The height of the fringe of locks worn on his forehead in his official portraiture suggests some thinning of the hair. Other traits indicated by the literary sources are that he was on the tall side, slender in build, and most likely had a somewhat fair complexion. In the colorization of the three-dimensional models of Caligula, only his fair complexion is relevant. In the case of the Richmond Caligula, there were no traces of pigment found on the parts of the marble that represent flesh, nor were any pigments found on his hair or in the irises of his eyes, so we cannot know how these vital parts of his body were rendered in this particular statue.
Attempts have also been made recently to reconstruct the polychromy of the famous portrait of Caligula in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek in two colorized copies in Carrara marble, Version "A" fig. Although traces of pigments have been found on the hair and face of the Ny Carlsberg head, we cannot be sure of the final look of this portrait: We do not know how these traces of paint might have been combined with other pigments that no longer survive to produce the subtle tonalities in representing flesh, hair, and eyes that we would expect in such a high quality work of art.
And even if the colorization of the improved reconstructed model "B" were more-or-less correct, this does not mean that all the polychrome replicas set up throughout the Empire were uniform in their coloration.
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Again, the diversity of ways in which the portrait features and hairstyles are rendered in Caligula's portraiture argues against any such uniformity. I also changed the color of the irises of his eyes from brown to blue-gray, based on what may have been a family trait, as far as we can determine from the ancient sources characterizing this color as caesius. The most recent technical analysis indicates that there was a concentration of the pigment Egyptian blue in the area of the pupil and iris of the right eye of the Ny Carlsberg head fig.
The Egyptian blue, however, was a foundation layer. The pigments that were ultimately used above this layer to create the color of the iris have not been established.
Suetonius, Vita Gai
In Version "C" fig. I am more interested in suggesting how a high quality official portrait model from Rome might have appeared, based on both actual traces of paint on the Ny Carlsberg head and what we can glean from the biased accounts of his appearance in the ancient sources. If any image fairly accurately reproduced Caligula's skin, hair, and eye colors in polychrome sculptural portraits, then surely it would have been an officially commissioned prototype, presumably produced by a leading Roman workshop.
In addition, I have had reproduced another computer-generated version of the Richmond portrait Fig. As I like to tell my students, the study of the past is like looking at a slice of Swiss cheese, which not only has many holes in it, but irregular ones at that! MacIsaac, a former graduate student of mine at Johns Hopkins University in the s, who after receiving his Ph. Above all, John had a passion for numismatics. Among his contributions to the field was his work on the coins at Nemea Greece , published with R.
Always helpful, kind, and a pleasure to be with, John will be greatly missed. Bonanno, A. Series 6 Oxford Boschung, D. Brinkmann, V. Scholl, edd. Charbonneaux, J. Geburtstag von Bernhard Schweitzer Stuttgart Fabbrini, L. Fittschen, K. Bonamente and M.
Paola Segoloni Rome Fittschen K. Giuliani, L. Hoff, R. Dobler, edd.
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Inan, J and E. Kersauson, K. Kiss, Z. Kunze, M. Die Antikensammlung im Pergamonmuseum und in Charlottenburg Berlin Lahusen, G. Landwehr, C. Megow, W. Pollini, J. Raaflaub and M. Toher Berkeley Holliday Cambridge Review article of Die Bildnisse des Augustus by D. Boschung, ArtB 81 Riccardi, L. Richter, G.
Smith Oxford Rose, C. Sargent, M. Shookman, E. Stucchi, S. Varner, E. Walker, S. New York Wardle, D. Suetonius' Life of Caligula. A Commentary CollLatomus Brussels Winkler, L. Salus: vom Staatskult zur politischen Idee. Zanker, P. Zevi, F. Differences in Perception and Religious Beliefs," in Pollini See now especially Megow cat. A 85 pls. This Gemma portrait of Gemanicus is his first known portrait type "Adoption" type , which dates to 4 CE. The forking of the hair over the center of the forehead is also to be found in Germanicus' third portrait type, the so-called "Gabii" type, most likely created at the outset of the Principate of Caligula here fig.
This portrait type of Germanicus was probably intended to resemble Tiberius' last portrait type in my opinion, the "Chiaramonti" type Type VI; here fig. For Tiberius' "Chiaramonti" type, see Pollini 59, fig. For the identification of Germanicus and his three portrait types, see especially Fittschen cf. Boschung a ; Rose On the identification of Nero Iulius and his portrait typology "Adolphseck-Malibu" type , I agree essentially with Klaus Fittschen A pronounced hooked nose is one of the characteristics of Nero Iulius' portrait, which is paired with that of his brother Drusus Iulius on provincial coins of Tiberian date: See especially a coin of Aphrodisias: See Stucchi , fig.
