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XII, p. Hautes-Alpes, 3 H 2, 1, p. Blauf, p. Bernardo de Aguavtva, art. Pour la Touraine, cf. Urbinianae, , p. Oechslin, Une aventure spirituelle. Paris-Fribourg, Oechslin, op. X, lre partie, p. Delumeao, La peur en Occident, Paris, , p. Chossat, op. Bernardo de Aguaviva, art. Lebrun, Paris, , p. Mauzaise, op. Dom Beauchet-Filleau , p. Paul de Barry 13 avril Archange-Gabriel de l'Annonciation, op. His posthumous sale, Christie's, She lent a pastel thought to be by Perronneau, but now attributed to Hoin to exhibitions in Paris in and Her posthumous sale of pictures and drawings Paris, Georges Petit, 2—3.

Dictionary , genealogy Chaumont. Pastels: Carriera, Callisto ; Coles, Clarissa. Venice , drawings collector, Venice, from whom Crozat q. Considerable confusion surrounds this improbably spelt name variants are Chelchelsberg, Chechelberg. He was the German resident in Venice recorded as consul from , and a member of a family that had held this position for over years. Gasparo Chechel, presumably his father, was also an art collector, owning mainly Flemish paintings according to his inventory. Giorgio Chechel seems to have acquired some of his collection from Feldmarschall Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg.

Giorgio's son Gaspar also seems to have played an important role in the Fondaco de Tedeschi in Venice, and also collected drawings. Giorgio's grandson, by his daughter Caterina Pezzana, married Elisabeth Le Blond, daughter of the French consul and probably sister of the subject of Rosalba's pastel. Trained as a lawyer, he worked as a museum administrator from He was appointed assistant curator at the Louvre in , and was directeur des Beaux-Arts, Paris His memoirs are of interest.

In a letter to Mme de Tencin, 5. He was himself the subject of pastels by Hoare and Knapton. His posthumous inventory recorded "dans une autre chambre au fond du corridor donnant sur le jardin deux tableaux pastels peints sous verre portraits de M. They were probably versions of the La Tour pastels, one of them being the copy of Belle-Isle now in Metz. A modest art collection was sold after his death, realising livres; the Perronneau portraits of Chevotet and his wife were not recorded. He supported the poor and was a literary patron. He owned Giulio Romano's pastel self-portrait now in the Uffizi.

His inventory Rome, 1. His acquisitions started before his marriage in to the heiress of the Crozat fortune, but it was during the period after his return to Paris that most of his purchases were made, at public sales e. Jullienne, and privately. The collection was dispersed after his disgrace. Part of his collection descended to the princesse de Faucigny-Lucinge q.

Paris, Boileau, Paillet, Together with the son of the composer Bizet he founded the Banque automobile, one of the earliest institutions to provide credit for car purchase. Pastels: Drouais, enfant au bourdon. London , of 8 Vigo Street, London: held an important exhibition of pastels in v. London Some of the firm's stock was included in a sale at Sotheby's, A keen gardner and racehorse owner, he also collected a wide range of pictures, textiles, furniture, porcelain etc. Others were sold at auction, Christie's, 7. Clarke q.

Dictionary , genealogy, Bayern Bonn, Roslin Lot Restout, attr. He was succeeded by his son, Sir Clive Milnes-Coates, 2nd Bt , who married a daughter of the Marquess of Crewe in and added her name in The pastels in his collection were presumably acquired by Sir Edward. Three were on loan to the Bowes Museum in Smith, various pstls Lots anon. A number of pastels are now in the Hermitage, some or all acquired through prince Galitzin. Pastels: Russell, Mrs Barber. Germain Seligman visited Gabriel Cognacq's collection at 44 avenue Bugeaud on His daughter married Antoine-Philippe Gentil, premier valet de chambre de la garde-robe du roi.

Some records confuse the two. Pastels: Tilson, Lady London , fine art dealers. Paul Colnaghi was employed from around ; his sons Martin and Dominic joined around In Paul and his son Dominic established the firm of P. In P. Colnaghi took over the firm of Gutekunst and Deprez, and Colnaghi was subsequently run by Otto Gutekunst after the retirement of Edmund Deprez Martin Colnaghi went bankrupt in , and died in ; but his son, Martin Henry Colnaghi , took up art dealing in ; he was never a partner in his uncle's firm, but worked for Henry Graves before establishing the Marlborough Gallery.

He employed R. Dictionary , genealogy Inv. Rome, The entire collection of the doctor, "lately deceased", was sold at auction on Dictionary , genealogy, France Lit. Ce beau morceau peint en pastel, porte 13 pouces de haut, sur 11 pouces de large: il vient du cabinet de M. Mariette, no. He owned several pastels by Russell Godbold; Love songs and matches; Age of bliss. Her brother married a van Zuylen. Bruges, Pachtere, 7. Giovannino; 6 testi. Hauteur, 20 pouces; largeur, 16 pouc. Pastels: La Tour, auto. New York, Anderson, Dictionary , artists Sale p. One ditto by F.

A Venus and Cupid by ditto. He was active in many art committees, and participated in numerous exhibitions. He lent a La Tour pastel to Paris b; by it belonged to his wife's nephew. His fortune was estimated at his death at c. His collection, of nearly lots, included paintings, drawings, prints, enamels and miniatures, and some portraits, classified separately. Pierre, 18 pouces de haut, sur 14 pouces 6 lignes de large [22 livres; Glomy] Lot [Anon:] Une Madeleine peinte au pastel. Paris, Galerie Jean Charpentier, Paris, Remy, He was the son of an organ bulder, plain John Courcelle, and initially taught music before taking a degree at Worcester College, Oxford as a mature student.

He was rector of Ardrossan but held no office after , living on independent means at 24 Arundel Gardens, Notting Hill. Paris, Escribe, His very extensive collections were sold in several sales in , and included pastels by La Tour, Perronneau and Greuze as well as a good many anonymes. New York, Christie's, Panshanger House, built by the 5th Earl, was demolished in , and the Sotheby's sale followed. Dictionary , genealogy London, Sotheby's, Charles Coypel, du tableau du Correge qui est au Palais Royal: elle est sous une glace [72 livres; St.

