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The German Wikipedia provides an ever expanding source of German language articles that can be used for this purpose. Further, a German version of the Wikibooks project—a library of textbooks in German—is available at German Wikibooks. German grammar is more complex than, but sufficiently similar to, English that "reading" German is possible with minimal vocabulary in the sense that the student should generally recognize the parts of a sentence.

With a good dictionary or an online translator, an English speaker can usually translate a German sentence close to correctly. However, to accurately speak and understand German, you must learn how each word functions in a sentence. There are eight basic grammatical functions: case , gender , number , tense , person , mood , voice , and comparison. How words "signal" these functions is an important aspect of learning a new language. English speakers should know all of these functions and the signals used in English, but it is often the situation that you know perfectly well how to speak English, without understanding much about word-functions and signals.

For this reason, this textbook incorporates considerable detail on grammar, including both English and German grammar. The reference book English at Wikibooks may be consulted for additional help. When we say German is more complex than English, what we really mean is that the signals used in German are different from and more numerous than those used by English. A guide to the pronunciation of German is provided. You should become familiar with this page early on, and refer to it often.

Nothing can replace learning a language from a native speaker, but the text is liberally sprinkled with audio files providing the student with valuable input from hearing spoken German. Analyze the spoken words carefully. The pronunciation guide can only closely, not exactly, convey how German words should be pronounced.

And of course, German like English has a number of dialects distinguished by differences in pronunciation. Help in the pronunciation of individual words can be found by accessing the sound files of either of the online dictionaries, links to which are given in the German websites appendix. This textbook is intended as a beginning course in the German language for English speakers. Early lessons emphasize conversational subjects and gradually introduce German grammatical concepts and rules.

In addition, sound files accompany appropriate parts of each lesson. Although the basic lessons Grundlegende Lektionen are presented at about the US high school level, beginners including those attempting to learn German outside of a course structure are expected to work through several basic lessons up to an indicated point, when review is suggested along with additional study.

The basic way lessons go to other lessons is very simple and direct:. Each level of the text is designed to constitute a course of study in the German language. For any level selected, each lesson should be read thoroughly and mastered before moving on. Substantial text in German is included and the student should read all of it, not once, but multiple times. Most of this text must be translated by the student using his or her acquired vocabulary and the vocabulary presented at the bottom of each lesson. As the German text is read preferably out loud , the student must succeed in gaining an understanding of the meaning of each sentence, and of the role each word plays in establishing that meaning.

To the beginner, there will seem to be many words in a German sentence that are out of place or even redundant or unnecessary. These add subtleties to the language that will make sense eventually. But it is important to experience these subtleties from the very beginning. Level I is aimed at junior high and high school students. However, it can also be used by others just beginning to learn to speak or read German. The goal of Level I German is to introduce the basics of the German language without overwhelming students.

Therefore, the vocabulary is formatted for translating from English which the students know into German. Although Level II is aimed at students and people who are a bit proficient after Level I, still, English translation will be used, so as to ease the learning. It helps because, at times while learning a new language, even with basic understanding, the words are above normal understanding level, and thus require a "sub" assistance.

German and English are quite close to each other, and are called language sisters or, more formally, cognate languages. Both belong to the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. Here are some major similarities:. However, German is still one of the easiest languages for English speakers to learn. The differences will be tackled over the course of the lessons. The lessons are meant to be taken in order. You should read and review the German dialogs as often as possible.

Many of the dialogs come with audio recordings by native speakers. These recordings are invaluable to learn the German pronunciation. If there is a recording, you can do several kinds of exercises:. On the contents page, you will see filled-in boxes next to each lesson. The number of boxes corresponds to the completeness of the lesson as follows:. This lesson deals with basic conversation topics such as saying hello and goodbye and asking people how they are feeling. This lesson features audio recordings by native speakers to help you with the pronunciation. Read and listen to the following dialogue between two students: Franz and Greta.

