Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No. On 1 January digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in that still proceeded to be overtaken in , and Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch , inch, inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette , DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch.
The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs. Caucasian race The Caucasian race is a grouping of human beings regarded as a biological taxon, depending on which of the historical race classifications used, have included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe , Western Asia , Central Asia , South Asia , North Africa , the Horn of Africa.
In biological anthropology , Caucasoid has been used as an umbrella term for phenotypically similar groups from these different regions, with a focus on skeletal anatomy, cranial morphology , over skin tone. Ancient and modern "Caucasoid" populations were thus held to have ranged in complexion from white to dark brown. Since the second half of the 20th century, physical anthropologists have moved away from a typological understanding of human biological diversity towards a genomic and population-based perspective, have tended to understand race as a social classification of humans based on phenotype and ancestry as well as cultural factors, as the concept is understood in the social sciences.
In the United States , the root term Caucasian has often been used in a different, societal context as a synonym for white or of European, Middle Eastern , or North African ancestry, its usage in American English has been criticized. The traditional anthropological term Caucasoid is a conflation of the demonym Caucasian and the Greek suffix eidos, implying a resemblance to the native inhabitants of the Caucasus.
In its usage as a racial category, it contrasts with the terms Negroid and Australoid ; the term Caucasian referred in a narrow sense to the native inhabitants of the Caucasus region. In his The Outline of History of Mankind, the German philosopher Christoph Meiners first used the concept of a "Caucasian" race in its wider racial sense. Meiners acknowledged two races: the Caucasian or beautiful, the Mongolian or ugly.
His Caucasian race encompassed all of the ancient and most of the modern native populations of Europe, the aboriginal inhabitants of West Asia, the autochthones of Northern Africa , the Indians, the ancient Guanches. In his earlier racial typology, Meiners put forth that Caucasians had the "whitest, most blooming and most delicate skin". In a series of articles, Meiners boasts about the superiority of Germans among Europeans, describes non-German Europeans' color as "dirty whites", in an unfavorable comparison with Germans; such views were typical of early proto-scientific attempts at racial classification, where skin pigmentation was regarded as the main difference between races.
This view was shared by the French naturalist Julien-Joseph Virey , who believed that the Caucasians were only the palest-skinned Europeans, it was Johann Friedrich Blumenbach , a German professor of medicine and a member of the British Royal Society , who came to be considered one of the founders of the discipline of anthropology, who gave the term a wider audience, by grounding it in the new methods of craniometry and Linnean taxonomy. Blumenbach did not credit Meiners with his taxonomy, although his justification points to Meiners' aesthetic viewpoint of Caucasus origins: Caucasian variety — I have taken the name of this variety from Mount Caucasus, both because its neighborhood, its southern slope, produces the most beautiful race of men, I mean the Georgian.
R.O.C.K. In The U.S.A. (A Salute To 60's Rock)
Blumenbach would assert that of the various Caucasian varieties, the Northern European type represented the perfect form. In contrast to Meiners, Blumenbach was a monogenist — he considered all humans to have a shared origin and to be a single species. Blumenbach, like Meiners, did rank his Caucasian grouping higher than other groups in terms of mental faculties or potential for achievement. In various editions of On the Natural Variety of Mankind, Blumenbach expanded on Meiners' popular idea and defined five human races based on color, using popular racial terms of his day, justified with scientific terminology, cranial measurements, facial features, he established Caucasian as the "white race", Mongoloid as the "yellow race", Malayan as the "brown race", Ethiopian as the "black race", American as the "red race".
In the 3rd edition of his On the Natural Variety of Mankind, Blumenbach moved skin tone to second-tier importance after noticing that poorer European people whom he observed worked outside became darker skinned through sun exposure. He noticed that darker skin of an "olive-tinge" was a natural feature of some European populations closer to the Mediterranean Sea. Alongside the anthropologist Georges Cuvier , Blumenbach classified the Caucasian race by cranial measurements and bone morphology in addition to skin pigmentation, thus considered more than just the palest Europeans as archetypes for the Caucasian race.
Following Meiners, Blumenbach described the Caucasian race as con.
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Backing vocalist. Related Images. YouTube Videos. The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. A typical inch LP vinyl record. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early s, and developed into a range of different styles in the s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. Red Hot Chili Peppers in , showing a quartet lineup for a rock band from left to right: bassist, lead vocalist, drummer, and guitarist.
Elvis Presley in a promotion shot for Jailhouse Rock in The Everly Brothers in The Shirelles in An audio engineer helps to produce a recording or a live performance, balancing and adjusting sound sources using equalization and audio effects, mixing, reproduction, and reinforcement of sound. Audio engineers work on the " Noted audio engineer Roger Nichols at a vintage Neve recording console. Acoustic diffusing mushrooms hanging from the roof of the Royal Albert Hall.
Live sound mixing. Japanese heavy metal drummer Yoshiki 's drum riser at Madison Square Garden.
R.O.C.K. In the U.S.A. (A Salute To 60's Rock) Lyrics
Gene Krupa was the first jazz drummer to lead his own big band The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, and four to six strings or courses. Musical instrument inventor Paul Tutmarc outside his music store in Seattle, Washington.
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An early Fender Precision Bass. Design patent issued to Leo Fender for the second-generation Precision Bass. The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that usually has six strings. Illustration labeled " cythara " in the Stuttgart Psalter , a Carolingian psalter from the 9th century. The instrument shown is of the chordophone family, possibly an early citole or lute. The Guitar Player c. An 8-string baritone tricone resonator guitar. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening.
A selection of flutes from around the world. Chinese women playing flutes, from the 12th-century Song dynasty remake of the Night Revels of Han Xizai, originally by Gu Hongzhong 10th century. Panflute players. Cantigas de Santa Maria , midth century, Spain. Statue of Krishna playing a flute. African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
The term typically refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Slaves processing tobacco in 17th-century Virginia. Reproduction of a handbill advertising a slave auction in Charleston , South Carolina, in Crispus Attucks , the first " martyr " of the American Revolution. He was of Native American and African-American descent.
Drawing of the skull of a Georgian female by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, used as an archetype for the Caucasian racial characteristics in his De Generis Humani Varietate. Reconstruction of the head of the Shanidar 1 fossil, a Neanderthal male who lived in Iraq c.
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Prior to his presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd governor of California from to Ronald Reagan's boyhood home in Dixon, Illinois. Ronald Reagan at Fort Roach. Guest stars for the premiere of The Dick Powell Show. Reagan can be seen wearing a ten-gallon hat on the far left. Reagan and his first wife Jane Wyman , Mellencamp performing in Norfolk, Virginia in A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album.
A producer has many, varying roles during the recording process. Phil Spector producing Modern Folk Quartet , Brian Wilson at a mixing board in Brother Studios , He is best known for his radio show The Howard Stern Show, which gained popularity when it was nationally syndicated on terrestrial radio from to A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions.
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