After the Revolution he formed a collection of portraits of illustrious persons, mainly from the reign of Louis XIV. Portrait de Voltaire, par Ch. Coypel, en Portrait de C. Bol Lot La Rosalba. The sale that took place shortly after the Gaston's death included a group of miniatures as well as large numbers of coins, medals, cameos and intaglios, but only one pastel.

Paris, Drouot, Chevallier, The Mengs pastels were reported by Diderot in Pastels: Mengs, courtisane ; philiosophe. Cronier rose to be managing director of the firm and after Say's death trustee of his estate. He acquired French and English 18th century portraits, as well as paintings by Watteau and Fragonard, from Gimpel and others during the period until his suicide in.

Mengenai Saya

Acting in concert with Jaluzot, founder of the Printemps department store, they used the Say estate to take an enormous long position which proved disastrous when the price of sugar halved. Criminal proceedings against Jaluzot commenced, while Cronier took cyanide and simultaneously shot himself. The posthumous sale in does not include all his collection, as he occasionally made exchanges he acquired a pastel child by Russell from Gimpel in After his death in , the collection was sold to Diderot as agent for Catherine II, and is now in the Hermitage.

A group of pastels by Wallerant Vaillant were said to have been acquired from Crozat by prince Galitzin q. Courajod, Paris, , I, p. Catalogue des tableaux du cabinet de M. Les quatre saisons en quatre demi figures de femmes avec leus attributs. Un portrait de profil. Une vierge. Portrait de Louis XV esquisse. Henri also owned a group of portraits from Wertmuller's Bordeaux period.

Sales of Chinese porcelain and other items took place in London, Sotheby's, 7. His posthumous sale was scheduled for 3. None of the nine pastels in his sale is known even from reproductions today. His broad ranging collections were dispersed in a series of sales from His collection, "removed from his late Apartments at St James's and his House at Twickenham", was sold in three parts, with Christie's taking charge of the pictures; sales of medals and drawings took place over the following weeks. Charles H. The British Museum acquired approximately drawings or prints from him, including a pastel by Drummond.

Auguste's posthumous sale included an important collection of early prints. His interests ranged from paintings and miniatures to oriental art and antiquities - some of which appear in a Vuillard portrait of him. During the war some of the collection was seized by the ERR; pastels included a Greuze jeune fille and a Nanteuil, Hardouin. After his death, his collection of miniatures was split into two groups, one given to the Louvre and the other bought by Wildenstein and sold complete to Sir Charles Clore.

David-Weill's philanthropic tradition is continued by his grandson Michel David-Weill. Morice, "La collection David-Weill His eldest son, James Dawkins , started his Grand Tour in when he inherited his father's estates; he developed an interest in archaeology, and collected pictures; apart from his own portrait, he commissioned a set of the Seasons from Rosalba.

His brother Henry, the subject of a pastel by La Tour, was admitted to the Society of Dilettanti on the strength of James's celebrity. Their pictures descended to Henry's grandson, the Rev. The collection passed to their son Edward Henry Frederick Dawkins before the sale. Lot 9: James Dawkins [80 gns; Toogood]; Lot the same, ov. He lent pastels by Perronneau to the Cent pastels exhibition in Fellowes; Singer. He later turned to the cinema.

He built up a collection of French 18th century engravings from the age of 40 before switching to old master drawings and then paintings. He sold these in ; a collection which cost Fr, sold for Fr1. But he restarted collecting immediately, repurchasing some of his own collection at the sale and later.

A number of drawings were sold in Pierre Decourcelle", Les Arts , , , p. Mme Poisson. The group consisted of five pastels thought to be by La Tour, four of which seem to have been acquired by Auguste de Gas in an anonymous Paris sale, All four, with a further La Tour magistrat , were lent to the Paris a exhibition. Degas also owned a Rosalba autoritratto. Degas frequently visited Saint-Quentin. Shortly after the death of his father, the affairs of the family bank obliged Degas to seek to sell much of the collection, and some of the pastels were acquired by Hector Brame.

Her will included pastels by Liotard and Pond. Robert Edward DELL , journalist, first editor of the Burlington magazine , ; he resigned to become Paris correspondent of the Manchester Guardian , and also owned Shirleys Ltd, a gallery at 9 boulevard Malesherbes.

In a review of the Doucet sale for the Burlington , Dell expressed infuriation that a pastel by La Tour should fetch more than a canvas by Fragonard. He was expelled from France after the war, having criticised the the French Government's peace negotiations in He later lived in New York. He lent several pastels to the Paris exhibition, which he organised with his associates Max Rothschild and R. Dell's attribution of two pastels to Engleheart q. Hamilton, Adelaide Payne ; Phelps, Handel. His son became an MP in , and he was well known as a patron and connoisseur.

Although his wealth earned him the nickname of Peter the Tsar, his prodigious spending led to financial difficulties and he shot himself at his London home, 15 Grosvenor Square. The attribution of the pastels in the sale presumably that of his son, Peter III, should be treated with caution. After his father's death in , he took charge of the family villa at San Donato near Florence, part of which he turned over to a workshop for the manufacture of silks, while also enlarging the extensive art collection.

An expedition to the Crimea which he organised in resulted in the numerous scientific publications. In he married Napoleon's niece, princesse Mathilde q. Demidov's collections and titles passed to his nephew Paul Demidov London, The Wallace Collection, Pastels: I. Based in Paris, rue de Berry c. He was in competition with Duveen, and accusations of forgery of goods supplied by Demotte led to a defamation action that ended when Demotte was found dead near Versailles.

His business passed to his son Lucien, who committed suicide in Demotte Inc. Journu ; Mme Legrix ; Mme Molles. Paris, Chevallier, Dutch paintings figured strongly in his collection, but the pastels seem mainly to have been Perronneau's portraits of members of his family. Perronneau , p. In an inventory of 3. The premises of "Desmarest, graveur depuis " are still preserved in the Palais-Royal.

