Italy, and tourists. In this chapter, you will learn about both of these things.

    The same rule applies to verbs ending -rre, being conjugated like porre. Indirect object pronouns IOPs are pronouns that express the notion of to someone or for someone. When you want to express this notion, you use these pronouns. From here, you should be able to employ them with all sorts of other verbs.

    Put simply, IOPs receive an action indirectly.

    Dammi lo zaino. Give me the backpack. This applies to any command in the tu form that has an apostrophe after it, with any indirect object pronouns beginning with m or l. Indirect object pronouns are frequently used with verbs such as piacere, importare, infastidire to bother , or arrabbiare to anger. Non mi importa nuotare.

    Mi infastidisce che tu mangi con la bocca aperta. It bothers me that you eat with your mouth open. Note: All object pronouns can be attached to gerundives, infinitives, and commands. Until you learn the future tense, use this expression to express it. After learning the actual future tense, you will be expected to use the real future tense. Vado a comprare gli alimentari. Che cosa vai a fare? What are you going to do? It should be noted that this usually implies a more immediate action something relatively near in the future , and once the future tense is learned, it should be used as such.

    Il Gerundio The gerundio gerund , or present progressive, expresses an action that is in the process of being done. This means attaching the ending -ing to a verb in English. The gerundive form is the verb stem combined with the endings designated for each kind of verb. I am eating.

    Io sono Dio

    You can also use this form in the following way. Swimming, he saved his aunt. Understood as: By swimming, he saved his aunt. It should be noted that the present tense often implies the present progressive tense, and the actual tense is used for emphasis. People in Italy like to get away from the city, and appreciate the relative calm in towns and cities in natural settings. During this time, many of the businesses in the city close for the holiday, which can last for up to three days if it falls on a Tuesday or a Thursday.

    Other places hold paegants and games, such as in Tuscany, or processions in Abruzzo, or fireworks in Liguria. Exercise: Discuss a traditional celebration from your background that is very important in your culture. Talk about the similarities, if any, between it and Ferragosto. Le stragi del sabato sera are a series of accidents that have occurred in Italy among Italian youth.

    Under the influence of alcohol, Italian youth drive on expressways and participate in races, placing others on the road in danger. Drinking while driving has resulted in it becoming the leading cause of death among Italian youth. Italy has recently acquired a growing drinking problem among its younger generation, evidenced by the national age for the purchase of alcohol being only sixteen years old.

    Older Italians disapprove of excessive drinking, and are not used to the change in the appreciation of alcohol, as they believe younger people seem to drink anything. Even bar owners acknowledge that there is a growing number of younger Italians drinking at Irish pubs, cocktail bars, and other venues only selling alcohol. The Italian-style bars that most tourists will see are of the Mediterranean drinking tradition, which is usually the restrained drinking of wine or other alcohol. Bars advertise two-for-one and three-for-two offers, which may attract Italian youth to experiment or participate more in drinking.

    Some Italian cities have enacted measures that fine the parents up to euros. Exercise: Compare attitudes in the United States and your own cultural background s regarding alcohol to those in Italy, both past and present. Translate the given phrase into Italian, using indirect object pronouns. I give my mother a pizza. Give her the toy! You informal are telling Lorenzo.

    They give us pasta. We give them money. My mother is giving me my bike. You formal are translating for us. Give us the bread. Lorenzo is giving him his book. We are giving them our house. Write a sentence with the given subject and verb and use the present progressive, as well as vocabulary from the list. Mia mamma; cucinare 2. Lucia; mangiare 3. I ragazzi; camminare 4. Maria; suonare il clarinetto 6. Luca e i suoi amici; guardare il televisione 7. Tu e Giovanni; giocare il basket 8. Tu; viaggiare a Spagna 9. Io; ballare From the masquerade balls of Venice to the many dances in the squares of Rome, Italy has a wide range of parties and festivals to accompany its holidays, religious and secular alike.

    The picture below shows the cathedral near the Leaning Tower of Pisa, in which many celebrations and events have taken place. In this chapter, you will learn about these things in detail. Sei mai venuto qui prima? Have you ever been here before? Eat dinner before dessert. Sto per chiamare a mia madre. Following is a table of direct object pronouns for nouns.

    The same applies for Loro. The distinction can only be made in writing, where the latter set is capitalized. When attaching the DOPs, you place it before the conjugated verb, or, if attaching it to an infinitive, drop the final -e, and attach the pronoun. Mi invita alle feste. He invites me to parties. Ho bisogno di invitarli. I have to invite them. In Italian, you must use the infinitive. I prefer speaking in English. Also understood as: I prefer to speak in English. Playing basketball is fun. Also understood as: To play basketball is fun.

    Il Passato Prossimo The verb tense passato prossimo is called the present perfect in English. This is a compound tense, and to form it you need a conjugated form of avere or essere and the past participle of a verb. The passato prossimo is used in the place of the true past tense, il passato remoto, and would be understood as such. The difference will be elaborated upon in the supplement. The past participle is the form of a verb, that, in English, typically takes on the ending -ed. The passato prossimo uses the present tense of avere or essere.

    Il Presidente dei Stati Uniti ha parlato al pubblico statunitense. They went on vacation to Europe. Note that the past participle changes according to gender and number when used with essere. You use avere for transitive verbs and essere for intransitive verbs. People also prepare many different kinds of dolci tradizionali. Similar to Los Reyes Magos in Spain and other Spanish-speaking nations, it is accompanied by a grand festival. Italians also celebrate the coming of La Befana, a kind old woman who is said to visit children and leave gifts on the Twelfth Night. Rewrite the given sentence using a direct object.

