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Where Maimonides speaks for himself, however, he declares all the miracu- lous appearances and events that the prophets describe to be imaginary visions. But Lewkowitz objects that the belief in miracles in principle still prevails. Lewkowitz — was trained and ordained as a rabbi in in Breslau, at the seminary where Cohen himself had studied fifty years earlier but never taught.

He survived several concentration camps and eventually settled in Haifa, where he worked as a teacher and rabbi until his death. All translations from the German are my own.

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This refers to Maimonides treatment of the events at Mt. Sinai in Guide II In Jewish Reform theology, emphasizing the universalistic, almost missionary, moral and social message of the biblical prophets, the traditional dis- tinction between the canonical position of Torah and the rest of the Hebrew Bible is ignored or obliterated.

Lewkowitz concludes that it is exactly because the vivid language of imagination is, for Maimonides, inferior to metaphys- ical knowledge, that he was forced to claim that Moses knew God as pure intelligence and exclusively through conceptual thought. In any event, Maimonides followed the opposite path, as Lewkowitz knows.

This approach does not square with Lewkowitz, for whom the individual structure of the pro- phetic soul must have decisive influence on the content of revelation, not only on its linguistic formulation. Daniel H. Frank and Oliver Leaman London: Routledge, — This, Cohen says without giving an answer, is the most difficult of all questions of linguistic style p.

But the decisive difference between the Guide and the vast majority of 19th-century Jewish thinkers is that for the latter, God was no longer a detached, dis- interested being, unmoved by human religious activity. For the modern, liberal Jewish theologian, God needs man, just as man needs God. Lewiston: Mellen, — Guttmann Philosophies, p. Simon Kaplan; New York: Ungar, , ch.

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Hans Tramer Tel Aviv: Bitaon, — Until he officiated as the rabbi of Stettin, then he returned to Berlin where he occupied a rabbinical post and taught at the Hochschule until Berlin: JVB, Wiener was the first to describe the theological as opposed to the social process behind the transformation of Judaism from a closed, monolithic culture into a modern confession. Thus, revelation in Maimonides is a cognitive process, from which all mystical elements are excluded, not only with regard to prophetic content, but also regarding function. Cohen used infinitesimal mathematics, for example, in his theory of messianism: the ideal messianic age is per- manently approached but never fully achieved.

Still, the difference yet to be passed can become infinitesimal. This common method of explanation seems to be based on the factual incon- ceivability of the concept of infinity whereby a rational balance between the specific phenomenon and its explanation can still be achieved. Divine revelation to a prophet was always understood as a historical fact, even if more important than other historical events.

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Lacking a strict philosophical epistemology, he says, the Bible usually did not distinguish between the natural and the supernatural — and thus presents a uniform notion of revelation. Such a separation would leave open the option which Wiener personally prefers: that revelation, at least seen as the technical way of transmitting truth, is an exclusively supernatural phenomenon.

But even in the Gersonides translation, Kellermann distanced himself considerably from his teacher in several instances. Moses prophesized Troeltsch about the ethical monotheism of the biblical prophets. For his radical views see, e. Gersonides, by contrast, knows only a difference in gradation between Moses and the other prophets.

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According to Gersonides, true prophecy must always forgo imagination. Therefore, Kellermann claims that, concerning prophecy, Gersonides, who followed Averroes — , is a more stringent rationalist than Maimonides. Numbers 13 and In this context, one might remember the significance Cohen accorded to the single verse in Micah as the turning point in the history of spirituality.

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A natural expla- nation of prophecy must therefore necessarily start from the sublunar sphere. Starting from there, it is theologically difficult to maintain the divine character of revelation. This is essentially the same argument that Wiener made: either revelation is divine, or it is not revelation. But Kellermann goes further.

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However, this isolation, Kellermann argues, means first of all an elimination of rational activity; in fact, it amounts to intellectual isolation of the prophet from his environment. In order to save the idea of emanation the divine share in prophecy , both philosophers had to eliminate from the prophet, in the very moment of receiving prophecy, what they otherwise defined as the basic charac- teristic of man: the rational faculty. Kellermann does not refer to the obvious theological reason for this failure.

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All three thinkers also propose to divide the discussion of prophecy into, first, an evaluation of the con- tent of the prophetic message and second, an analysis of its genesis. All three modern philosophers agree with regard to the utmost theological importance of the content of the universal, ethical and social message of the biblical prophets — and yet they completely disagree about the nature of prophecy and its metaphysical origins.

All three thinkers thus made a sig- nificant contribution to modern Jewish thought in providing a balanced transition from the classical positions of neo-Kantian Jewish ethicism that dominated the second half of the 19th century, to the existentialist and growing non-rationalist tendencies that would soon shape 20th- century philosophy of Judaism.

Related Papers. By George Y. Judaism, C.