A large collection of drawings and prints were in the sale; possibly the same vendor as the dealer in the sale of "J. Desmarets, cessation de commerce". A Desmarets was a commissaire priseur from rue du Bouloi, c. Paris, Rouseau, Geoffroy, 4. His albums of architectural drawings are in a number of public collections, including Berlin and St Petersburg. His grandson Philippe d'Estailleur-Chanteraine had a pastel said to be by Perronneau of the naturalist Daubenton. They were also supporters of the arts.

His sale, Paris, Drouot, Pouchet, This was dispersed in two sales and , following his widow's death. His son Antoine-Nicolas , also a magistrate, was the author of the Voyage pittoresque de Paris and des environs de Paris , of several gardening treatises, and of an extension of his father's work, the Vies des dameux architectes et sculpteurs… Dezallier d'Argenville: Paris, The celebrated type founder was Firmin Didot He may have been the Didot whose sale took place in His son, Ambroise-Firmin Didot, later known as Ambroise Firmin-Didot , diplomat and traveller, took over the business in He was interested in classical literature, typography, paper making and engraving, and his reference books on the Drevets and Les Graveurs de portraits en France , are of great use.

He presumably assembled the collection of 18 pastels and drawings by Wallerant Vaillant which were lent to the Paris exhibition by his son Alfred Firmin-Didot , also a printer. Didot: Paris, Henry Lacoste, After his death his widow married Abel Vautier, a parlementaire from Caen. They cannot now be identified specifically. The case of Shrager v Basil Dighton Ltd , in which he was sued by a dissatisfied client, is frequently cited as a legal precedent. He travelled in Italy in , and wrote to Rosalba Carriera on He was Walter Gay's agent. His elder brother was Murray W.

Reading Bertron q. Pastels: Greenhill, lady. Paris, Georges Petit, It was then initially lent and finally given to the Louvre in He collaborated with Remy on providing expertises for estate inventories. Ils viennent de la vente du Baron d'Olback. Ils viennent de la vente de notre cabinet, No.

Ce morceau est peint au pastel et sous verre. He created an important collection of mediaeval works his first piece was bought at the age of 16 , many acquired with advice from Marius Paulme, who prepared an illustrated manuscript catalogue of the whole collection. His collection was preserved and continued by his family, notably his son Pierre Dormeuil and grandson, Xavier Dormeuil , following whose death a number of pastels were sold. A watercolour by Adrien Karbowsky shows the main drawing room around with a wall on which four La Tour pastels are hung among Chardin, Ducreux, Lawrence and Reynolds canvases.

After the sale, Doucet moved to Neuilly, where he started a new collection, of the avant garde of his day. To both of these he brought his legendary perfectionism. Part of his collections descended in the family to his great-nephew Jean Angladon-Dubrujeaud and are now part of the Fondation Angladon in Avignon. Joubin, "Jacques Doucet", Gazette des beaux-arts ,. Fr; Fr; Stettiner] Lot Perronneau, enfant , [est. Fr15,; Fr14,; Graat]. Dr Anton C. Although Anton was particularly interested in Dutch art, his collection was much broader, and was noted for its eclectic character.

Among a significant holding of French drawings are several sheets by Lemoine and a pastel by La Tour. In addition to the sale of old master pictures and drawings; portrait miniatures, gold boxes and objects of vertu on At the Lemoyne sale in he bought a Vivien pastel which reappeared in two of his sales, Paris, Ridel, He joined the Louvre in and rose to become conservateur en chef. He made extensive donations to various museums. Jean's son Adolphe was the vendor in the sale. Mme du Barry's own collections were dispersed in a number of sales, notably by Paillet, Paris, Remy, Le Brun, His sale included one pastel.

A later sale took place at Drouot on Paris, Drouot, Chevallier, Paulme, 7. Paris , marchand de tableaux. He acted on behalf of the duc de Choiseul in sales in the s. An advertisement appeared in the Post man for Some others in Pastelle. Boucher, et un portrait. Le tout sous verre. Duke", Old Watercolour Society's Club 49th annual vol.

Richardson, Jr ; Russell, woman. Villenave q. A sale took place in Paris, Oudart, Barre, Charles E. He was a generous donor to Harvard and the Fogg Art Museum; his gifts of some 50 French pictures included a Boucher portrait of Mme de Pompadour as well as some pastels by La Tour auto ; dame. Bastide" to the Salon de Toulouse In he married Catherine Sellier. An inv. Hauteur 25 pouces; largeur 20 pouces 6 lignes. Rubens, Ant.


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Paris , established c. Initially a stationery shop, the firm developed into art dealing from its practice of exchanging artists' materials for pictures. Paul Durand-Ruel , the founder's son, was responsible for the firm's association with impressionism. His library of some items including the first four Shakespeare folios was donated to University College, London; he was also a donor to the British Museum.

His sale included a large collection of books, engravings, sculpture and pictures of mixed quality. Of the drawings a number of sheets are now in the Louvre or at Chantilly. He presented a "Perronneau" girl with a cat to the National Gallery in Much earlier c. Among the pastels supplied by the firm were a "pair of old French pastels by Perronneau", acquired from Lady Dorothy Nevill in and sent on approval to the Stotesburys in , still unpaid in The firm's records are at the Getty Research Institute. Nelson EDDY , singer, actor and amateur painter and sculptor. He initially collected pewter but later turned to English 17th century and modern French painting.

A pastel by Roslin, M. Theodore T. Ellis made his money in blanket manufacture, newspapers and printing; he was publisher of the Worcester Telegram and became co-owner of the Chicago Daily News in His art collection ranged from Winslow Homer to a painting once thought to be by Leonardo. Pastels: Coypel, marquise de Lamure. Ignaz's nephew Charles Ephrussi , amateur art historian and collector, came to Paris c. He founded the Gazette des beaux-arts. Charles's uncles Michel and Maurice also lived in Paris. Collections , which she bequeathed to the Institut de France.

His four sons and their descendants included bankers, collectors, composers and painters. Emile Beaumont , banker and patron of the arts, adopted British nationality; he lived at Piccadilly, Lord Byron's house, and Falconwood. Rodolphe , painter and composer, built a palace in Sidi Bou Said, Tunisia, now a museum for Arab musical instruments, inherited by his son Leo and his wife Edwina Prue His enormous library and collections of old master drawings, prints, as well as paintings, sculptures and objets d'art were sold after his death by Christie's, Pastels by Luttrell and Hamilton may have been included.

