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Hispania. Volume 77, Number 1, March 1994

Existe una falta de compromiso con los deberes de la vida. Si alguien tiene un hijo, debe hallar el tiempo para criarlo y educarlo. La negligencia conduce a la decadencia. Va contra el estilo de los maestros. Los maestros quieren constancia. Es mejor prometer menos y ser firmes y constantes, que en un momento dado de exuberancia espiritual prometer el oro y el moro, para luego incumplir lo que se ha prometido.

Malentendidos Graciosos

Expiadlos y seguid adelante. Buscad maneras de crecer ajustadas a la realidad divina y comprometeos de una vez para siempre. Hazte cargo de ella. El objetivo no es proteger al ser humano, sino honrar al Cristo en todas las interacciones. El mal uso del chakra de la garganta resulta agresivo.

Considerad cada palabra como una perla y tratadla como tal. Ambos comportamientos son negativos. El destino de las palabras es ser como copas de luz. Las entidades y las palabrotas van de la mano. No hay verdadero poder en la ira. En ellos reside la fortaleza de los adeptos. Se aparece bajo muchas formas y en muy distintos niveles de intensidad.

Deseaba desesperadamente que la amaran y la apreciaran, pero controlaba a la gente hasta tal punto que los alejaba de ella, o estimulaba en ellos la ira o el pavor. Han de orar para ser unos buenos tutores de esas almas. Un hijo puede requerir un trato educativo distinto que otro. Pero os aseguro que conseguirlo es como tener oro en una cuenta corriente celestial. Identificadlos y liberaos de ellos. Al Yo Superior, en cambio, le encanta enfrentarse con todo cuanto libere al alma del morador. No lo hice, y dos de ellos en particular han tenido que enfrentarse con un karma importante.

Pensad en vuestras propias relaciones. No dejaba que nadie controlara las cosas. Saboteaba cualquier tipo de ayuda que se le ofreciera. Sospechaba de todos y era incapaz de ver nada de bueno aunque lo tuviera enfrente. El miedo puede impediros vivir. Puede estar enterrada en lo profundo de la psique o descansar en la superficie. De uno u otro modo, la persona es vulnerable. Algunos individuos la arrastran durante siglos y, con frecuencia, se dirige contra Dios, al que muchos culpan por las circunstancias de su vida. Normalmente, tras la ira se esconden el miedo y el odio. Nos hemos convertido en un planeta donde tales atributos prosperan.

La ira no quiere que la toquen. Le gusta controlar a la persona. En numerosas ocasiones, los maestros ascendidos han mencionado la ira como un grave peligro que impide. El dominio de la mente Continuamente me pregunto el motivo por el cual las tentaciones del mundo ilusorio son tan poderosas, incluso entre los hijos e hijas de Dios.

Existen muchos aspectos de la vida a los que otorgamos poder. Asimismo, pueden ser inventivos y creativos, afirmativos y alentadores, santos y puros. Sois los administradores de vuestro propio ser. En un sentido humano hay numerosos atajos, pero en la realidad espiritual, muy pocos. Por ello es necesario que resolvamos nuestra psique. En cada persona existe una determinada complejidad que no puede solucionarla un consejo superficial. Son fuerzas a las que hay que combatir, y hay que limpiar el planeta de todo lo que vaya contra la vida y contra la luz.

No basta con la reciprocidad. La ceguera espiritual es lo que os mantiene apartados de la gratitud. La ingratitud puede provocar un estado de amargura que impida a un alma con un sustancial logro espiritual el avance en el sendero. Somos responsables de nuestras decisiones.

Si decidimos mantener relaciones sexuales, sabemos que el embarazo puede ser una consecuencia. El relato de un aborto. Nuestro retiro cuenta con unas amplias pantallas como las del cine, utilizadas para informarnos de los acontecimientos que tienen lugar en el universo e impartirnos las lecciones que necesitamos para avanzar. En la pantalla vimos a la chica, una estudiante universitaria, y a su novio. Por ello, presiona enormemente a la chica para que aborte. Se siente confusa y muy atormentada. La chica se siente herida por la actitud de su novio, pero le ama.

Cuando los que supuestamente van a ser sus padres deciden abortar, el alma que abortan puede que haya de esperar mucho tiempo antes de disponer de una nueva oportunidad con una familia distinta, o, en una fecha posterior, de nacer en el seno de la misma.

Sin embargo, en tal caso, puede llegar con una carga adicional de resentimiento o conflictividad como resultado directo del aborto. Pero el odio, la avaricia, la lujuria, el orgullo, el prejuicio y la ingratitud, ciertamente pueden destruirnos. En lugar de ello, buscad maneras de servir y honrar la vida. Ella os aguarda con impaciencia.

Quiero hablaros del reino de los cielos. La falsa piedad no significa nada en el cielo. Las almas deben hacerse responsables de sus propios actos. Cada persona debe examinar su vida para ver el nivel de caridad que hay en ella. El modo que utilizan los santos consiste en mantener el concepto inmaculado. Los padres que no la descubrieron hasta que fueron adultos, creen que sus hijos son afortunados por crecer en el seno de dicha creencia. La irrealidad bombardea al mundo adolescente. Queda grabada en sus almas. Incluso si abandonan su iglesia durante una temporada, es probable que vuelvan.

Dadles la libertad de estudiar otras religiones. Todos pasamos por la prueba del llamado del mundo. Han de experimentar los lazos familiares en un amplio contexto de la fe. Los padres que practican creencias distintas deben hacer resaltar las similitudes existentes entre ellas. Los adolescentes necesitan saber que tienen libertad para elegir su sendero espiritual.

El culto se convierte en una parte importante de la vida familiar. Sin embargo, voy a comunicaros algunos de mis pensamientos y observaciones relacionados con el tema. Han de percibir su papel en el estudio y el aprendizaje como una necesidad que contribuye a su crecimiento. Hay que recalcarlo tanto a padres como a escuelas. Un sistema es defectuoso cuando una raza avanza menos que otra. Eso puede cambiarse. Debe cambiarse. Muchos han sido arrancados de sus padres a causa de guerras y persecuciones.