    Sto mangiando le mele. Mio nonno scrive saggi di filosofia philosophy. Le ragazze hanno bevuto le sode. Le donne spagnole ballano il tango. Tu preferisci pasta alla carbonara. Voi avete pulito la camera. Chi fa la torta? Io sto cercando il mio orologio. Rewrite the given sentence with the passato prossimo. Faccio la torta per il Presidente del Consiglio the Prime Minister. La bambina siede nella sua sedia. Mi dai una carta. Adriana vuole suonare il suo violino oggi Hint: change oggi to ieri.

    Alesso ed io giochiamo il basket. Bevo il vino per la prima volta for the first time. Il mio amico ha bisogno di partire della festa in presto. Partecipi male nella sfilata di Carnevale? I miei nonni my grandparents vanno a messa Mass sotto Natale at Christmastime. Esercizio di leggere Read the following passage, and respond to the questions about it in Italian. Note: Io refers to Alexander in this passage. Ieri, Arianna ed io siamo andati alla festa del compleanno di Marcello. Molti dei nostri amici sono venuti, e ognuno gli ha dato un regalo. Invece instead , gli abbiamo dato un iPad per usare FaceTime per chiamare i suoi nonni.

    Arianna ed io abbiamo usato molti soldi dei i nostri salari from our salaries. Why was there a party? Where was the party held? What did Arianna and Alexander want to give Marcel? What did they give him instead, and how did Marcel react? This includes sentences like: I went to the market. However, this tense as fallen into disuse in areas outside of literature, and is only used in Sicily in modern day. These pronouns are egli he , ella she , and esso a it. The plural versions of the lattermost pronouns are used to mean them. Many countries, such as Mexico, India, or China, have historically significant divides between its northern and southern parts.

    Such a thing is present even in the United States, where the distribution of people in society economically, socially, and politically is well-known to be irregular across the country. The difference between Northern and Southern Italy, in fact, is very similar to the difference between the American North and South in history, and to an extent, in the present. Northern Italy has always been the center of culture and changing ideas since the days of the Renaissance.

    It also had historically Germanic and French ties, having been under the control of Austria and France. Northern Italy is generally more modern, and has been historically wealthier than than Southern Italy, being a huge industrial and financial center. On the other hand, Southern Italy is significantly more traditionalist, and conservative in its values.

    Southern Italians place more emphasis on honor, manners, and background, and to offend these virtues is considered a greater offense than in the North. However, Southern Italians are extremely friendly, and tend to be very open people. And also, like in many Spanish- speaking countries, the family is considered very important.

    In Southern Italy, family members, even relatively distant ones, are very close-knit, making for large extended families. So Southern Italy has had more Spanish influence, and in spoken language, some parts of the South may even borrow words from Spanish. Yet at the same time, it was a distant province of Spain, and has largely retained its cultural identity in comparison to the North, which received many influxes of French and Germanic culture and language.

    Economically, the South has been poorer than the North, due to highly agrarian roots, and because Spain, a highly conservative monarchy in its prime, occupied it, the region has adopted that conservatism. In comparison to the United States, Italians in general tend to be more reserved than Americans. Even though social activity like clubbing and dancing is common in Italy as it is in the US, there is a set of personal and emotional boundaries that is always considered in social interactions. In Italy, women do not take kindly to very forward advances from men, and other Italian men can extremely protective, especially if the man and woman in question are family.

    The process of courtship is meant to be delicate and to be done with finesse, especially to the Italians. On the Spanish Steps, pictured below, numerous families gather on the steps, enjoying time together. In this chapter, you will learn about family values, while also learning to discuss your own. See section on Demonstrative Adjectives for modification rules.

    Maria ha divorziato da Lorenzo. The latter set of actions are called reciprocal actions, because each person involved does it to the other. If the action is one sided, then you have to take away the reflexive pronoun. However, for ci, you can only drop the i if the verb begins with a weak vowel sound Ex. To attach a reflexive pronoun to the infinitive by dropping the final -e, and replacing it with one of the pronouns. Following is a table listing the reflexive pronouns.

    First, you need to understand what the imperfect is. This sentence depicts an action that happened continuously and repeatedly over a period of time. Some cues for using the imperfect are listed below. One hundred years ago, there was a princess who was the most beautiful in the country. Note: You can form the gerundio passato, or to say I was doing Stavo mangiando la pizza. I was eating the pizza.

    However, the imperfect by itself already expresses this notion. An example is below. When we were eating dinner, my grandmother called. The call from my grandmother interrupted the action of eating dinner. When I visited my friend in Greece, I had fun. Superlatives and Comparatives A superlative is an adjective that describes a noun as being of the absolute highest degree of that quality. This means words like best, worst, tallest, or shortest. In spoken Italian, using the superlative is generally used for emphasis. When converting adjectives ending in -co, -go, -ca, and -ga, add an h before adding the -issimo a , in order to preserve the hard c and g sounds.

    For regular superlatives, just add -issimo to the ending. Gender changes normally, even in the superlative form. The following table shows irregular forms of the given adjective. If they mean other things in other contexts, the adjective is made a superlative regularly. The comparative clausal form of an adjective is used to compare two things, as you can guess. However, there are two forms of the phrase used to compare qualities or people. The first form uses di, while the second uses che.