La Tour, d'Alembert, ont. Paris, Le Brun, Ce beau pastel est de la plus riche couleur et, de belle conservation. Sous verre. It included a number of pastels by Pillement which were exhibited in Edward EYRE , of High Street, Marylebone, amateur topographical artist who exhibited at the Royal Academy , he formed a very large collection of old master and modern drawings which were dispersed by Greenwood, London, Inv p. Un dissegno in carta fatto a pastello della B. Floraino, e l'altro una testa d'una donna di mano del Canuti con cornice di legno Intagliata.

Edmond Fatio , of Geneva, architect, historian and collector, particularly of baroque drawings. Principal sale, Geneva, Nicolas Rauch, He owned a pastel by Petitot Lierre. Her posthumous sale included several hundred paintings, mainly historical portraits. Mr Fauquier, Anonymous sale, London, After his death a notice in the Daily advertiser , Lot [Anon.

After the suicide of her mother, Isabelle-Blanche Singer, she was brought up by her aunt, Winnaretta Singer, princesse Edmond de Polignac q. Soon after his death, she married the Hon. Reginald Ailwyn Fellowes , younger son of the 2nd Baron de Ramsay, a banker. Daisy Fellowes wrote several novels, of which Les Dimanches de la comtesse de Narbonne is best known. She became celebrated as a fashion icon for designers such as Chanel and Schiaperelli; Cecil Beaton photographed her and as wealthy hostess in her palace Les Zoraides in Cap Martin in the South of France.

Her name was linked with the Prince of Wales before that of Mrs Simpson. Three Perronneau pastels were included in the sale. Paris, Galerie Charpentier, Ader, De Fels also owned the Revue de Paris. Maurice FENAILLE , de l'Institut, wealthy oil industrialist reputed at an early date to have installed swimming pools in his various homes, as well as owning cars and aeroplanes. He was also an art collector and patron, and wrote monographs on Debucourt, the Gobelins and Jules Guiffrey. Pastels: Luttrell, man In Jules bought a Coypel J. EFC , Paris, Chevalier, JF , Paris, She owned a Perronneau inconnue c.

Ferriol had a series of six beauties made in pastel, no doubt by Coypel q. His son Charles-Augustin de Ferriol, comte d'Argental was the friend of Voltaire, who gave him his portrait by de Wyl q. A correspondent of Proust, she inherited the important library of her uncle, baron Horace de Landau Donato FINI His inventory Rome, In he married Emma, daughter of the art dealer Charles Sedelmeyer q. In he was appointed by Emperor Franz Josef chief commissioner for the fine arts in Austria.

From Emma was linked with the society gynaecologist Samuel Jean Pozzi. New York, Waldorf-Astoria, Silo, He advised J. He lent pastels to the Paris exhibition. A group of French and English pictures including pastels by Bernard and Hamilton were sold in a group sale, London, Christie's, Some miniatures were sold in the following days.

Foreman died in Paris while on his way to the South of France for his health. Mme A. Paris, Drouot, Baudoin, Royaumont was sold, an the contents dispersed by Christie's, Dictionary , artists, s. Armstrong; Farington; Hoare. A separate museum was built in to house his collection but was destroyed during the second world war. Mrs Byron C. David-Weill sold in her posthumous sale. New York, Parke-Bernet, Mme Dangeville.

FRANC : a large collection of miniatures, objets d'art etc. France wrote his companion a note: "Saint-Quentin. La plus belle promenade que j'aie jamais faite. Their son Giorgio Gioacchino purchased the Ca' d'Oro from the Contarini family in but bequeathed it to the State in together with part of his collection.

Born in Belgium, he developed the family grain business founded in from a domestic Belgian activity into a multinational conglomerate by opening an office in Chicago in The Continental Grain Company remains one of the largest private companies in the world. Fribourg adopted US citizenship, and devoted part of his wealth to his collection of European and Chinese porcelain and faience, paintings, drawings, boxes, objets d'art and furniture. He was treasurer of the American Friends of Versailles in His estate sale took place in eight sessions.

Collections, New York, Frick v. While August the Strong started the collection of Rosalba Carriera, it was his successor who displayed an unlimited appetite for her pastels; the gallery in Dresden in which some of her pastels were at one stage hung v. He is thought to have visited her studio while on the grand tour in Such was August's enthusiasm that he persuaded Mengs to work in pastel to produce an important series of portraits.

This was the greatest sorrow of his life, and its effect upon his poetry was as profound as that of Arthur Hallam's death upon the genius of Tennyson. Hugo's In Memoriam is contained in Les Contemplations — the very finest assuredly of his lyrical works — of which the flrst part was already written at this time, but which saw the light many years later.

The ' crime of December ' was a rude awakening. First Jersey and then Guernsey was the home of his exile, which lasted for he refused to benefit by an amnesty until the fall of the Empire. He voted against the peace and resigned his seat, and after the Commune, which he disapproved and excused, did his best to initigate the horrors of retaliation.

He had overrated his political authority : indeed the next few years he passed in comparative neglect. But his mastery of rhythm and language never grew less, and among the works produced in this final period of his long career are several volumes which may almost rank with his best achievement. Ail the great sources of his inspira- tion enrich Les Quatre Vents de V Esprit, and especially the heroical. A last drama, Torquemada, and a last historical novel, the admirable Quatre-vingt-treize, must be added to the list. Not even Toute la Lyre could add to his glory. He contains he is perhaps the only modem writer who contains the whole of a living language.

When he chose, he could be measured and gracef ul ; he is always verbal ly perspicuous and logical. Of verse he is the absolute sovereign, the indefatigable forger of rhythms, the magical equilibrist, the constantly fortunate manipulator of rime. What he did for French verse has been indicated elsewhere in this volume : it is enough to repeat that he made it obedient to ail the motions of the mind, and that he reinforced the pleasures of habit and concord with those which variance and surprise can give to the ear.