La lista de causas es larga. Incluso los padres que han sido asesinados anhelan con toda su alma que se nutra y apoye a sus hijos. Hay resplandecientes almas de luz esperando a que las adopten. Ocurra lo que ocurra, suele ser el resultado directo del karma de toda la gente implicada. Ello no ha de ser motivo de temor, sino entenderse como cumplimiento de la ley. A beneficio de nuestra juventud Nunca son bastantes las oraciones que se puedan dedicar al futuro de la juventud.

Hay que salvarla. Mucha gente joven se siente confusa, enojada o sin esperanza ni valores claros. Hay que apelar a diario a. La inocencia es hermosa a los ojos de Dios. No podemos taparlo a fuerza de afirmar que tal miseria es el karma de esas criaturas. Hay que desafiarlas y detenerlas antes de que no podamos controlarlas.

Hay que recuperar las ciudades para que se pueda tener en ellas una vida decente y respetuosa con las leyes. Los portadores de luz deben dar apoyo y alentar todos los esfuerzos que se realizan para proporcionar segundad a nuestras calles y esperanza a nuestros hijos. A veces protegemos al injusto antes que al justo. Los Estados Unidos se fundaron sobre la base de ciertos principios espirituales.

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Necesitamos gente de todas las culturas que respondan al llamado y reclamen el manto de artista divino. Se extienden el odio y las desavenencias entre distintas razas. Los EE. Su identidad se halla en Dios y es de Dios y, en tal aspecto, son una sola. Recordad que la regla de oro, en distintas formas, se halla presente en todas las religiones.

Hay que revalorizarla a fin de unificarnos. El amor es la puerta abierta hacia Dios Mt. Este planeta no es un experimento para ver si una raza sobrevive y las otras perecen. A las fuerzas del mal les encanta manipular los temas raciales. Todos hemos llevado abrigos de distinto color. Nuestra igualdad procede y es de Dios.

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Al mismo tiempo hay que ir al encuentro de la gente para elevarla y hacerla progresar. En los Estados Unidos existe una gran ignorancia acerca de razas y culturas diferentes. En la actualidad corremos peligro a causa de las diferencias raciales, la ira y el odio acumulados. Una vez que cruzamos el umbral de la vida y nos presentamos ante el tribunal que ha de juzgarnos, nuestras almas quedan desnudas ante Dios. Se miden las acciones y el grado de amor que hemos alcanzado y compartido.

No se discute el color de la piel, ni se discute la cultura. Los que imparten seminarios sobre igualdad deben hacer suya primero esa llama. La ira no ha de tener cabida en la conciencia de quien ofrezca un seminario que busque sinceramente el progreso de sus oyentes. Sin embargo, puede resultar de utilidad revelarnos a nosotros mismos las lecciones que hemos aprendido. Lamentablemente, muchos adolescentes leen libros acerca de estos temas cuyas posibilidades les intrigan.

Han perdido toda inocencia. Ellos temen al ojo de Dios. Las hay. Mi tarea es no fracasar en lo que comunico o intento comunicar a los portadores de luz. Hacen falta oraciones intensas y sinceras. Cuando ello ocurre, quieren culpar al sendero en lugar de reconocer el devenir natural de los ciclos espirituales. Todo ello se basa en porcentajes, y el del planeta disminuye cuando la gente buena hace lo mejor.

Para hallar la verdadera respuesta practicad la unidad con la Presencia de Dios. El progreso espiritual adopta muchas apariencias y el sendero se hace a la medida de cada alma. Ni lo uno ni lo otro es acertado. He mencionado varias veces que las huestes ascendidas no hablan ociosamente. Cada palabra que emiten viene cargada de significado e importancia. Estudiadlas para obtener un atisbo del futuro.

De todos modos, hay otro nivel en el cual el brazo del cielo ya ha descendido hasta un punto en el que han de llegar a ocurrir determinados sucesos. Pero desde luego no hay que perder la esperanza. Hay que mantener el concepto inmaculado de la Tierra. Deben predominar los pensamientos y acciones positivos. Debemos desafiar y desenmascarar a las fuerzas del mal. Los que saben la. Vuestros hogares deben ser centros de luz, y vuestros corazones, faros de luz.

Sin embargo, esta llama puede reavivarse y la luz volver a guiar los destinos de los hombres. El gobierno no es el lugar para los que buscan el poder individual por encima de todo. Tampoco lo es para los egotistas o para los que presumen de integridad y, en cambio, la denigran a cada esquina. No puede rechazarse la moralidad ni justificarse la inmoralidad. Pero, si el pilar son la familia o el trabajo, las cosas se van desequilibrando poco a poco y el alma se torna vulnerable.

El padre. Madrid: Arkano Books, No puedo decir lo que va a ocurrir. Pueden transmutar cualquier cosa que les entre en el cuerpo. Con Dios todo es posible. Un llamado a la llama violeta debe ser vuestra primera acogida a lo que vais a comer o a beber. Yo fui uno de estos casos ya que, durante la mayor parte de mi vida, me mantuve bastante sano y, cuando enfermaba, me recuperaba con relativa facilidad. Forman parte de las plagas mencionadas en la Biblia. Antes que nada, damos gracias a Dios por procurarnos el alimento que necesitamos.

Asimismo, es una forma excelente de proteger vuestra salud en aviones y restaurantes. Queda por ver el nivel de gravedad. La semilla debe plantarse en suelo adecuado, hay que regarla, procurarle la luz necesaria y alimentarla para que llegue a florecer. Las perversiones pueden adoptar numerosas apariencias. Como con todas las cosas espirituales, el sendero del antiamor empieza con la voluntad de mirarse uno mismo. Fue en tales momentos cuando hice buen karma y mi alma pudo prosperar. La prueba espiritual consiste en mantenerse aferrado a la voluntad de Dios y al plan divino para vuestra vida.

Caminad con cuidado pero firmemente, sin miedo.