You don't have to understand anything! You should rather try to find out how each word is pronounced. Now try to understand the dialogue with the help of the following list of vocabulary. A complete translation is given in the answers to the next problems. The others, of course, would be useful to know if you are traveling to regions where they are used. As you can see, the different German-speaking regions often have their own ways of saying hello and goodbye. However, you will not be required to know any of these less common phrases for any problems or tests. The more formal phrases are guten Morgen , guten Tag , and auf Wiedersehen.

The others are somewhat neutral on the formal-informal scale. In German, Herr and Frau are used instead of Mr. Schwarz — Herr Schwarz. Frau is used for married and unmarried women. Literally, der Herr means the gentleman and die Frau means the woman. If you use these words without a last name after them, you have to use an article before them; e. This is actually just like in English. Note also that the German translation of the man is der Mann and the lady should be translated to die Dame.

Thus, without last names you would rather use these pairs:. The test consists of three parts: pronunciation, vocabulary, and translation. As always, you should write down your answers before you check them. Writing the German words is in fact a great way to practice the spelling of German words. The vocabulary and translation problems are all from English to German because this is what you have to learn if you want to communicate in German. Once you are able to translate an English word to the corresponding German word, it won't be any problem to translate the German word back to English.

Literally, Freizeit means free time , i. In this dialogue, Franz and Greta are familiarizing each other with their sports activities. All three verbs that you were introduced to in Lesson 2 are irregular in some way; however, most verbs are regular verbs. Unfortunately, there are more endings in German. The following two tables show the endings for the two regular verbs spielen to play and machen to do; to make :. As you see, the endings are the same for corresponding forms of spielen and machen. In fact, they are the same for all regular verbs.

Thus, you can always just remove the -en from the infinitive of a regular German verb to form the stem e. Here is a table with these endings:. Note that in English one plays sport, while in German one does sport. You can also use the question words from Lesson 3 to form more combinations:. Both German and English have compound sentences; the applications of these are enormous. They can be used in lists and also in compound sentences. For example,. The new word, also — auch is very important. The one grammar rule about auch is that it always comes after the verb.

Schauen , schreiben and schwimmen are all regular verbs; i. To conjugate them, you first remove the -en from the infinitive to form the stem i. Here is an example:. Arbeiten is an irregular verb; however, it has a simple change. Whenever the ending starts with a consonant, an -e- is added before it.

For example, du arbeit e st not du arbeitst. Lesen is also an irregular verb. For the second and third person singular the form is liest , i. Sehen is the last irregular verb. There are two common verb forms in English that just don't exist in German: the ing-form or: present progressive ; e. The simple rule is: these constructions don't exist in German. Thus, you should translate I am playing to ich spiele.

Similarly, I do play is also translated to ich spiele. Anything else ich mache spielen or ich bin spielen is either not possible in German or has a different meaning. The phrase I do not play should be translated to ich spiele nicht literally: I play not since nicht not comes usually after the verb. This may sound like Early Modern English in a play by Shakespeare, and this is no coincidence since German and English are both West Germanic languages.

In German, there are several ways to express likes and dislikes; this is just one of them. You can also add other verbs for other activities, e. To express preference, you can use lieber instead of gern. For example, I prefer to play basketball. To express favorite activities, you can use am liebsten meaning most of all instead of lieber or gern. For example, Most of all, I like to play chess. To express dislikes, you can use nicht gern instead of gern , for example I don't like to swim.

Numbers are among the most important and most useful words: we need them to talk about time, amounts, money, etc. Even if you are "just" a tourist, you often cannot avoid numbers. Learning numbers can be a bit of a pain; thus, here is some advice: whenever you have time, count something in German; e. Notice the pattern: -teen translates to -zehn , and -ty to -zig. There is one big problem with the numbers: in German the unit position comes before the tens and is connected by und and. One exception is eins which becomes ein- in 21, 31, 41, etc. German is not the only language with this "reverse" order of numbers: Danish another Germanic language and Arabic do it the same way.