In the gift of structure and inventiveness he is only matched by Ronsard. He gave wings to qualities, a human heart to the inanimate, and expressed no idea without metaphor. He is the poet of pity, still more the poet of terror earthly and spectral ; the poet of childhood and the sea; a masterly painter of war, havoc and confusion. Ail tones are his, but especially a tone of inexorable majesty and solemnity. Hugo has little humour, but much wit — of a curious, original sort. Emphasis is his constant enemy : it was occasionally Shakespeare's.

For the rest, he is not a philosopher, but he interests philosophers. No poet in his century, or any century of our era, threw more ideas into circulation by giving them a sensuous shape and a voice to enchant and to haunt the memory of men. The following is a list of his works in verse : Lyrical. Odes, Odes et Ballades, Les Orientales, Les Feuilles d'Automne, Les Rayons et les Ombres, Les Contemplations, i. Chansons des Eues et des Bois, Le Pape.

Les quatre Vents de l'Esprit, La Fin de Satan. Toute la Lyre, i. Cromwell, Marion Delorme, Hernani, Le Roi s'amuse, Ruy Blas, Les Burgraves, Amy Robsart. Les Jumeaux. Ils vont. L'espace est grand. Enfin le terme arrive Mai Quelqu'un d'ici? Dansez, chantez, villageois! Prononcer mont Falou. Des biens que l'heure envoie Il faut user. Un chapelet du temps de Charlemagne Ornait son cou. Je vis le pied de sa jeune compagne Et son genou. Avec ce comte elle s'est donc enfuie! Paris, mai Il est dans l'atrium sur un riche tapis.

Le taureau blanc l'emporte. Voici que les spectres se dressent. Il marche. Les heures sont lentes. A ses pieds flotte dans la brume Le paysage immense et doux. L'horizon recule. Que veut-on que je recommence? Pourquoi m'appelez-vous encore? Qui travaillait avant l'aurore Peut s'en aller avant le soir. A vingt ans, deuil et solitude!

L'humble enfant que Dieu m'a ravie Rien qu'en m'aimant savait m'aider. O Dieu! J'ai fini! Que j'annonce aux dormeurs l'aurore! Que je crie: Allez! XXVI gouffre! Nous contemplons l'obscur, l'inconnu, l'invisible. Marine Terrace, septembre La France, dans sa nuit profonde, 35 Verra ma torche flamboyer! Jersey, novembre Le bois est sombre, Les corbeaux volent en grand nombre, Il va pleuvoir.

Chasse le daim, chasse la biche, Cours dans les bois, cours dans la friche, Voici le soir. Chasse le czar, chasse l'Autriche, 15 O chasseur noir! Le renard fuit, pas de refuge Et pas d'espoir! Les feuilles des bois — Chasse les ours! Fais ton devoir! Chasse le brigand Bonaparte, O chasseur noir! Jersey, septembre Le ciel et la mer font rage. C'est la saison, c'est l'orage, C'est le climat. Tout prend un hideux langage ; 55 Le roulis parle au tangage, La hune au foc.

Ils sont petits, ceux-ci. La terre cache l'or et montre les moissons ; Elle met dans le flanc des fuyantes saisons Le germe des saisons prochaines, Dans l'azur les oiseaux qui chuchotent : aimons! Meurtrie, elle demande aux hommes : A quoi sert Le ravage? Pourquoi tuer la plaine verte? Comment le croire? Comment se pourrait-il que j'eusse des enfants? La cour du palais. Elle est fille de roi. Tu n'es pas ici dans ton pays. Si l'on parlait sa langue, on saurait son secret. Je ne lui parle plus. L'horreur ferme sa bouche. Clytemnestre sort.

Je suis sans amertume. Descends du char. Grands dieux! Terre et ciel! Apollon Loxias dans l'ombre. L'oiseau chante dans les bois. Les bleuets sont bleus, les roses sont roses, Les bleuets sont bleus, j'aime mes amours. Si je soupire, Chantez, c'est bien. Un homme semble Souvent trompeur.

Mais si je tremble, 15 Belle, ayez peur. His serious work began with a translation of Faust which Goethe admired, and some lyrical fragments of which were used by Berlioz for his great work. A book of versions from German poets appeared two years later. About this time a hopeless passion for an actress, Jenny Colon, drove him abroad. He wandered for some years in Italy, Germany, and the Levant ; and this obscure period of a driftless life, if not immediately fertile, seems to contain the secret of his most fortunate inspiration.

In he became insane, and it is doubtful whether he ever recovered perfectly, though his most productive period dates from that year. It is not quite certain whether he killed himself. Lusignan ou Biron? The by-paths throughout his career attracted him most. He excelled in vers de circonstance, and frittered away much of his talent in compliments. He spent his last years, appropriately, at Versailles.

His masterly imitation of the Spanish Romancero had a distinct and lasting influence in this direction. Emile Deschamps had a brother, Antony , who was also a poet of some note, and is best known for his translation of the Divine Comedy. But he was also a poet : a little of his verse is exquisite, most of it is very interesting, and the diversity of the lyrical revival would be most inadequately presented without some example of his restless and inquisitive talent. Through the editor he met Victor Hugo, and a strong friendship sprang up between them.

Meanwhile he emulated the talent of his friends. Joseph Delorme, a book of prose and verse mingled, revealed a poet rather accomplished than spontaneous, a careful craftsman and a curious psychologist. Sainte-Beuve was a man of books and also a man of pleasure. He had many friends and was capable of generous actions ; but he showed himself often jealous and rancorous.

His life had no great vicissitudes, but was marked by a certain number of sensational incidents — a duel with his old master Dubois in ; the obscure but at any rate discreditable quarrel with Hugo ; ruptures and reconcilements with this editor and that ; and his political equivoca- tions sometimes gave scandai, as when, having rallied after a Re- publican youth to the ' party of order ' and accepted a professorship from the Empire, he was hooted by the Paris students and compelled to resign his chair. Sainte-Beuve has well described the poetry of Joseph Delorme as 1 des peintures d'analyse sentimentale et des paysages de petite dimen- sion.

