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Words to Know

Essential Cat said nothing, he wanted to just lie down and sleep.

Light-year

When everyone created their fake backgrounds and brainwashed some poor human families to convinced they're part of the family, the 13 Princes lived well. One day, they discovered idol life. And it appealed on them greatly. The 13 ambitious Princes of Lucy wanted to be idols too. They loved music, they loved creating it so some of them auditioned on this poor-unstable company called Pledis. By funny manipulation of fate, they were accepted to trained. While others were streetcasted. But no, that's not the real reason. Don't call him that though, he's a handsome fellow with the name Kim Mingyu.

How is the diamond commemorate this poor piece of dirt?! DK asked. You're earning money here while in Lucy you earned nothing but a pinch from the King!! Woozi interjected. It might give us away. Our origin as Lucians.

Origins of SEVENTEEN Carats [A FunFic] | Carat ❲캐럿❳ Amino

In the end they agreed that Adore U will be the debut song and not Shining Diamond. To protect their identity they said. And the Princes-now-turned-idols looked at each other. How are they going to call their human fans? They didn't know. One day in a fanmeet, Oldest Camel a. Coups encountered a very strange girl in human word that is. The girl handed out a post-it with her question, and it surprised Camel. The words were written in Lucian context. The girl didn't talk because she did not know how to speak human words.

But she demonstrated it by her hands that the people thought she was dancing to Mansae's choreography. Camel S.

Coups understand that the girl traveled light years just to reach Earth and that many of them Lucian were coming from Lucy to support their Princes' new life in Earth. Dino told the Lucian girl, the girl nodded. Like billion trillion trillion carats of diamond from home! That's right and we can make orange as the fandom color," Broody a.

Edge of Seventeen (The Starkiller's Seventeen Lightyears Remix)

Wonwoo added. Sharp-Jaw a. Hansol a. Vernon a.


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Lord of Meme shutted his mouth. He was speechless. In the end, everyone agreed that Carat will be the fandom name and Rose Quartz and Serenity as the official colors. True to the girl's promises. Many Carats from Lucy came to Earth. In the s, South Africa became the leading producer from rare earth bearing monazite deposits. At that time, the Mountain Pass Mine in California was producing minor amounts of rare earth oxides from a Precambrian carbonatite. The demand for rare earth elements saw its first explosion in the mids, as the first color television sets were entering the market.


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Europium was the essential material for producing the color images. The Mountain Pass Mine began producing europium from bastnasite, which contained about 0. This effort made the Mountain Pass Mine the largest rare earth producer in the world and placed the United States as the leading producer. China began producing notable amounts of rare earth oxides in the early s and became the world's leading producer in the early s.

Through the s and early s, China steadily strengthened its hold on the world's rare earth oxide market. They were selling rare earths at such low prices that the Mountain Pass Mine and many others throughout the world were unable to compete and stopped operation. At the same time, world demand was skyrocketing as rare earth metals were designed into a wide variety of defense, aviation, industrial, and consumer electronics products. China capitalized on its dominant position and began restricting exports and allowing rare earth oxide prices to rise to historic levels.

In addition to being the world's largest producer of rare earth materials, China is also the dominant consumer. They use rare earths mainly in manufacturing electronics products for domestic and export markets. Japan and the United States are the second and third largest consumers of rare earth materials. It is possible that China's reluctance to sell rare earths is a defense of their value-added manufacturing sector.

That was an awakening for rare earth consumers and miners throughout the world. Mining companies in the United States, Australia, Canada, and other countries began to reevaluate old rare earth prospects and explore for new ones. High prices also caused manufacturers to do three things: 1 seek ways to reduce the amount of rare earth elements needed to produce each of their products; 2 seek alternative materials to use in place of rare earth elements; and, 3 develop alternative products that do not require rare earth elements.

This effort has resulted in a decline in the amounts of rare earth materials used in some types of magnets and a shift from rare earth lighting products to light-emitting diode technology. In the United States, the average consumption of rare earths per unit of manufactured product has decreased, but the demand for more products manufactured with rare earth elements has increased. The result has been higher consumption.

Chinese companies have been purchasing rare earth resources in other countries. In China Non-Ferrous Metal Mining Company bought a majority stake in Lynas Corporation, an Australian company that has one of the highest outputs of rare earth elements outside of China. They also purchased the Baluba Mine in Zambia. Mines in Australia began producing rare earth oxides in New mineral resource assessments conducted by the United States Geological Survey identified significant resources outside of China.

This provides an opportunity for other countries to become important producers now that China is not selling rare earth materials below the cost of production. REE production chart: This chart shows China's dominance in the production of rare earth elements between and The United States was a significant producer through the s, but low-priced materials being sold by China forced mines in the United States and other countries out of operation. As China limited exports, and prices increased rapidly in and , mines in Australia and the United States became active again.

Graph by Geology. Supply and demand normally determine the market price of a commodity. As supplies shrink, prices go up. As prices go higher, those who control the supply are tempted to sell.

Uses of Rare Earth Elements

Mining companies see high prices as an opportunity and attempt to develop new sources of supply. With rare earth elements, the time between a mining company's decision to acquire a property and the start of production can be several years or longer. There is no fast way to open a new mining property. If a single country controls almost all of the production and makes a firm decision not to export, then the entire supply of a commodity can be quickly cut off.

That is a dangerous situation when new sources of supply take so long to develop. In China significantly restricted their rare earth exports. That was done to ensure a supply of rare earths for domestic manufacturing and for environmental reasons. This shift by China triggered panic buying, and some rare earth prices shot up exponentially.

Rare earth oxides: These rare earth oxides are used as tracers to determine which parts of a watershed are eroding [4].

Origins of SEVENTEEN Carats [A FunFic]

It has a lot to do with China being decades ahead of the global curve when it comes to understanding the strategic importance of rare earths. Since the 's, China has placed great emphasis on research and development on improving efficiency to recover REMs. That increased the nation's competitive advantage over time and propelled China into the virtual sole provider of REMs of the world.

Deng also made the following remark in the same speech: "….. Now, the Chinese government warns that it possesses just 15 to 20 years worth of medium and heavy minerals, and must act to protect the resource from over-exploitation, and to preserve its own supply as well as environment. Substitute or Produce Thyself…in 15 Years?! However, rebuilding the REMs supply chain, i. In a report released in April , the U. General Accountability Office GAO calculated it will take up to 15 years to re-establish sufficiently to meet the domestic demand. Reserves Not So Rare The good news is that unlike the production side, China does not have a complete lock on the rare earths reserves.

See Reserves Chart Supply Response Coming And with the heightened attention, and the recent price spike, a lot of new capital has gone into this once obscure sector, which could accelerate the estimated time table. For example, Molycorp, a U. In the U. According to Molycorp, the only major rare earths mine in the U. That level would be sufficient to meet domestic needs of the moment. No Threat to the Pentagon The GAO report also noted for now, there are no effective rare earths substitutes for defense systems.

But Bloomberg quoted Australian rare earth developer Lynas Corp. Defense Department's needs. This is most likely part of the reasons that the U. Defense Department concluded that China's REMs monopoly poses no threat to national security, a person familiar with a yearlong study by the Pentagon said Oct. Nevertheless, the demand and supply projection is still worrisome.


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  6. Molycorp estimates that total worldwide demand for rare earths is expected to double to , tons by , not accounting for the burgeoning green energy industry, e. For instance, one 2. China alone plans to spend two to three trillion yuan in the renewable energy sector in the next decade and deploy gigawatts of wind turbines by Apparently, supply chain planning must not have been part of the Green Energy Movement.