To go straight to the lesson test, go here. The test will have four parts to it: Grammar 79 points , Translating 95 points , Reading Comprehension 20 points , Vocabulary 20 points , and Previous Topics 10 points in that order. The Grammar section will test your ability to know the verbs from this lesson and its various versions, to know articles - the genders of them and the correct usage of them, and correct word order. The Translating section is worth the most points, and it too has three sections.

You must know the translations for sentences and phrases going from English to German, and be able to take a German dialogue and translate it back into English. Also you must know the translation from Numbers to German. The third section, Reading Comprehension, is Comprehension Questions you must know how to read the conversion and after reading you will be asked question on the previous conversion. The fourth section is a vocabulary section. You get 20 English words on the left and 20 German words on the right, and be asked to match them. To study for that, check out the flashcards related to this lesson at FlashcardExchange.

The last section, Previous Topics, is a quick review on Lesson 1 to get ready for this section, just look at some past notes or go to Lesson 1 and study. That is the whole test. Take it! As you know from the introduction , in German, there are four cases. Three are used often. The first, Nominative Case , you learned in Lesson 1. It covers the subject , and the predicate noun in "He is noun. The second, the Accusative Case , you will learn now. It covers the direct object and the object of several prepositions. The third, the Dative Case will be taught later on.

It covers the indirect object and the object of many other prepositions. The object of a sentence will be in accusative case. In, "You hurt me. However related words, such as possessives and the kein- words that you will learn later this lesson, will end in eine for plurals.

Therefore above, der Hamburger goes to den Hamburger and ein Hamburger goes to einen Hamburger when the hamburger is the direct object, such as in "Er hat einen Hamburger. If you are getting confused, it's fine. This topic is one of the hardest for English speakers to grasp. Here are some solutions:. To find out the case of something, first find the verb. The verb rules the sentence.

Everything revolves around it. Next you find the subject of the sentence. The subject is always in the Nominative Case , so it takes on the der, die, das, die, or ein, eine, ein. Now you look back at the verb. If it is a being verb am, are, is, etc. An easy way to figure this out is to write an equation. If it can't be replaced by an equals sign, refer to the next paragraph. The predicate noun is also always in the Nominative Case , so the same rules apply to it. If the verb of the sentence is an action verb playing, throwing, making, eating , find what the subject is doing the verb to.

For example, if the verb is "makes" macht , you look for what is being made. That is the direct object. The direct object is always in the Accusative Case , so it takes on the den, die, das, die, or einen, eine, ein. The indefinite articles, when you just look at their endings, select e, -, e for nominative case, and en, e, -, e for accusative. Remember, between nominative and accusative, the only third-person change is in the masculine form. The pronouns experience a much bigger change than the articles. This is also true in English, as the articles a, an, the do not change ever, but I goes to me , we goes to us , etc.

Not everything is the same, though. While me is mich and us is uns , the second and third persons undergo different changes. In third person, as in the articles, the only change is in masculine singular. Following the "der goes to den" rule, er goes to ihn when in the accusative case. The second person in English never changes. In German, du goes to dich and ihr goes to euch. Sie , the formal version of either, stays the same.

Remember, Sie 2nd person formal and sie 3rd person plural only differ in their meanings and the fact that the former is capitalized and the latter is not. This stays true throughout German grammar.


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Note: This is just a quick lesson in English grammar applied into German. If you already know all about antecedents in English, skip the first paragraph. When using a pronoun, you have to know what it is for it to work. There are some rare exceptions, such as in mysteries or drama, but otherwise this is always true. Sometimes in dialogue this is taken care of by pointing or making some other gesture, but most of the time, the pronoun modifies something already mentioned. In German this is very useful.

You can't simply say 'it' any more. Many food words are masculine and feminine, and when you turn them into pronouns, they turn into 'he', 'she', 'him', and 'her', not always 'it'. For example, the sentence "The cheeseburger tastes good. It's very crunchy. He's very crunchy. Why is it "he"? This is where the antecedent comes in. Because there are foods that are masculine and feminine in German, you can't assume the 'es'.