It is the poetry also of a profound sceptic, though we owe Port-Royal to a phase of deep if rather morbid interest in the phenomenon of faith — and to the personal influence of Lamennais. The poetry of Sainte-Beuve was collected into one volume in See, on this subject, M. Il a couru! Buvez, buvez, jeune abeille! Au gazon Que vois-je? Pauvre enfant! C'est l'avenir!

Comment l'homme peut-il ainsi tomber? Rousseau and had written novels and books of travel besides ; his old cousin the Marquis de Musset-Cogners, and his mother's father and brother, were ail people of taste and attainments ; — and they were ail eighteenth century people, sceptical, indulgent and polite. His greatest friend through life was his elder brother Paul. Two out of three poems which filled his next volume were written in dramatic form. Rostand's Romanesques recalls ; and the spirited, if licentious and driftless, story of Namouna has a conquering suppleness of movement.

The year brought into the world the most Romantic of Musset's heroes, the sinister and sermonical Jacques Rolla. The unedifying story ends with Mme. Dudevant's return to her home in Berry. The next few years were the most fruitful in his life. From this date onwards his production slackened, though it can hardly be said that the quality of his infrequent writing deteriorated ; and there is little more to tell about his life, which was almost divided between a sick-bed and the haunts of deleterious pleasure.

Of his relations with Rachel, the Princess Bolgiojoso and other notable women there is no need to speak. He had other friends who clung to him. Allan in and, one after another, won greater popularity than belongs perhaps to any other Romantic dramas. He was elected to the Academy in His death was almost unnoticed. If the rank of Alfred de Musset among the greater French poets of the last century is still uncertain, it is not that his positive merits — of which the chief is certainly the gift of tears — are ever seriously disputed. As an artist he has many obvious disabilities.

He is not one of those who lived in the words of Leconte de Lisle in constant communion with the sensible world : imagery is not the very stuff of his style. Composition is a quality which his longer poems scarcely show. After his nonage he openly dissociated himself from the extravagances and even from the glorious conquests of Romanticism.

There was in Musset a classicist, born out of due time, even though no poet among his contemporaries is more patheti- cally subjective. Qu'un grand faucheux bien gras Qui roule 15 Sans pattes et sans bras? Mais de vous en souvenir Et d'y revenir. Il pencha son front sur ma main, 10 Et resta jusqu'au lendemain, Pensif, avec un doux sourire. Il secouait sous son manteau Un haillon de pourpre en lambeau. Qui donc es-tu, toi que dans cette vie Je vois toujours sur mon chemin? En te voyant, j'aime la Providence.

Qui donc es-tu? Depuis vingt ans tu marches dans ma voie, Et je ne saurais t'appeler. Qui donc es-tu, si c'est Dieu qui t'envoie? Tu me souris sans partager ma joie, Tu me plains sans me consoler! J'enveloppais dans un morceau de bure Ces ruines des jours heureux. Comme un plongeur dans une mer profonde, Je me perdais dans tant d'oubli. Pourquoi, grand Dieu! Eh bien, adieu!

Je sens encor le mien jeune et vivace, Et bien des maux pourront y trouver place Sur le mal que vous m'avez fait. Sur mon rideau j'ai vu passer une ombre ; Elle vient s'asseoir sur mon lit. Que me veux-tu, triste oiseau de passage? Je ne suis ni l'ange gardien Ni le mauvais destin des hommes. Novembre Bury, 14 juin Elle faisait semblant de vivre. Octobre Poetry was not young Gautier's first ambition : for two years he worked in a studio, but discovered in time that his talent for painting was secondary. He showed some verses to Petrus Borel, who praised them and introduced him to the author of Les Orientales,.

About the same time he rallied in prose, with abundance of good humour, the foibles of a merely snobbish and shallow Romanticism : the book was called Les Jeune- France, after a sect or confraternity to which he had himself adhered, with the wilder fledglings of that enthusiastic time.


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  4. From this time onward, much of Gautier's time and energy was absorbed by travel and joumalism. At the same time he contributed ail sorts of imaginative articles to reviews and newspapers, passed several yearly Salons in review, and from onward his dramatic criticism enlivened Le Moniteur and Le Journal Officiel.

    His most ephemeral work was always indefatigable, inventive, curious, often illuminating and never dull. And ail the time he was producing durable art. Gautier cared nothing for politics ; he had; a family to keep ; and it seems unjust to reproach him with servility towards the govern- ment of December.

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    He could never be seduced, at any rate, from his allegiance to his master Hugo. The Princess Mathilde, a friend to so many writers and artists whom nobody could call 'officiai,' raade him her librarian : the fall of the Empire ruined him. He set to work courageously to retrieve his fortunes after the Commune, but overwork and disappointment had worn him out.

    He died in , mourned by a host of friends. Through an unusual acuity of some faculties and an unusual obtuseness of others, Gautier is the poet of his time who concerned himself most exclusively with appearances. Gautier worshipped his art and its instrument. Like ail excellent craf tsmei lie loved obstacles for their own sake, and no poet pursued perfectioi with more severity.

    La voile ouvre son aile, La brise va souffler! Au carrefour douteux, Y grec de Pythagore, J'ai pris la branche gauche, et je chemine encore Sans arriver jamais. Aux pieds des patients comme tu mets la torche! Dans le flanc de Caton comme tu fais crier 35 La plaie, affreuse bouche ouverte comme un porche! Madrid, Sur cet air, pistons, clarinettes, Dans les bals aux poudreux berceaux, 10 Font sauter commis et grisettes, Et de leurs nids fuir les oiseaux. Il me semble, quand ou le joue Voir glisser dans son bleu sillon Une gondole avec sa proue Faite en manche de violon. Barbier wrote, besides poems, some not very distinguished novels and taies ; he translated from the English Julius Caesar and The Antient Mariner ; and with L.

    The latter part of his life was almost unproductive. The principal poetry of Auguste Barbier is to be found in one volume Lemerre. The poet, the son of a former naval surgeon, was born at Lorient. A short comedy in verse, Racine, written in collaboration with P. Italian art and the Italian poetry strongly infiuenced Brizeux's talent, particularly on its formai side.