Million Mask March protest underway in London – live updates

Es un hecho reconocido que en un momento dado tendremos que enfrentarnos con nosotros mismos y con todo cuanto bloquea nuestro Yo real. Voy a hacer algunos comentarios acerca de la comunidad que espero sean de ayuda. Comunidad es ante todo un concepto espiritual. Un hombre o una mujer verdaderamente justos son de un valor inapreciable para una comunidad. Comunidad es trabajo. Las personas que forman la comunidad son interdependientes y no dependientes.

Las comunidades florecen donde se ha interiorizado la regla de oro. Se basan en la confianza y el respeto. Las ciudades y sus habitantes claman por el establecimiento de comunidades. La gente desea sentirse a salvo y amada. Quieren sentir la luz sanadora de Dios penetrando en su ser y en sus vidas. Mi hermano y yo somos uno. Comunidad tiene que ver con formar, construir. Cuando se cambia un paradigma, las personas deben contar con la oportunidad de aprender, de expresar sus opiniones y de crecer.

La oportunidad de cambiar ha de ofrecerse. La oportunidad es uno de los componentes clave en el cambio de paradigma. El equilibrio entre el liderazgo y la voz de la comunidad es muy sutil, pero al mismo tiempo vital. La verdadera habilidad consiste en comprometer a la gente en el proceso, de manera que tengan la oportunidad de controlar y solventar el problema.


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Este logro implica a todo el mundo. Nuestra comunidad La familia que formamos vive en una comunidad de buscadores espirituales. Deseamos que sea un lugar donde los buscadores de todas las religiones del mundo, de todas las razas, que alberguen el deseo de una comunidad en sus corazones, vengan y participen en este gran experimento. Mi esposo y yo fuimos parte de los iniciadores de esta comunidad. Es un lugar escabroso pero bello, a unos 1. A veces, los rayos del sol poniente aterrizan sobre las blancas nubes que flotan en un despejado cielo azul cercano a las cimas nevadas.

Ha de ser un lugar que atraiga a los portadores de luz de todas partes. Debe ser tierra sagrada, y la iglesia y la comunidad han de ser el centro. En realidad, la alquimia es neutra. Donde usualmente nos olvidamos de mirar: dentro de nosotros mismos. Solemos dejarnos arrastrar por las fuentes externas de felicidad o por las que parecen aportarnos un destello del futuro y, sin embargo, dejamos de mirar en nuestro interior. La alquimia requiere la conquista del yo finito e implica. Al final, el cable se rompe. Con Dios, todas las cosas son posibles. En la alquimia, todas las cosas son posibles, pero es preciso empezar a tomar medidas para dejar de ser esclavos del no yo.

Orad para que se os muestren los impedimentos que obstaculizan vuestro progreso espiritual. En muchos casos, este molde se ha quedado anticuado a medida que nos hemos ido adaptando a los estilos del mundo. Ya ha dejado de reflejar los patrones puros del Cristo. Debemos romper el molde que nos limita y que nos impulsa a afirmar que lo imposible no es posible y que lo invisible no puede existir. De estos moldes surgen el sentido de la infelicidad y los rasgos negativos.

Reflexionad acerca del molde que os rodea y de las experiencias que os han moldeado en esta vida. Hemos de saber lo que Dios en nosotros es capaz de lograr y dar testimonio de ello. Debemos creer en la posibilidad del cielo en la Tierra y perseguir la voluntad de Dios porque es la del Yo real. Puede resultar hasta familiar, pero ha servido para eclipsar al Yo real y realmente no es quien de verdad sois. Sin embargo, es esta sencillez lo que tantos buscadores no logran percibir. Dios es amor y Dios es justo. Nada de lo que ocurre es arbitrario.

Dejad todo en manos de Dios. Una persona no es realmente libre hasta que todo cuanto desee y quiera para su vida se ajuste a la voluntad de Dios. Cuando uno es libre, es realmente uno con la mente del Cristo. La verdadera creatividad es de Dios, no del hombre. He reflexionado mucho sobre las trampas de la mente humana. Pero cuando uno se halla enfrascado en esta quimera, todo parece tan real Muchos restringen a Dios proyectando limitaciones sobre ellos mismos y sobre sus semejantes.

Todo su ser vibraba de reverencia por ella. El alquimista debe desear alcanzar el dominio sobre los cuatro cuerpos inferiores porque busca liberarse de toda ansiedad y condena. Se trata de un principio de alquimia. Aun cuando la gente cree en este concepto y desea dominarlo, con frecuencia se deja llevar por el desaliento, el miedo o el juicio que pasan por encima de su Yo Superior y se inclinan por afirmar lo humano en lugar de lo divino. La fe me indujo a ser alquimista y, sin embargo, la alquimia ha aumentado mi fe. Hay a quien le molesta la palabra alquimia porche, no le parece espiritual.

Lo cierto es que, para convertirse en alquimista, son necesarios numerosos principios espirituales importantes. Albergan resentimiento por lo que otros han hecho. Es una absoluta confianza en Dios sin importar aquello que llegue a nuestro umbral. La fe es expansiva, nunca limitadora. La fe es la creencia en el poder de Dios de hacer lo que sea. El amor perfecto ve a Cristo en todos.

El amor perfecto no limita ni es amigo de las dudas propias ni del sentimiento de indignidad. El mejor profesor de alquimia es un verdadero alquimista. Examinad vuestros miedos e intentad clasificarlos. Pensad en los siglos pasados en los que hubo grupos de gente que se rebelaron contra Dios. El Antiguo Testamento rebosa de historias que son ejemplo. Antes de que pueda llegar una era dorada, cada jota y cada tilde de karma salen a la superficie para ser equilibradas.

La gracia puede redimir de una parte. Nos has contado bastante acerca de Saint Germain. Porcia no es un ser recientemente ascendido. Puedo afirmar tal cual que estoy enamorado del sistema de justicia que Porcia encarna. La era dorada es el universo que todos anhelamos y muchos se preguntan la causa de que Dios permita que existan tantas desigualdades en nuestro planeta. Pedid que se os lleve a estudiar con Porcia a los retiros. Podemos y debemos retornar a un nivel superior. El declive de los gobiernos y el de la justicia van de la mano. El fervor y la constancia de vuestros llamados pueden elevarlos a ambos.