You have to look back at the previous sentence, at the antecedent, der Cheeseburger. Of these five verbs, only trinken and bekommen are regular. Essen is irregular that's what the "I" means. Do you remember from the last lesson 'lesen' and 'sehen'? Well essen experiences the same change, except that it changes to 'i', not 'ie'.

Also, it acts the same as 'lesen' in the du-form: You don't have three s's in a row. Isst sounds and looks a lot like ist. The minute difference happens to be in the way you pronounce the s. When you mean eats it is sometimes an overstressed hissing i. In normal life Germans, too, can only tell which verb is meant from knowing the context. The last two verbs marked M are modals. They will be discussed in the next section. In the introduction , you learned that German has no helping verbs. Instead, they have modals , words that basically do the same thing.

Modals are conjugated very differently from normal verbs. Most modals experience a vowel change from singular to plural, and the rest is the same. Here is the complete conjugation:. However, will can also mean an intent or a document showing what one wants to happen. So it is not so different from 'to want' as possibly originally presumed.

This is very important. When you need to use another verb with a modal such as expressing you would like or want to perform an action , the sentence's word order is somewhat different than it would be in English. In English, you would state the subject pronoun such as "I" , an English equivalent to the modal verb such as "want" , the action you want to perform such as "to eat" and then what the action will be performed on such as "hamburger" , making the sentence "I want to eat a hamburger.

In German, instead of saying, "I'm hungry. Here are the German translations of the corresponding nouns:. Like in English, these two words do not have a plural form. When using them, you don't need to worry about the 'der'; you can just say, "Ich habe Hunger" to say "I am hungry" and "Ich habe keinen Hunger" for "I am not hungry. Somewhat archaic but still in use are the adjectives hungrig and durstig.

In Lesson 1 , you learned how to talk formally, using phrases like "Guten Morgen! There are, however, a few words that are 'survival words' in Germany, specifically:. Twice you have been taught that the ending of the indefinite article for plurals would be eine for Nominative and Accusative cases , if there was an indefinite article for plurals. Now that lesson applies. The k ein-words have the same endings as the ein-words, and they mean the opposite: no, not any, none.

For example, "kein Cheeseburger" means "no cheeseburger". Notice the 'e' at the end of 'keine'. There are many restaurants you might find in Germany. Much like in English-speaking countries, you would more likely use the name of the restaurant than name what kind of restaurant. If you want to address the wish to eat a certain food, there are two ways:. There are few American restaurants, in Germany and they are mostly referred to as " American Diner", so it is not used like "zum Italiener". You read at the beginning of this lesson that the Accusative Case covers the direct object and the objects of some prepositions.

Here are those prepositions that always fall under Accusative Case. You learned um last lesson, and ohne earlier this lesson. Up until this point, you have only worried about the Accusative Case in third person. Here's an example:.

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In German as in English there are several ways of telling how food tastes. You can do this with 'gut' and 'schlecht' from Lesson 1 to say:. But this is bland. Hopefully the food has more flavor than the description of it. You can use the following words to more colorfully describe how the cheeseburger tastes:. The first and second persons really shouldn't be used. No one is going to say, "You guys taste salty" or "I taste creamy. You can use 'schmeckt' and 'schmecken' or 'ist' and 'sind' to state how the food tastes. Just use whichever one you would use in English and it'll usually be correct.

Although the English meaning of schmecken is simply to taste , "Schmeckt der Cheeseburger? In other words, schmecken alone can mean to taste good. You could be talking about a cheeseburger that is not directly in front of you. It just isn't clear. Now, if you said, " This cheeseburger tastes good.

It changes forms in different situations: different genders and different cases. It can also mean 'these' when modifying a plural. Here are its forms:. As you can see, dieser is only appropriate for modifying masculine nouns in nominative case. But 'Cheeseburger', which is masculine, is the subject of the sentence, "Dieser Cheeseburger schmeckt gut.