A portrait statue of Drusus Iulius Germanici from the Augusteum, or imperial cult shrine, in ancient Rusellae, now in the Museo Archeologico in Grosseto, may be identified as that of Drusus Iulius, if an inscription with his name from the same context can be associated with this image a portrait of his brother Nero Iulius was presumably also once represented in the same group of imperial figures. For this statuary "cycle," see now Boschung the portrait that I take as Drusus Iulius, Boschung 70 considers to be Nero Iulius: no. For the inscription with Drusus Iulius' name, see 71 no. By comparison with Nero Iulius' nose with its pronounced hook here fig.
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This difference can also been seen on the provincial Tiberian coin from Aphrodisias cited in the previous note. For the diversity of Augustus' portraits throughout the Empire, see Pollini Over portraits of Augustus have come down to us. See further Boschung 29 with nn. We also know of a colossal foot-high painting on linen of Nero Plin. HN In addition, there are many funerary portraits on wood from Fayum: see, e. For a painted wooden disc of Septimius Severus and his family with the face of Geta as a boy erased after his later damnation by his brother Caracalla in the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin Altes Museum : Kraus cat.
We have no direct evidence for how this process actually worked, at least in the early Empire, though there are a number of literary and inscriptional references to the distribution and reception of imperial portraits during the late Empire, especially from the fourth century on: See Ando especially There is evidence, moreover, for plaster casts being used for the making of large-scale three-dimensional models of Greek "Idealplastik": See Landwehr and recently Zevi et al. Even traces of pigment were reportedly found on this head. See Mus. CA Charbonneaux , pl.
However, based on thermoluminescence analysis at C2RMF National lab by Antoine Zink in AC , it was determined by the conservation department of the Louvre that this terracotta head was not ancient. I thank Ludovic Laugier in Conservation at the Louvre for this information. These would presumably be like the wax ancestral masks of the Roman nobility that were life-masks.
With regard to the debate about who was responsible for the selection of coin types, as well as their intent, see especially Sutherland For other similar imperial images on standards in Roman relief art, see Riccardi I thank H. Goette for allowing me to use images of the standards on the Arch of the Argentarii my fig. Jucker had proposed might have once been part of a Roman standard, see Boschung 91, cat. Goette suggested see previous note , the type of cuirass lorica plumata or squamata worn by Caligula in this bust may have some reference to the Praetorian Guard.
For representations of small metal busts of emperors decorating Roman standards and as finials atop poles, see Riccardi especially and fig. See also Varner For the removal or preservation "warehousing" of Caligula's portraits, see Varner assumes that Caligula's images, even small bronzes that might have been set up in domestic shrines, would have been removed after his assassination 39 : "Following his downfall in 41, it would no longer have been permissible or even desirable to display portraits of Caligula in either sacra privata or sacra publica.
However, I am not sure how extensive this practice was. We know, for example, that portraits of Brutus and Cassius were still displayed after their deaths. As in the case of admirers of the assassins of Caesar, Caligula would have had his devoted followers after his death as also Nero , especially since Claudius himself refused to condemn the memory of Caligula.
In fact, Caligula's continued popularity in certain circles of society may in part have been why Claudius did not have Caligula's memory officially damned. See also Varner , who notes that some of Caligula's images were allowed to stay on display in group dedications with portraits of other family members. See also Pollini On this imperial cult building at Bovillae, see further in this symposium Paolo Liverani's paper, "Caligula: Notes and an Hypothesis on the Context.
Since Istanbul is the center of the art market for antiquities in Turkey, it is possible that the head came from there rather than from Italy, as C. Vermeule once believed purely based on style: Vermeule , no. In any case, Boschung does not take this image as belonging to his Nebentypus, but considers it instead to be a variant and "Typenklitterung" of his Haupttypus.
In my opinion, this portrait stands closer to his Nebentypus than his "Haupttypus," or what I consider Caligula's second portrait type. For a useful time-line of events in Caligula's short Principate of approximately three years and 10 months 18 March 37 to 22 or 24 January 41 : Barrett xiii. On this point, see Winkler , Boschung , however, suggested the possibility that his "Nebentypus" might have celebrated Caligula's acceptance of the title " Pater Patriae " in September of 37, though he had become de facto Pater Patriae when he became Princeps. Some wig-like hair pieces were carved separately and could be added or exchanged in portrait heads.