    In appeared Les Ternaires, a lyrical volume inspired wholly by his travels : the obscure title was afterwards changed to La Fleur d'Or. But Brittany claimed him. The Breton rimes of Brizeux became really popular and, years after, Breton minstrels would recite them as their own! The poem was immediateiy famous, praised by Vigny and Hugo and, through their efforts, 'crowned' by the French Academy.

    A diffuse and rather forbidding disquisition in three books on the sources of inspira- tion and the function of poetry, was his last work in verse. At the public expense, his body was taken back to Brittany, and buried beside the Elle. His 'local patriotism' is neither factitious nor complacent. His tone is always completely appropriate to his subject. Brizeux paints in the ancient manner, broadly, and with a noble economy. He is simple without an effort, which is the only way to be simple ; and his tenderness has not a false note. His first collection of verses appeared in ; it was his Sonnets humoristiques which made him as famous in the capital as in his native city, and won him the friendship of his great contemporaries.


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    7. He had no rival as a sonneteer in his lifetime ; and even since the appearance of M. Though the fascination of the sonnet form possessed him, and obviously governed his adven- tures into the field of structural invention, his achievements in longer lyrics and even in narrative poetry are by no means negligible. He wrote one comedy, Un grand homme qu'on attend. The newspaper in which it appeared was threatened with suspension, and the poet himself driven from his chair at Lyons.

      Just before the Empire fell it was offered him again by M. Emile Ollivier, and declined. He voted with the Right, but took no part in debate, and was frequently absent through ill-health. He had written considerably in prose also — chiefly on educational subjects. With various gifts, he is essentially a moralist. Nature supplied him inexhaustibly with emblems of moral virtue, and appears in his characteristic poetry as the great consoler, the monitress and the wise nurse of human efforts. His satire is heavy but not ineffective. Accidentally asso- ciated with Le Parnasse, though he had little enough in common with its leaders, Laprade always avoided the Romantic exaggeration of personality ; but he professed himself a disciple of Lamartine, and shared his master's aversion for literary poetry.

      Mais n'est-il rien de toi qui subsiste et qui dure? Et n'est-il de vivant que l'immense nature, 75 Une au fond, mais s'ornant de mille aspects divers? His life of wliich his writings tell us next to nothing was tranquil and liappy. Les Cariatides, his first volume of poetry, dates from Banville made his first athletic essaya and earned Baudelaire's comparison with the infant Hercules at a moment of transition. The poetry which should shake thrones and foresee millenniums, or carry the conquests of the historical spirit into the domain of the imagination and fix in marmorean forms the transience of our illusions, was as yet hardly promised.

      This is his only link with the Parnassians : for it was by the fortune of an even temper and wibhout any pretension to the tranquillity of science that he showed himself truly impassive, serene as the ancient gods whose train, said Gautier, he brought back into the Romantic Burg. Banville's is a poetry of fantastic and delicious variations. The works of Banville are published by Lemerre and by Charpentier.

      Puis, tout flamboyants sous les chrysolithes, Les bruns Adonis et les Hyppolytes 10 Montrent leurs arcs d'or et leurs peaux de loups. Mon enfant, seul bien qui me reste, Dors sous ces branches d'arbre en fleurs. Dans les feux du soleil couchant Le vieux mont est brillant de neige.

      French-English Dictionary (35,273 Entries)

      Ta petite bouche sourit. Ta petite bouche sourit, Pareille aux corolles qui s'ouvrent. Je vois luire des diamants Sur la montagne enchanteresse. Sur la montagne enchanteresse Je vois des topazes de feu. Dors, qu'un songe heureux te caresse, 35 Ferme tes yeux de lotus bleu! Ses yeux tout grands ouverts ont des blancheurs de nacre. Il voudrait se coucher, dormir ; il ne peut pas. Allons, hue! Il est malheureux comme un homme. Mercredi, 12 janvier He began riming as a schoolboy, and afterwards, between walking the hospitals and coaching pupils for a living, found time to perfect his talent.

      He gave up medicine in and thenceforward devoted his life to poetry. His disinterested and laborious career ended prematurely, just when his appointment to the charge of the public library at Rouen had brought him material independence. Bouilhet might be called a transitional Romantic. Ail his verse is of admirable work- manship. Cela se rapprochait et sonnait sur les dalles. He was brought up partly in the colony and partly in Brittany, and after leaving school spent some time in travel, being in- tended for a commercial career, and visited India and Madagascar to the incalculable advantage of a late-blossoming talent.

      It was only in that, abandoning ail idea of an active occupation, he settled in Paris and lived there 'on privations and Greek roots,' acquiring the science of verse and teaching and studying ancient languages and civilisations. In his ardent Republicanism threatened to sweep him into politics, but he remained faithful to letters, and between that year and contributed to periodicals a certain number of poerns which formed the nucleus of his first volume.

      In appeared the first of Leconte's translations of the greatest Greek and Latin poets into French prose. In the events of the Terrible Year Leconte de Lisle took the part of a patriot and of an uncompromising Republican. He had struggled with poverty during his best years ; a small government pension had been granted him in ; and in the Republic rewarded his zeal with the post of sub-librarian to the Senate, which gave him a modest independence. His followers gloried in a stoical or impassive attitude ; and from his works the record of intimate joys and sorrows, the strain of argument and prophecy, confidences and ejaculations, were conscientiously eliminated.

      The works of Leconte de Lisle are published by Lemerre. Comme vous, dans l'ombre sans bornes, Heureux qui roule enseveli! Et si j'ai le visage et les bras trop velus, Eh bien! Si je savais nager, du moins! Au sein des flots J'irais t'offrir des lis et de rouges pavots. Mais, vains souhaits! Tout se tait. Une nuit d'or emplit d'un magique silence La merveilleuse horreur de l'espace et des flots.