Jeder means 'every'. It acts exactly like 'dieser' in its endings, so it should be easy to remember. Here are the different forms:. Notice the absence of the plural form. When you think about this, it's the same in English: no one says 'every books'. However, because the general subject has to be specified, welcher must be inflected before use: "Welcher Hamburger ist seine? You might want to say 'every day', 'this week', 'every morning', or 'which Tuesday night? But to do this, not only do you need to know the jeder-forms, but also the genders of the times and the cases. The second one is easy: Whenever you do something at a certain time, that time is put into Accusative Case.

Last lesson, you learned the gender of one time: der Tag. So now you know everything to say 'diesen Tag', 'jeden Tag', and 'welchen Tag?

Here are the cases of all the times in Lesson 2 :. When extending to 'which Tuesday night? Likewise, you can say 'every June' the same as 'every month': 'jeden Juni'. Look at the second sentence of each of these German dialogues. What's missing? That's right, instead of "Der Cheeseburger schmeckt sehr gut. We're left with just the articles, only in this case, they aren't articles.

They're demonstrative pronouns. Demonstrative pronouns aren't scary. They're just the same as the normal pronouns, only they give more oomph to the sentence. They can be translated as either 'this' or 'that' "I'd like a cheeseburger. That tastes very good. These I like. Demonstrative pronouns are exactly the same as the definite articles well, there is one change in dative, but that will be covered in Lesson 7. If you are not sure of the gender meaning in context, the speaker doesn't know, not that you've forgotten that it's 'der Cheeseburger' , use 'das', like in "Was ist das?

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If you say "Ich habe vier Euros. Because the backsides of euro coins look different in each country, many people in Europe have started collecting foreign euro coins. In this case you can say "Ich habe irische Euros. There is not yet a rule whether or not the word "Cent" has a different plural form. The majority of Germans are using the word "Cent" as a plural form, but when they don't it is simply "Cents". For "Cent" there are two pronunciations: you can either pronounce it as in English or you say "tzent". The latter version seems to be preferred by older people.

You can also say, " Herr Ober , die Rechnung bitte! The term "der Ober" is the waiter, but this sounds very old fashioned and is hardly ever used today.

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To address the waiter you would probably say "Entschuldigen Sie, The test will be located here , but the test for this lesson is not yet completed. In fact, almost all words with the ending -chen are neuter. In every Lesson from 7 - 15 there is going to be a featured German-Speaking city, which will be the theme of the lesson.

For 7 - 8 it is Berlin. Also in each lesson there will be facts, so if you ever travel to a German-Speaking country, it'll be like you are a native! That means that they are 6 hours ahead of E. If it's pm in New York City, it's pm or locally. Please note that Germany changes to and from daylight-saving time a few weeks before the U. In contrast to many other countries where waiters sometime 'live on the tips' in German-speaking countries service personnel always receive a regular wage usually per hour and the tip is always an extra for good service.

Not to give a tip will probably give the waiter the impression that either service or product were not that good and you are too polite to admit this, but not tipping is not considered 'rude'. Also, tipping is only expected when you get served, i. Only when having a large party, like celebrating your birthday in a restaurant, you do extra tipping. In many restaurants it is normal the tip is shared with the kitchen personnel.

Paying with credit card or debit card makes tipping difficult, because there is no line on the bill to fill in the tip. Always tip when paying, don't leave money on the table. There are two major shopping locations. It continues eastwards for about three hundred yards where you can visit KaDeWe , the biggest department store in Europe.

Shops are generally open 9am-8pm Monday through Saturday. In the outskirts most shops close at 4pm on Saturdays. There is a lot to say about shopping, places to shop at, money and items to buy. In this lesson we will cover most of it. There are two big shopping locations in Berlin. Another shopping location is das KaDeWe, an upscale department store in Germany. It has six floors, and Is also called "The department store of the west" Kaufhaus des Westens because it is the largest and most magnificent department store on continental Europe.