Nuestro propio sistema judicial se halla en peligro. La justicia se basa en unos principios inalienables. Si se ignoran estos pilares fundacionales o si se trata al sistema como si fuera un juego, no se puede lograr una verdadera justicia. La justicia precisa de la honradez bajo juramento y del honor, por encima de la intriga y el deseo de ganar. Exige una actitud de ausencia de parcialidad que prevalezca por. No es eso lo que ocurre en el sistema judicial de los EE.

Ello no obstante, no se puede funcionar en un sistema de verdadera justicia si nos inclinamos por condenar sin que haya una causa clara y suficiente. Varias veces os he mencionado la importancia del honor y del respeto a la palabra dada. Para ser tratado con confianza y respeto, hay que vivir la vida con el sello de la honradez y la integridad. Y la lista sigue. El plano astral se enrosca con extraordinaria tenacidad. Sin embargo, el proceso no es sencillo. He de dedicar parte del tiempo a intentar salvar almas del plano astral. Trabajar con ese plano es una de las mejores maneras de dar servicio desde este lado, aunque no es una tarea sencilla ni placentera.

Estoy lejos del cien por cien. Permanecer en el plano astral se parece al consumo de drogas. Lo que es real a sus ojos se torna irreal y lo irreal, real. No obstante, a medida que pasa el tiempo, incluso estas almas pueden enfriarse al llamado de la luz. Se hallaba en los niveles superiores del plano astral.

El servicio que se presta en esos retiros hospitalarios es indescriptible por el amor y la paciencia que prodigan. Intentar ayudar a las almas de ese lugar es como convertirse en un guerrero espiritual. A veces, me parece que nadie me escucha y que han aceptado el horrible estado en el que se encuentran. He visto la fealdad del abuso del alcohol y de las drogas.

Todo ello puede atarlos al plano astral. Para conseguir un trabajo efectivo en el plano astral se necesita el poder de expulsar demonio citado en la Biblia Mt. Hay que luchar ferozmente contra esas fuerzas. Se nos dan clases para aprender a salvar almas. Se trata ciertamente de un trabajo asombroso y de un privilegio. Todo cuanto se sufra por Dios es como poner dinero en nuestra cuenta bancaria espiritual.

No se reverencia la santidad de la vida. El honor de Dios en el gobierno y en nuestro sistema de justicia se erosionan sin cesar. La prueba llega cuando el aspirante ha progresado y realizado numerosos cambios internos y externos, muchas novenas y ha purificado su vida. Esto es lo que distingue a los santos de los nobles y decentes aspirantes. Sin embargo, no es para los medrosos o cobardes.

Es algo entre vuestra alma y Dios. Acabamos de enterarnos de la muerte de la Madre Teresa. Sabemos que siempre la amaste y respetaste La Madre Teresa fue en todos los aspectos una santa. Ella fue el recipiente de Dios. Dios provee abundancia cuando la obra de un santo la necesita.

Hay muchas lecciones que aprender de ello. Existe un motivo por el que el hogar de la Madre Teresa estaba en la India. El cielo esperaba su llegada. Se puede tomar un libro en las manos y conocer el grado de verdad que contiene. Es como un invierno en Montana sin rastro de calor. Los corazones pueden bloquearse por innumerables razones. Reconoced, en cambio, que hay que hacer algo. Somos los guardianes de nuestros hermanos, y llevamos cada uno las cargas del otro.

Lo digo porque poca gente lo considera peligroso en las esferas espiritual o emocional. Requiere la voluntad de entrar en el fuego purificador que se intensifica a medida que se llega a mayores alturas en el sendero. Bloquea la gratitud y la alquimia. Sobre la responsabilidad Debo hablaros de la responsabilidad. Hablo por experiencia. Muchas veces, hay personas dispuestas a traer a nuestro umbral las circunstancias a las que somos vulnerables. No somos juguetes de un destino predeterminado. Lo que he observado y se me ha mostrado es la tendencia humana a repetir errores similares ciclo tras ciclo.

Los profetas tienen una tarea muy poco envidiable. Si no es porque repiten las cosas a diario, la gente tiende a olvidarlo. One Hundred Years of Invention presents a few problems. One wonders why, for example, a piece by A. Amaral required a rather poor translation in a volume containing chapters in both English and Portuguese, including a second contribution by Amaral that appears in the original Portuguese.

Also, S. A more technical problem stems from the large number of typographical errors that are disconcerting and at times impede comprehension though Oswald de Andrade would find amusing. Such qualifications, however, do not seriously detract from the volume's worth as an appreciation of the writer's place in the Latin American avant-garde. The bibliography on Modernism in Brazil is enhanced by this centenary celebration of Oswald de Andrade.

One of Chile's most prominent men of letters, Ariel Dorfman has distinguished himself as essayist, novelist, poet, dramatist, and writer of short stories. Perhaps because his works are often complex and difficult to interpret, the bibliography on Dorfman is hardly extensive. For this reason Salvador Oropesa's monograph will be especially welcome to those interested in contemporary Spanish American literature.

Oropesa has divided his book into six major chapters, four dealing with Dorfman's four novels, one treating a selection of his short stories, and one discussing his writings on pop culture. In his introduction Oropesa presents an overview of Dorfman's life and work and, in addition, alludes to the major influences on his literary formation, including Borges, Kundera, Marx, Barthes, and Jakobson.

Oropesa also sees it as a Brechtian work whose preoccupation with the narrative process makes the reader more conscious of its ideological content. Moros en la costa stands out as a strong statement, with Marxist overtones, on Chile under Salvador Allende. Laconic in its prose and more traditional in structure, Viudas contrasts sharply with its predecessor.

Here Dorfman has invented an allegory about his homeland under General Pinochet's military regime, the setting of which is a Greek village Longa suffering from Nazi oppression during World War II. Oropesa sees in this tragic novel a Manichean struggle between good and evil, the widows of the village embodying good and their German oppressors, evil. Also pointed out by the critic are resonances of Borges in the narrative technique.