See, e. For portraits statues in context, see Fejfer See further Wardle Bernouilli, see Boschung For this treatise and those of others mentioned below, see in general Evans Zopyrus is also mentioned by Phaedo of Elis, who was said to be an expert in this art. Zopyrus, who knew Socrates personally, was aware of his physical appearance, but we unfortunately have no idea how his character and physical appearance were ever reconciled in the views of the physiognomists.
Foerster, Leipzig I. Si stibini coloris est, morum lenitatem notat. Oculi autem sic animalia feri duri glauci sunt; circuris animalis, quod benigni animi est, oculi stabini sunt coloris. Glauci qui ad albedinem virgunt timiditatem et metum indicant. I have altered somewhat the background and color of the eyes of the simulation.
De Alex. See also Stewart This study is important for our understanding of ancient perceptions, semantic associations, and linguistic nuances as transmitted by a Latin color vocabulary which can at times be imprecise and difficult to interpret in modern Western terms. In fig. In the report, however, only the concentration of EB is mentioned for the pupil, not the iris, but as one can clearly see from fig. The person reporting may have been influenced by the fact that the pupil of the real human eye tends to be more or less in the middle of the eye, where we see the concentration of the EB.
However, in ancient painting as well in sculpture, the pupil is usually represented higher up and slightly under the upper lid, as in the colorized images of Caligula. This was an artistic convention that is not accurate in the real world. EB would have served as an undercoat for the black pigment of the pupil and been mixed with other more fugitive pigments to produce a blue-gray iris. The reported traces of reddish-brown and pink madder lake were probably used in the outer edge of the iris.
Latin authors, particularly Suetonius and Tacitus allege that incest occurred amongst various members of the Julio-Claudian and Flavian dynasties Latin authors, particularly Suetonius and Tacitus allege that incest occurred amongst various members of the Julio-Claudian and Flavian dynasties. Incest is a charge levelled against emperors who adhere to the topos of tyranny, most notably Caligula, Nero and Domitian. The stock rhetorical tyrant, according to Dunkle , , displayed four key vices, saevitia, superbia, vis, and libido.
Incest, therefore, is an example of this last vice, extreme lust. Incest becomes a frequent characteristic of the tyrant during the Empire, and it was comparatively rare during the Republic and the Greek world. This thesis analyses the language and narratives of the incestuous allegations within Suetonius' and Tacitus' works.
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The purpose of the allegations is discussed, and I argue that Roman attitudes towards self-control, the family, and imperial virtues, make incest a key vice of tyrannical emperors. The public nature of the imperial family, and the number of tyrannical emperors accounts for the popularity of incestuous allegations during the early Principate.
This paper concludes that incest becomes an obligatory characteristic of the Roman tyrant during the Empire. Fuchs Hrsg. Quintus Curtius' "Novum Sidus" The reference to a novum sidus in Quintus Curtius' book 10, commonly applied to the comet seen at the end of Nero's reign, could be related to Claudius as well. Both Claudius and Caligula were named "star", and they sought to appear as Both Claudius and Caligula were named "star", and they sought to appear as the beginners of a new cycle in the history of Rome.
Claudius' ludi saeculares allegedly meant the starting point of a new time for Rome. Other facets of Claudius' censorship, as the enlargement of the pomerium or the Emperor's assumption of the title pater patriae, could be interpreted in a similar sense. Likewise, Caligula's death may have been understood as the end of a period in the history of Rome. Thus, Curtius' "new star" could be applied to Claudius, and not necessarily to Vespasian.
Edited by Lutz Doering and Sandra Gambetti. Special Issue of Journal of Ancient Judaism 8 : — Abstract Lollia Paulina, who was the granddaughter of Marcus Lollius and the sister-in-law of Decimus Valerius Asiaticus, married at first marriage Memmius Regulus, a legate in the service of power, before being forced to unite with Caligula. Presumably at the end of the year 39, the imperial couple separated, the young woman could not get pregnant quickly. After her divorce from the emperor, Lollia Paulina was, once again, forced to respect the imperatives set by Caligula. Claudius' choice of privileging his niece to Lollia is less marked by rationality.
Indeed, the day after the death of Messaline, when she had been approached to become the new empress, she was finally ousted by Claudius, for the benefit of Agrippina for obscure reasons. The " deadly enemy of Lollia " , with the tacit consent of her uncle and new husband, fought against her to the point of exile, then murder.