Since we already have most of the general shopping phrases and vocabulary down, we are going to get into more detail in the next few sections. First is electronics: it might seem a little sparse, but electronics and much other stuff will be featured in Lesson If you look at the word order of this sentence, you will see that you've already learned everything you need to make these sentences, and you, yourself can customize these sentences if you want.

The bedding section is also quite bare, but that is because it will be discussed further in Lesson Currently 1 EUR is 1. Even though in the vocabulary we list the 1, 2, 5, 10, Euro there are more Euro notes. The twenty, fifty, two hundred, and five hundred Euro notes are the ones we didn't list, also there are cent coins. In written German, a comma is used e. The reverse is also true. Where as English uses a comma to split up large numbers, German uses a dot. Now if you try something on or you're looking for a soft shirt with a tight fit, you find it, feel it, try it on, but it's fairly expensive you might say this In English: The shirt looks great!

The shirt feels soft, fits tight. The shirt is very comfortable. How much does it cost? Oh no! The shirt is expensive! In German: Das Hemd sieht prima aus! Das Hemd ist sehr bequem. Wieviel kostet es? Oh nein! Das Hemd ist teuer! Now, the bold words are verbs that are one part in describing how the shirt is. The other half of describing it is the adjectives like soft, tight, great, etc. And as you can see the verb "looks" is separable, but we will get into that later. And now getting into verbs - here are some of the verbs, and also some of these are Separable-Prefix Verbs, like aussehen, anprobieren, and anhaben.

But we will study those in more detail later. Also we will be learning about "tragen". Many German verbs change their meaning by adding prefixs, which are often preposition such as ab-, an-, auf-, aus-, bei-, ein-, mit-, vor-, or zu-. The verbs anhaben to wear and aussehen to look are both verbs with separable trennbar prefixes.

That is, when used next to the subject pronoun, the prefix is separated from the verb and put at the end of the sentence or clause. Or, better put, In the present tense and imperative, the prefix is separated from the infinitive stem. However, when the separable-prefix verb is put at the end of the sentence, such as when used with a modal verb, the verb in question and its prefix are not separated.

Instead of "anhaben" the verb "tragen" is often used. The sentences from above would then be:. The verb "tragen" has two meanings: "to wear" and "to carry". So if someone says "Ich trage Schuhe" only the context will tell you whether the person is carrying the shoes in his hands or actually wearing them. Tragen is a different kind of irregular verb -- one that not only changes at the end of the word, but also changes internally. Other verbs with similar conjugation patterns include fahren, graben, schaffen, and waschen.

Color are also another great way to describe clothes like Das rote Hemd passt gut. Wir fahren in den Schwarzwald. Die Reise war lang. There are many banks of all kinds throughout the country. Banks are open Mon-Fri 9ampm and pm. On Thursdays, they are open until or 6pm. Changing money is best done at a bank because their rates will be better than exchange services located at a Bureau de Change. Major post office branches and travel agents also offer currency exchange. Germany is one of 15 European countries that have replaced their national currencies with the Euro, which is stronger to the U.

Dollar, but weaker than the British Pound. Home is where the heart is, they say. And what is in the home? It'll give all vocabulary for the family, and later in a different section, you'll learn how to describe your brothers and sisters or any person! And now to get started lets do some vocabulary Now even though many of these are common phrases you and I would say in everyday life, some of these are rather used when you are on a visit to grandmother's, or things your mother would say.

Maybe you notice some of these in the dialogue. Now you might be asking "How am I going to speak fluent German, if I just learn phrases? Okay let's get started on these common phrases Some very conservative families might still use Sie with grandparents or even parents! This is sometimes practiced in families of nobility or exterritorial cultural islands in which older German customs have survived.

However, using "Sie" feels very outdated to the vast majority of people. In practically every family all members use du with each other. I can't describe in words how important this section of the lesson is. Even though you have already learned to describe to some degree, here we will introduce a new aspect of describing, and we will review. But how could we describe if we didn't have vocabulary? Here it is The verb used most often for describing is " to be " which we learned in the first lesson. Some examples are: He is wet, This is stupid, I am lazy. But you do use other verbs like feel, look, etc.