The two protagonists are militant Allende supporters in the process of writing a satirical film script about Augusto Pinochet. But this work [72] has multiple narrative voices and at least three plot threads, one of which involves fetuses refusing to be born into a society suffering from the abuses of power a major theme. Among the possible influences on this text are Brecht and modernist fiction writers, who emphasize estrangement techniques, and Barthes and Jakobson, whose ideas on deconstruction are plainly discernible.

Important aspects of this novel, we are told, include elements of the absurd, parallels between linguistic and physical violence, and echoes of Milan Kundera's fiction. Para leer al pato Donald , Dorfman's best-known treatise on pop culture, is the principal subject of Oropesa's final chapter, which analyzes this well-known essay both as an example of postmodernism and as a Marxist attack on the capitalistic ideology conveyed by the eponymous Disney cartoon. Salvador Oropesa's monograph is marred by printing errors, but his scholarly study represents a fine contribution to the bibliography on an internationally acclaimed writer.

Her study becomes more interesting when she moves away from critics and definitions and concentrates on the many and varied uses of the carnivalesque in the four novels analyzed. Similarly, she perceives an overabundance of religious symbolism in El general en su laberinto , as well as a surprising presence of the author in the text. She identifies many and varied illustrative examples from the novels in question, and also accurately observes the presence of abundant biblical and literary allusions and religious symbolism.

But she exaggerates some points and overexplains other rather simple ones, such as St. Peter's denial of Christ. Useful contributions are somewhat obscured, as well, by an abundance of typing or printing errors [73] which a good editor or a more careful rereading might have caught, resulting in a much more readable work. Shaw, Donald L. Borges: Narrative Strategy.

Leeds: Francis Cairns, Borges scholarship is currently being produced at such a phenomenal rate that scholars now have to be more selective than ever in their reading. This intellectually stimulating volume adds significantly to the ongoing critical discussion. The subject matter is Borges's literary craftsmanship, namely his fictional technique, rather than the meaning of his stories.

The second chapter concerns narrative techniques in Borges's earliest collection of stories, Historia universal de la infamia. Successive chapters treat opening strategies, framing devices, pivotal episodes and shifting themes, interludes and inlaid details, narratorial stances, and finally, closing strategies. Throughout this study, Shaw highlights Borges's contributions toward dismantling the typical straightforward, linear style of narration based on the generally accepted view of reality as the product of cause and effect.

Borges interprets reality as something much less predictable and more chaotic than the version offered by previous narrators, and his writings call into question the notion that it can be perceived or communicated in a rational, orderly manner. It is, therefore, not surprising that he employs nontraditional patterns to describe that reality.

This is a necessary recourse because the solutions offered by popular fiction are unconvincing; real-life endings cannot always be so tidy. Shaw also focuses on the close correlation between technique and theme. The tight interweaving of form and content and the skillful blending of the real and the imaginary undermine deeply-rooted beliefs concerning existence, identity, and the nature of reality. Shaw occasionally becomes contentious when taking issue with other critics. Readily acknowledging that there is more than one way to read Borges, he nevertheless deliberately?

Borges would appreciate the irony. The study concludes with a selective bibliography of secondary sources treating Borges's narrative techniques and a quick-reference index to all the stories discussed. In the face of the infinite, chaotic stream of critical writing on Borges, this is one contribution that will not get lost in the shuffle.

Elzbieta Sklodowska has written a fine introduction to the testimonio and its status in Latin American letters. In this timely book, she identifies many of the complexities inherent in the [74] nature of the testimonio and questions the haste with which such a problematic form of discourse has been canonized by scholars. While recognizing the contributions of other researchers, she convincingly argues that many of the assertions that have been made about testimonial literature to date do not stand up well to critical scrutiny.

The author dedicates the first half of her book to theoretical issues involved in the production and criticism of testimonial literature. To define testimonio , they borrow the conventions of realist literature, conventions that are anachronistic in a postmodern context. She discusses the analogies between the testimonio and the discourse of modern ethnography, and points out the problematic relationship between the editor and informant, as well as the political issues raised by these two forms of discourse.

The second half of the book treats four mediated testimonial texts. The relationship between informants, editors, and the targeted reading public is complex and troublesome. Sklodowska believes that a defect of many testimonios is that they avoid or cover up these tensions in their meta-discourses. For the critic, this self-examination of the contradictions of testimonial literature is not only a more honest approach, but one that makes for more effective texts. Sklodowska's arguments are well-reasoned and articulately stated. Her book -the recipient of the Northeast Modern Language Association Foreign Language Award-, raises questions that will enhance the discussion over testimonial literature and stimulate further research into this interesting phenomenon.

Tittler, Jonathan. Manuel Puig. New York: Twayne Publishers, Through a close reading that draws upon Freud' psychoanalysis and Bakhtin's theories of narrative, Tittler offers a remarkable study of Puig's eight novels and some of his works in other genres. Tittler not only acknowledges Puig's innovative narrative techniques, but reveals the crucial link between his style and thematic. He declares that Puig's innovation in the novel consists in his incorporation of mass-entertainment products and in his replacement of the patriarchal ethereal discourse by a polyphonic decentered one, that not only eliminates the hierarchy of the narrative but also attacks the absolutist society and its power structures.

Puig, through an already deviated narrative form, questions the proper novelistic discourse and experiments with new strategies. Colloquial language becomes literary and the idiom of Hollywood is used to express the [75] sublime. The first transgression is the fragmentation of the textual totality.

Verdadero Angel, Un/ Malentendido, Un : Margaret Way :

In Heartbreak Tango, the parts, the isolated effects, are more important than the whole. Pubis Angelical 's dream scene, according to Tittler, encloses a very strong metatextual statement. It is the answer to the patriarchal resistance to change. Eternal Curse on the Reader of These Pages makes the erasure motif a central theme.