      Tout est vide et muet. Rien qui nage ou qui flotte, 25 Qui soit vivant ou mort, qu'il puisse entendre ou voir. Va, monstre! Vide sur eux palais, maisons, temples et rues : 75 Que les mourants vengent les morts! Non, non! Janvier He held a place in the administra- tion of the Senate under the Consulate and the Empire ; had painters and men of letters for his friends ; and died not quite six years after the poet's birth. Charles was only seven when his mother, still quite a young woman, married an officer, Major afterwards General Aupick. His stepfather wished him to enter the diplomatie service : Baudelaire refused to do anything but write; and from to he led a somewhat riotous and outwardly fruitless life in Paris, indulging a hundred curiosities, among a crew of Bohemians more or less intel- lectual ; until at last, after an open quarrel with General Aupick, his family, in alarm at his spendthrift idleness and the queer company he kept, put him on board a merchantman sailing from Bordeaux for the Indies under the charge of a friendly captain.

      He returned to Paris on the eve of his majority and, possessed of material independence, began that life of studious dissipation, of feverish kbour without fruition, joyless vice, discontent and remorse and vagabondage and exasperated idealism, of which the history or the legend has been used too often to supply an unedifying com- mentary on his writings. A conscientious study on the ' philosophy of love ' and several dramas among which L'Ivrogne promised to be the most characteristic never got beyond the stage of fragments.

      In Baudelaire published his translation of The Raven, which had been heralded by a remarkable article on Poe's life and writings in La Revue de Paris ; two volumes of Poe's Taies, turned into a French prose which is allowed to surpass the original, were brought out in and In this latter year, a friend who had set up a publishing business in a provincial town produced Les Fleurs du Mal. A collection of Baudelaire's poems had been curiously expected by a small number of intellectual men ; the book drew praise, not unreserved, but warm and candid, from Hugo and Gautier, Sainte- Beuve and Barbey d'Aurevilly, E.

      For a short period Baudelaire's life now became more regular and lus activity more fruitful. He was reconciled with his mother, General Aupick being dead. He was twice a candidate — the second time for the chair of Lacordaire! Baudelaire's last books were translations of Poe which appeared in and In the former year he left Paris for Brussels with the idea of paying his debts by profits from lectures.

      His success as a lecturer on Gautier and' Delacroix was short-lived ; disagreements and misunderstandings with the agents left him penniless, hopeless and ailing. He founded new hopes on a book about Belgium, and took copious notes, and made many journeys up and down a country in which almost everything and every one exasperated him.

      In the spring of he had a paralytic stroke in a churck at Namur and was taken back, henceforth speech- less, to Brussels. But he was born with a fatal avidity for sensations, and an intense consciousness of being irre- mediably alone. His irony and his cynicism — the armour he wore against the importunity of the self-complacent and the temptations of an easy expansiveness — hardly detract from the desperate sincerity which is the final impression of his verse.

      He made himself the centre of the world ; but there was in him an aristocracy which forbade the mercenary sob, the disorder, the revolted egoism of the debased romantic temper. Baudelaire was besieged by images of corruption and by a vision, partly a memory, of some material paradise ; or rather, the sensation of death, the homesickness for an exotic bliss, are the poisonous excitants that continually sting ail his faculties of perception at once — hearing, touch, smell as well as sight ; and this is so rare among the poets that his merely visual power seems by comparison ordinary.

      His verse if we except what Gautier called his sonnets libertins is scrupulously correct. He loved long words ; he used asson- ance before that subsidiary charm became common. Baudelaire is morbid, if excessive unhappiness is morbidity. He is also virile. The two things must be conciliated somehow. Many prose frag- ments, notably two curious diaries, are to be read in M.

      C'est le Diable qui tient les fils qui nous remuent! O pauvres corps tordus, maigres, ventrus ou flasques, Que le dieu de l'Utile, implacable et serein, Enfants, emmaillotta dans ses langes d'airain! Dans quel philtre? Peut-on illuminer un ciel bourbeux et noir? Autant qu'un roi je suis heureux ; 5 L'air est pur, le ciel admirable. Elle y vint! Nous sommes tous plus ou moins fous!

      Un seul Parmi ces ivrognes stupides 30 Songea-t-il dans ses nuits morbides A faire du vin un linceul? Je serai ce soir ivre mort : Alors, sans peur et sans remord, Je me coucherai sur la terre, Et je dormirai comme un chien! He lias published little or no new poetry for some years.

      Among the less conspicuous followers of Leconte de Lisle, M. Dierx is distinguished as an admirable craftsman, especially ardent in the pur- suit of melodious effects. In a remarkably sympathetic and luminous rendering into French verse of the first book of Lucretius prepared the way for two long philosophical poems, La Justice and Le Bonheur, which appeared in and in respectively. The humanitarian strain in Sully-Prudhomme recalls Victor de Laprade, who was, like him, what is emphatically called a thinker.

      And he was a genuine poet as well as a genuine thinker : unfortunately the philosopher in him is too often separable from the artist, and the disparity between the solid doctrine and the somewhat precious forms in which he chose to convey it does injustice to both characters. It is, in fact, too late in the day for a philosophical poetry, and we are fatally conscious of a double aim.

      His family came from the Belgian Ardennes, but his father was a French captain of engineers. He married, unhappily, in , adhered to the Commune, travelled with the youthful Arthur Rimbaud and, at Brussels, was tried and sentenced to two years' imprisonment for shooting his friend in a drunken quarrel. For some time he was an usher in England, and towards the end of his career he gave lectures in Belgium, Holland, the French provinces, England, and contributed to respectable reviews.

      He spent years, on and orT, in the hospitals of Paris ; and died in squalid surroundings at the beginning of Verlaine's rank as a poet is still hotly disputed. The phrase ' a transitional Parnassian ' defines him aptly, at least on the formai side of his art. A real raaster of expression, who quite evidently thought in verse, he often preferred to suggest merely, and he carried the semblance of a fluid artlessness in discourse to the frontiers of genius and insipidity.

      Scène de séduction et de drague très classe au cinéma !

      His verse is of very various quality. Much or most of it is not only firm and regular, but rigorous ; and when he chooses to be demure, his sober utterance has almost the virtues of Racine's, without the pride of carriage. Racine alone, and possibly Lamartine, can match his naturel sensitiveness to the merely sonorous value of words — a gift he presumed on. Their common tendency is towards equi vocation.