This lesson we will be sticking mostly with the verbs we've learned in the past. We will, however, learn one new verb. All sentences we will create will be in the nominative case. Okay, let's get started! In term of beauty, you can say four basic things. These aren't the all but these are the easiest and simplest ones. These two use the verb to be , and the next one will use the verb to look which would need something else in order to make sense. And in the last sentence it says "ausgesehen.

So since you get the idea of describing, let's learn a new verb! And the new verb is klingen which is to sound. As in "He sounds weird. It's works just like other verbs. Exactly like in English. For right now, that's all for describing things. We are going to have some small describing lessons with some parts of this lesson.

Okay we just went over the verb in the previous section. This will basically be a list that will help you memorize them better, and there is not a lot. The "Er sieht aus" is to show you it is a separable-prefix verb. This is also a large section of this lesson: nationality, and it's very important. There are many nationalities, too many to go over in this lesson, but you will learn more nationality as this level and book goes on. Right now we are just going to have a vague little list, and as this section goes on there will be more.

Finally, gentlemen, get ready to have your minds blown It is no surprise you can describe people with nationality, most times, it's stereotypical, like Norwegians are blonde, tall, etc. However you can just use it for what it is, a nationality. If you do describe people by nationality this will help. Okay, you should already know how to describe, right? This part we will get more in to detail later, but right it is an important part of describing people with nationality, even though in English we most times don't do this, in German they do.

The difference between nationality and language, like in English, French and French. This also is how it works for nationality describing by noun or adjective, which we are going to learn right now. There are two ways to describe someone. With a noun-based nationality word or an adjective-based nationality word. But note that in German the noun-based form is used more often.

Now we are all familiar with the word " alt' ", which means old. And in English, to find out somebody's age we ask " How old are you? In German it is exactly the same. The " alt " kind of belongs to the interrogative adverb, so in both German and English it may be in front of the verb:. To ask this important question in the 2nd person. First, we will learn the biggest question here, " How old are you? You should all ready get the pattern for this, but we are going to keep on doing this list, if you aren't sure of something or you are confused.

So for the 3rd person Now with some people you might be able to guess their age, and you could ask them directly about it. This is usually pretty of rude, but it illustrates nicely how the phrase has to be changed if you ask a yes-no-question, so let's get started, anyway! Note the inversed order between "Wie alt bist du? Note : 'Euer' is irregular. When 'euer' has to have a different ending the e before r is dropped, so it turns into 'eur-'. Don't let the weird order of the words disturb you, even if the phrase seems totally incomprehensible at first.

I'll try to construct this bit by bit:. Note that the "to" is already included in the German word "rechnen". This is one of the main reasons why complicated conjugations can survive, they contain information that doesn't have to be expressed otherwise then To be a little more polite or at least seem like it, since our teacher probably wouldn't take a no for an answer. This is another example for brevity by conjugation.

Don't be discouraged, many Germans don't realize this, and many don't use the Konjunktiv correctly, if ever. This is a direct object, "Aufgabe" is in the accusative case. Because this is a feminine noun, this is not so obvious, but the structure is the same as in:. Now, we also have an adverbial expression of the place. This is an expression that defines the verb, thus ad-verbial. Note that the order expressions is widely interchangeable.

You can emphasize something by putting it closer to the end of the question. Note that after "zu" follows the dative case, so "der" is not the masculine but the feminine article. It is often used when writing legibly on a large, visible surface such as blackboard or a flipchart. So, as you might have guessed, plus and minus are the same as in English - they are just pronounced German. The verbs "addieren" and "subtrahieren" are probably not difficult either This is also used in every day phrases, such as "mal habe ich dir gesagt Between single classes, there is usually a break of five minutes to allow teachers and students to go from one classroom to another.