Tittler shows us how Puig continues to try new ways of conveying meaning in a world where, in many cases, the image is stronger than the word. There is no doubt that Jonathan Tittler has long pondered what he so clearly develops here. The volume concludes with a brief, two-essay segment on the oral literary tradition in Mexico. By and large, the intellectual and scholarly quality of the thirty-two essays is very good, and the two volumes are meticulously proved and attractively bound.

Some of the strongest essays are penned by guest-contributors. The conscious decision to present the widest-ranging scope of the current research interests of the CELL faculty necessarily results in a lack of a cohesive focus in the collection, both in the individual volumes themselves and in the subsections of each volume. Likewise, there is a perhaps understandable lack of balance in the section of the Literature volume dedicated to literature in Spanish from the Colonial period to the present, since seven of the thirteen essays in question deal with Mexican topics.

This is neither a reference grammar of Spanish nor an inquiry into the nature of grammar itself. Instead, it is a discourse on some areas that tend to prove problematic for the English-speaking student of Spanish. The book consists of ten chapters of grammatical analyses and exercises, to which are appended seven short stories as foci and exemplars of the linguistic arguments expounded in the body of the text. There is in addition a useful Instructor's Manual of thirty eight pages. For some reason this is in English, even though the rest of the text is in Spanish and one presumes that the class discussions will be in Spanish.

The first section in each chapter is titled Para Empezar. This often includes a translation exercise Spanish to English that dwells on the problems to be tackled in the chapter. This is really the core of each chapter. It offers grammatical explications as well as exercises specific to the points being discussed. The exercises here could usually be handled either as written or oral. In this part students are required to find and interview native speakers of Spanish in an attempt to elicit various speech patterns. The authors maintain that finding native speakers is rarely a problem if students spend enough time looking.

While this might be true in large areas of the country, it is still quite untrue for even larger areas. Hence these exercises would have to be ignored or adapted when compliant native speakers of Spanish prove impossible to find. Finally, an attempt is made to apply the grammar in Lecturas , the seven short stories [77] included at the end of the text.

Quite a few of the sample sentences used throughout the book to exemplify particular grammatical points are drawn from these readings. The concentration is on uses of the language in these short stories, rather than characterization or theme, but for many instructors the presence of these short stories could provide opportunities for introductory literary analysis. Not all the other selections are of outstanding intrinsic interest. Though one might hope that all students at this level would possess their own Spanish-English dictionary, it might have been useful to offer a more comprehensive gloss of the words used in the readings.

The book does offer a glosario, but this is used for defining grammatical terms, not for the lexicon used in the readings. Regrettably, the book provides no index of topics treated. Apart from the literary readings, each chapter uses sentences or whole paragraphs to exemplify particular points. These selections can be a little grating.

For instance, is a long paragraph on the British royal family or fairy tales such as Little Red Riding Hood and Goldilocks appropriate for this kind of book? The Instructor's Manual, too, is marred from time to time by a slightly patronizing attitude to teachers of Spanish, e.

Manual 2. It is probably inevitable that some elements in extensive discussions of grammar such as contained in this or any book will provoke less than unanimous agreement among readers. Several formulations offered by Lunn and DeCesaris are at least highly debatable, if not erroneous. Does any native speaker of Spanish really construe the future tense as employed in a Spanish weather forecast to be the future of probability 13? Of course there are. They are usually identical in form with the infinitive, but they are still subjunctives, e. Or think of a doublet such as I insist that Patrick works here versus I think that Patrick work here.

There are other cases where at least one reader would differ from these authors. For instance, they follow the old analysis of deriving command forms haga algo from a putative underlying form such as yo quiero que usted haga algo. But if this is valid, how is it that affirmative familiar commands don't obey the paradigm?

The authors see their book as oriented towards advanced students. However, quite a few of the topics dealt with do not appear too advanced. For instance, there are two pages on the formation of adverbs, not exactly a difficult matter in Spanish. And the exposition of hay seems unnecessarily long. For students of Spanish at this level, is it really necessary to point out that usted and ustedes behave like third person pronouns? The level of discourse when treating other topics is sometimes less than advanced.

These common expressions are seldom introduced in our elementary and intermediate texts, and a student can go through an entire program in Spanish without ever coming across them. Here too might have fitted an extended treatment of gustar , a construction which even our best undergraduate students never appear to master. There are many other cases where one feels that the book might have offered the advanced student a somewhat richer diet.

As for the subjunctive: the book does add somewhat to explanations which students will have previously encountered in beginning and intermediate textbooks. For instance, it ties together para que and antes de que. Even those non-native speakers of Spanish who think they know all the rules are sometimes surprised by a native speaker's choice of aspect in the past tense. The authors offer an interesting but short exposition on journalistic uses of the preterite and imperfect, but a book at this level could have expanded on these non-paradigmatic uses. There are lots of good things in the book, and the authors illuminate many subtleties of Spanish that rarely receive comment.

Take their treatment of the distinction between simple future and ir a future And it is an interesting insight to link verbs that always carry the reflexive pronoun, such as quejarse , atreverse , with a verb like suicidarse that is explicitly reflexive. The treatment of se is very comprehensive, though students at this level need to be alerted to the morphology of a phrase like se le vio.

The book's production quality is good, the only misprint noticed being matromonio The Spanish-language and punctuation -in which the book is written would scarcely be typical of that of a similar book produced in Spain, but only one Anglicism stands out Lunn and DeCesaris believe that a detailed linguistic study of a language will yield long term benefits in both listening and speaking.

In their view this book will help students not just in the acquisition of Spanish but also in the ability to think and make generalizations about language itself. One can differ with some of their formulations and disagree with choices and emphases the authors have made. However, this should not cloud the fact that Lunn and DeCesaris have produced a workman-like text that provides a welcome addition to our rather sparse shelf of advanced grammar textbooks. Divided into sixteen chapters organized around a variety of themes, such as the family, student life, and tourism, each chapter contains dialogues, one or two communicative functions, a grammar section, a reading, and dialogue translations.

