Finally, relating to the emerging theme of illegal pesticides, two sources were identified and both were government documents.
In addition, a number of sources explored the concept of IPM and its implementation, but few studies evaluated its effectiveness. This could be because the IPM was only implemented in Overall, there is little documentation about pesticides used in Malawi and IPM. The present study was a systematic review of the literature and empirical studies relating to the effects of pesticides on human health.
We concluded that farmers in Malawi use insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, fumigants, nematicides, acaricide, and rodenticides, and these pesticides are mainly used for tobacco, tea, sugarcane, coffee, cotton, and maize crops. Additionally, the study concluded that farmers in Malawi obtain illegal pesticides from vendors from neighboring countries, and that an integrated pest management plan has not been successful in Malawi. Based on these findings, we recommend the following: a increasing the understanding of the effects of pesticides in order to minimize their usage, b restricting illegal pesticides and implementing policies to this end, and c pursuing policies to support integrated pest management.
Regarding the quality of body of evidence, there is little literature concerning pesticides in Malawi. The majority of sources were from government documents, making it difficult to verify the results with a wide-ranging body of literature.
I would like to give special thanks, warmth and appreciation to Ravi Murugesan, the AuthorAID course moderator, whose reminders and constant motivation encouraged me to meet the deadlines. I thank the AuthorAID facilitators, especially Arif Sikder and Barbara Gastel who were content and editorial experts, respectively, for reviewing my paper.
I thank my family members Domi, my wife, and Joseph and Mariann, my children, for their emotional support. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List J Health Pollut v. J Health Pollut. Published online Dec 3. Jacob Jeketule Soko. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
DRUM: Drivers of Resistance in Uganda and Malawi
Corresponding author. Corresponding author: moc. Received Jan 25; Accepted Aug 4. Abstract Background. Competing Interests. The authors report no competing financial interests. Keywords: Pesticide use, pesticides, health risk, integrated pest management, health, systematic literature review, Malawi.
Introduction Pesticides are substances used in agriculture to increase crop yields and improve the appearance of plant products, as well as other uses. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Unintentional-indirect poisoning Pesticides constitute a health risk to humans, domestic animals, wildlife and other non-target organisms in the environment.
Accidental poisoning Several studies indicate that pesticides have led to acute poisoning, which can be categorized as accidental or suicidal cases. Methods The present study involved a systematic review of the published literature on empirical studies relating to the effects of pesticides on human health.
Figure 2. Pesticide use in Malawi To determine the pesticides used in Malawi, articles that matched the criteria for selection were reviewed systematically Table 1. Factors contributing to illegal pesticide use To determine the factors that contribute to Malawi being vulnerable to illegal pesticides, articles that matched the criteria for selection were systematically reviewed.
Integrated pest management plan To determine the extent to which farmers in Malawi have adopted an integrated pest management plan, several articles that matched the criteria for selection were systematically reviewed. Discussion In this systematic review examining pesticides that are harmful to human health in Malawi, 12 studies were reviewed. Pesticide use in Malawi First, farmers in Malawi depend entirely on a variety of pesticides, namely, insecticides, without which sufficient yields would not be realized.
Factors contributing to illegal pesticide use in Malawi Malawi does not manufacture pesticides; hence, it relies on imported products. Integrated pest management plan We were not able to determine the extent to which farmers in Malawi have adopted an integrated pest management plan. Quality and strength of body of evidence As observed in Supplemental Material , only 11 sources were found to be relevant to objective one, examination of pesticide use in Malawi.
Conclusions The present study was a systematic review of the literature and empirical studies relating to the effects of pesticides on human health.
National health research system in Malawi: dead, moribund, tepid or flourishing?
Supplementary Material Click here for additional data file. References 1. Human exposures to pesticides in the United States. J Agromedicine [Internet] ; 17 3 — Lakudzala DD. The global distribution of fatal pesticide self-poisoning: systematic review. Mortality from and incidence of pesticide poisoning in South Korea: findings from National Death and Health Utilization Data between and Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food [Internet]. Report No.
Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme | LSTM
Pesticide deaths [Internet] Tiki; [place unknown] [cited Jul 6]. Africa: diversity and development.
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