In most schools, classes such as German, English, History, Philosophy are taught in the classroom. Classes that use special equipment, such as all sciences, music and arts and of course computers and sport are being taught in a specialized lab classes. Roughly every second break is 15 minutes long, and if there are lessons in the afternoon, there's often a break of 45 to 60 minutes for lunch.

This sentence sounds strange. This is, because in everyday German, sometimes the verb gehen can be left out, if it is clear what is meant. But since Torsten will not think Silke is going to fly there, there will be no misunderstanding. Additionally, the word "class", or "course" is missing, which is the usual way of students to talk about their subjects. Note: In English, the phrase might be "We have to go to the music room" instead of must.

The German translation "Wir haben in den Musikraum zu gehen" would be understood, but is quite formal. Additionally, there is a connotation that the speaker distances himself from the order he is being given. Let's start at the beginning. It has nothing to do with the German equivalent of "ouch! It is reflexive such as in "I help myself", because the subject and the object are the same. Some phrases simply are constructed like this, even if there seems to be no real reason to this, and many languages know this phenomenon. The "sich" here is technically the accusative of "he, she, it" and is being changed depending on the person:.

This is kind of self-explanatory. But "sich auf etwas freuen", literally "to be happy on something " means "to look forward to". This is a common phrase that uses the on in the same wide sense as in " on drugs", or "living on something" - there is no spatial relation here In "darauf" you recognize the "auf". The "da" is a demonstrative prounoun such as in " that place".

The "darauf" is referencing the word "Musik" from Silke's sentence. So "Au ja, darauf freue ich mich schon" or "to-this look-forward I myself already" just means "Great, I'm already looking forward to that". Maybe it comforts you a little that the English phrase in a word-by-word translation to German would be just as unintelligible Note that adding a "glaube ich" is another common phrase, exacly as "I think" or "I believe" can be added to an English phrase. Never mind the word order, this is because Alcohol is the object, so the verb is at the second position in the text.

Better not think about "under" and "right" here, which you might have correctly recognized as the word's components "richten" literally means "to correct". As in English, "Komm" can be used to motivate others. There is yet another contraction here "ins" is derived from "in das", meaning "in the". This lesson deals with the Christmas time in the German language countries, where you learn some traditions and vocabularies about Christmas.

You'll also learn about "there is" and "there are" in German and about the dative case. Read and listen to the following dialogue between mother and daughter: Roswitha and Anja. Both of them want to decorate for Christmas. In Germany the advent season begins on Sunday four weeks before Christmas.

It's the day where many families decorate their houses or flats, begin to bake some biscuits and start to sing some Christmas carols. One typical decoration is the advent wreath, which has four candles - one candle is lit in the first week, two candles in the second week, etc. Another tradition, especially for children, is the advent calendar that you hang on the wall. They've often got 24 doors and you're only allowed to open one a day. Most Christmas markets start in the first week of Advent. There you can buy some little Christmas presents, decorations, ride some carnival rides, and often drink some hot spiced wine - the children drink punch for children, listen to carolers and enjoy a warm, snowy atmosphere.

On the 6th of December, German children celebrate St. Nicholas Day. The children put a boot in front of the door and wait until St. Nicholas brings little presents that are often sweets, walnuts, apples, tangerines and oranges. Bad children get birching by Knecht Ruprecht which is now forbidden in Germany. Pupils do a secret Santa with other pupils on the last school days before the Christmas holidays, which are often two or three weeks long. Nicholas looks similar to Santa Claus who brings big presents on the evening of the 24th of December; in Southern Germany Christkind brings the presents.

Most families decorate their Christmas trees on this day with Christmas baubles and tinsel and candles and so forth. After the Christmas dinner, the whole family sits next to the Christmas tree and exchanges gifts. In Switzerland they call it Guetsli. The others, of course, would be useful to know for the weather forecast or when someone talks with you about weather.

But you aren't forced to know Schniesel. Because many people don't know this word. We have learnt about different materials. The accusative case is that of the object of a verb.