A Spanish-English dictionary and a grammar index round out the text. No answer key is provided. Grammar topics have been carefully chosen and limited, and include, for example, the present, the present progressive, the preterite and imperfect, formal commands, present subjunctive, and the essential pronouns. Grammar presentations are contrastive and given in English. Explanations are simple, minimal and explicit, and tend to be followed immediately by an application, usually a drill. Lecturas begin in chapter 1 and gradually increase in length and complexity.

Readings and dialogues often have footnoted information of cultural interest, given in Spanish after the first [79] chapter. Supporting cultural learning as well are the numerous newspaper ads and print realia interspersed throughout the text. Active vocabulary is presented in complete Spanish sentences in Palabras en contexto at the beginning of each chapter. Students unable to intuit word meaning by context can turn to the dictionary for an English equivalent and the number of the chapter where the word first appears. Graphic images are imprecise.

Typographical errors include incorrect capitalization in the Table of Contents iii. Viernes 42 and pomelo are active lexical items not found in the text dictionary. Maja appears in a dialogue, but no meaning or translation is given. One dialogue translation is missing an entire line compare with , while another is mistranslated.

Survey courses in Spanish literature are common college offerings but good published anthologies for them are rare. Compiling one is daunting for any individual because he or she will inevitably be forced to work beyond his or her own area of expertise. It is distinctive in several ways. First, there is a marked preference for prose over poetry.

Machado, seven pages by Lorca and six by Aleixandre. Second, the anthologist minimizes material from medieval and Renaissance Spanish literature in favor of more contemporary selections, especially from twentieth-century authors whose works fill the last third of the book. She may cover fewer of the big names, but students should be able to get a feel for the style and message of the writers whose thoughts they do read. She is certainly correct that women writers have been systematically denied their just access to the public and to academic i.

Her title, Texto y vida , is meant to allude [80] to a student's need -and a teacher's responsibility- to take critical stock of this material. A course in Spanish literature should not be simply another language class with antique examples. The readings themselves are prefaced with informative and helpful essays on the period and author, and are complemented by up-to-date bibliographies for further reading.

There are copious notes on vocabulary, with Spanish synonyms when feasible. Finally, there are follow-up sections to guide students through questions of content, literary analysis and the broader significance of the themes which underlie the selection. Los peregrinos pecan por ser bastante derivativos de obras ya publicadas o las narrativas publicadas se derivan de estos cuentos.

Los otros, sin embargo, no tuvo aliento para terminarlos y los temas son archivados con la libreta. Pero, en el proceso de recordarlos, les pierde el entusiasmo y los vuelve a archivar. Madrid: Alfaguara, Indica asimismo que ha escondido su obra por los infinitos recovecos del archivo para que su suerte quede al arbitrio del azar.

Si Bustarga retraza con progresivo desencanto [82] los pasos de su admirado Saelices, la novela parece asimismo incumplir las expectativas de peripecia y sorpresa que despierta al comienzo. Montero , Rosa. Bella y oscura. Barcelona: Seix Barral, Rosa Montero's readers will find in her most recent novel much that is familiar reflections on the importance of love, the difficulty of male-female relationships, and problems of communication, as well as an obsession with death and the passage of time.

The setting for Bellay oscura is El Barrio, a tough neighborhood that is on the outskirts of a large city and borders on a shanty town. Montero thus situates the action in a marginal world of marginal beings, an ex-centric space that is populated by social outcasts. Although the vision is the child's, the voice and diction are those of an older person. The symbolism of the names is evident. The female characters are the center of attention; the males, most of whom are cruel and bestial, are relegated to the sidelines, with the exception of Chico.

The boy, terrified of the brutality around him, imitates the chameleon and adopts the coloration of his surroundings in order to fade into the background and escape his father's wrath. Montero contrasts the sordid reality of the adult world, with its betrayal, cruelty, and degradation, to the innocence -or ignorance- and incomprehension of the children, who are the victims of their elders' violence.

Some of the most poetic passages of the novel are those devoted to Airelai's marvelous stories, such as the one in which she explains her special gift, the price she has paid for it, and how all her wishes will come true when the comet that coincided with her conception again blazes its way across the heavens. Her prophecy is fulfilled, ironically, at the novel's conclusion with the plane explosion that kills the midget and the man she loves. The irony is intensified by the narrator's joy at what she regards as proof that desires are always fulfilled, when in fact the explosion destroys the possibility of her being reunited with her father.

The closing chapter illustrates Montero's thesis that life is a blend of beauty and horror. On several occasions Montero has commented that one of the challenges facing women writers is that of creating new myths that would broaden our cultural horizon, currently dominated by male-generated myths, and in Bella y oscura she has rewritten both Plato's parable of the circular beings who existed prior to the division of humans into male and female halves, and the story of Paradise and expulsion from it.

In Montero's version the earth was once an Eden populated by genderless double beings: giants who bore midgets on their shoulders. The former were strong, audacious, intuitive, and sensual, whereas the latter were intelligent, imaginative, and sensitive. Each was the companion for and complement of the other, but one midget's desire brought an end to these perfect unions and condemned us to incompleteness and the endless search for our lost soul mate. Airelai, incidentally, dismisses as utter nonsense the biblical tale about an apple. Montero is adept at finding the telling detail [83] that makes a scene come to life, and she excels in creating memorable characters.

Her battle against oblivion is an expression of Montero's preoccupation with the ephemerality of existence and the precariousness of memory. Bella y oscura is well-written and carefully constructed. The opening sentence presents in capsule form the main elements of the plot, and the pictures that decorate Airelai's trunk are the thread that links her most important narratives. Although the message and symbolism of the novel are perhaps too obvious, the presentation of a number of strong female characters, the emphasis upon women's wisdom, o and the revisionist mythmaking are likely to interest many readers.

Sarduy, Severo. Barcelona: Tusquets, The presence of the semiotics of both Roland Barthes and Jacques Derrida informs the novel, and it continues the same kaleidoscopic, experimental tradition seen in his earlier volume, Cocuyo As Siempreviva continues her search, she has flashbacks to her fife as Sonia and of the madness that caused her to have an automobile accident in her blue Bugatti. The fact that she survived the ordeal resulted in the nickname Siempreviva.

Wearing her art nouveau hat, she leaves the superhighway and the snack bar behind and walks indecisively along the waterfront. Should she return to the manor house and its idiosyncratic cast of characters, she asks herself? Should she stay at the beach, or should she try yet a third time to recapture her lost youth?

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The unsigned poems on the first seven pages recall incidents in the novel, especially incidents relating to the process of recapturing lost youth. It is the last poem, however, that brings the novel to a kind of closure. In the early sixties he went to Madrid and then to Paris to study art history. He spent the rest of his life in Paris and began his career as a novelist with such complex works as De donde son los cantantes and Cobra. It is somewhat less accessible than Cocuyo , but at the same time it is a work of merit and import.

Solares, Ignacio. El gran elector. Madero dirigidas al presidente, al secretario y a quien las lea. Para resumir, El gran elector no condena ni justifica nada. Julio Woscoboinik es el ejemplo del intelectual suramericano, europeo, cuyo intelecto no se deja limitar por un solo tema. Tenemos que ver con un personaje literario de dimensiones dostoyevsquianas. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge [87] [88]. This package contains the system software Transparent Language, three literary selections an episode of El sombrero de tres picos , the windmill adventure of Don Quijote, and Mi hermana Antonia , plus audio cassettes to accompany the readings.

Documentation consists of a page User's Guide which is generic to the Transparent Language series for the Macintosh, version 1. Installation instructions are straightforward and non-technical. It took less than five minutes to set up the program using a Macintosh II si. The charm of this presentation of annotated texts is its ease of use. Navigation is simple: the user is always in control as to how to proceed in the text. However, by present-day industry standards it represents a low-end hypertext application.

A major flaw in the design is the inability to print anything the programmer has altered the Command-P combination which invariably prints a document -to open and close the Phrase Meaning window. Another flaw is that users cannot add personal notes to the text. Basically, the user scans or reads the text by moving the cursor either with the arrow keys or the mouse in the Main Text Window. Ancillary information, if available, appears in the other windows.

As expected in any Macintosh application, windows can be opened, closed, enlarged or made smaller. On-screen help is limited to instructions on how to use Transparent Language navigational commands. In print there is a two-sided handout on Don Quijote , a similar flyer on Mi hermana Antonia , and two paragraphs on El sombrero de tres picos.

Nowhere in the package does it specify which edition any of these annotated commentaries are based upon. The student therefore approaches these texts in a tabula rasa manner, potentially unknowing the sketchiest of profiles of their respective authors, nor having any idea of the absolute or relative importance of the works under scrutiny.

At best, such superficial treatment of the selections might get the student to read on the computer screen a Spanish text with spotty English supports; at worst, it is less helpful than using an interlinear translation of the work. The translations themselves are generally well done. However, teachers wishing to incorporate Don Quijote into a fist of holdings in a computer lab might question the use of Smollett's century English translation, since a great deal of Cervantine scholarship has accrued in the intervening years. The unwary student might marvel at the incredible natural congruence between Spanish and English syntax.

As an example, the figure below shows a display of Don Quijote. This illustration exemplifies the uneven treatment of textual commentary which could otherwise help the reader gain a greater insight into the given literary work. The editors do not deal with matters of style. The audio cassettes which accompany the three software titles are of very limited use to the student. The same female native speaker of Spanish narrates all three titles with some negative interference from a second language.

Not that a dramatic reading is expected, nor that one ought to hear several actors each playing a different part, but a poorly articulated monotone delivery is inadequate. Again, lack of editorial control is evident in the recordings. Despite these shortcomings, the Transparent Language packaged texts in Spanish are of some use to teachers of Spanish. Based on the three texts reviewed, it appears that there is a lack of editorial policy from the standpoint of the publisher. Other titles would seem interesting, but users ought to carefully preview individual works before purchase.

ACH Newsletter [Winter ], 1,5, Hill y Wang, ]. Dos de los archivos son listas de vocabulario. CRC , es innovadora. CNT ver fig. La probabilidad de El programa puede ayudar a determinar el grado de la in consistencia del crecimiento de vocabulario en una o varias obras, y por lo tanto, en uno o varios autores. No obstante se requieren algunos conocimientos del manejo de directorios y archivos en DOS. Se puede elegir el archivo a estudiar con el teclado o con el ratoncito. EXE y los archivos de doc. Micronet, S. La rapidez con que ocurre este movimiento depende de dos factores: la rapidez de acceso de la lectora de CD-ROM y la potencia de procesamiento del ordenador.

Este primer disco de la serie Admyte augura un buen futuro para un proyecto que es ambicioso a la vez que complejo. The University of Toledo [98]. Using the global search -and- replace function of your word processor, change the foreign characters to these recommended strings:. You can distinguish certain words or phrases by using the following two-letter commands between braces:.

Set your line length right margin between 65 and 78 characters. Include your name, institution, address, and phone number at the top of the document. No son los capitanes Cipiones, ni Alejandros los reyes, si no saben vencer sus apetitos y pasiones. Newark, Delaware: Juan de la Cuesta, James C. Dictionary of the Literature of the Iberian Peninsula. Westport: Greenwood Press, Richard D. London: Tamesis, Pierre L. Vigo: Galaxia, Michael , and Harvey L.

Sharrer, eds. Hispanic Studies in Honor of Samuel G. Connie L. Hispanic Studies Textual Research and Criticism, vol. Frederick A. Cramsie , editores. Madrid: Verbum, Spanish American Authors. The Twentieth Century. New York: The H.


  • Margaret Way | LibraryThing.
  • Victory Over Sin;
  • Fog City Nocturne: From the Casebook of Nick Chambers;
  • Spanish - Noorart.
  • Le Général de pierre - Livre III - La Mer (French Edition).
  • The Life of a Master in the West, Omraam Mikhaël Aïvanhov.

Wilson Company, Contemporary Argentine Cinema. Columbia, Missouri: U of Missouri Press, Myron I.