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By the medieval period, the Church observed several liturgical seasons of the year. Two involved periods of preparation in advance of the two most important feast days of the western church: Advent, which preceded Christmas; and Lent, which came to an end with the celebration of the Triduum from the evening of Holy Thursday, through Good Friday, and Holy Saturday, and ending the evening of Easter Sunday. These two feasts initiated their own celebratory seasons: the Christmas season, concluded by the feast of the Epiphany January 6 and its octave January 13 ; and the Easter season, concluded by the feast of Pentecost fifty days later and its octave.

Essentially, Easter falls on the Sunday following the first full moon after the vernal equinox. Therefore, the dates of other religious observations in the Lent and Easter seasons are also variable: for example, Ash Wednesday, Ascension Thursday, and Pentecost Sunday.

The date of Christmas was set as December 25 in the mid-4th century and was therefore celebrated on that fixed date no matter what the day of the week or the phase of the Moon, like the feast days of Mary and the saints. Sundays during these seasons were numbered, for example, the first Sunday of Advent or the third Sunday of Lent. The temporal cycle could also be expanded. The sanctoral cycle was composed of feasts of the saints. These feasts were rooted in the more ancient veneration of early Christian martyrs and confessors at Rome and elsewhere; as time went on, other men and women who lived what the surrounding community considered to be lives of exemplary holiness came to be venerated also as saints.

This superstructure of liturgical time had a direct impact on the texts of the liturgy, particularly for the Mass and Office. Copies of this liturgical calendar came to be included in the Missal and the Breviary, with local additions for feasts observed on the local level of diocese or religious order. The actual manipulation of the various textual components could, however, become quite complex.

Medieval liturgy was rooted in the liturgical developments of late antiquity. The celebration of the Eucharist the Mass was at the heart of medieval liturgical life, regardless of the season. Therefore, it is useful to discuss briefly the interaction between medieval eucharistic theology and the actual celebration of the Mass. In addition to the public Mass offered on Sundays, during the earlier Middle Ages, the celebration of Mass had been extended to every day of the week with the exception of Good Friday, on which no Mass was offered, but communion was distributed from previously consecrated hosts ; the texts and music used would vary according to the liturgical season, feast, or day of the week.

These Masses could be offered for any one of a number of special intentions or reasons, but came to be most frequently offered on behalf of a deceased person, for which the priest would be offered a stipend normally a small sum of money. Theological issues concerning the real presence of Christ in the Eucharistic species also had an effect on the celebration of Mass in the medieval period. The monk Paschasius Radbertus held that the Body of Christ present in the Eucharist was that identical to the historical body of Christ, born of Mary and ascended into heaven; his confrere, the monk Ratramnus, instead supported the idea of a real, spiritual presence of Christ, based on the essentially Platonic idea that spiritual reality was a reality superior to that experienced in the material world through the senses.

Some two centuries later, another theologian, the archdeacon Berengar of Tours d. This physicalist position was eventually superseded in the later 12th and 13th centuries by the concept of transubstantiation, which made use of a more Aristotelian framework. Simply put, physical objects were understood to be composed of both substance the inner reality and accidents, various elements of physical appearance to the senses, which could vary without changing the inner essence of reality, the substance.

In the case of the bread and wine at Mass, the substance, or inner reality, of bread and wine, was replaced at the consecration, and instead the inner reality of the body and blood of Christ became the substance. The accidents, that is, the outer appearance of the bread and wine to the senses, remain the same. These early medieval theological stresses, coupled with other cultural issues, may have led in part to the decline in the actual reception of communion by the laity. In response, the Fourth Lateran Council mandated that every Catholic was obligated to go to confession and receive communion at least once a year.

The Fourth Lateran Council mandated that the reserved sacrament as well as the chrism , consecrated oil be kept under lock and key. In the 13th century, a special display stand for carrying a consecrated host in procession, the monstrance, came into use, and became more elaborately designed as the period progressed.

A liturgical book is generally understood to be one that is actually used during a liturgical celebration, as opposed to one intended for reference, utilized to prepare or plan ahead of time, or offering commentary on the liturgy. Another influential factor is the reality that the Roman liturgy was not the only liturgical system in use during the early medieval period. Initially, different western rites, in this case referring to geographically defined traditions of liturgical uses, developed in several areas, including Rome, Benevento, and Milan the Ambrosian Rite in Italy, Spain the Mozarabic Rite , and France the Gallican Rite, particularly in Francia , the early medieval kingdom of the Franks.

Beginning in the 7th century, the early Roman rite was diffused to many other areas of the western church and continued its development with lesser or greater local adaptation. This is especially true of the strong Gallican and later, Germanic influence on the shape and content of the Roman liturgy. In the earliest period, there were a number of different collections or books used during the celebration of the Mass, the Divine Office, and other liturgical rites.

With a few exceptions, the titles used for some of these books could vary. In later centuries, there was a pronounced tendency to compile individual volumes or small sets of volumes that were more comprehensive, containing in a single book, at least the minimum, if not most of the textual material required for that specific rite or by that specific presider. In time, the nomenclature used for these liturgical books became more uniform:. The Pontificale pontifical , the book for the bishop, containing the texts for the rites at which he was expected to preside;.

The Breviarium breviary , the book s used by the major clergy as well as men and women members of religious orders for the daily celebration of the Divine Office. Other liturgical books were also used, both in the earlier and later medieval periods, by others involved in liturgical activity, for example, those involved with liturgical music the choir or chanters or those charged with preparation for individual liturgical celebrations masters of ceremonies.

Some were more fully elaborated excerpts from one of the major liturgical books for use on specific occasions—for example, liturgical processions held at certain times of the year the Processionale. In addition, some liturgical books used by monastic communities would differ in a number of ways from those used by diocesan clergy or communities of canons associated with a cathedral. For the celebration of the Eucharist, or Mass the more common term in western Christianity, from the Latin missa , the earliest prayer collections were composed of individual libelli , or booklets, containing the texts of Mass prayers, or formularies , for a particular day or feast.

While this collection is incomplete, and as a volume may not have functioned as a sacramentary itself, it is a valuable source for understanding the spirituality and development of the Roman liturgy in the earliest part of the medieval period. Next, copies of these collections of libelli would be produced as entire books, the sacramentaries.

Initially, these sacramentaries contained the public prayer texts the orationes used by the priest or bishop presiding at the Mass at the opening of Mass, at the offertory, and after communion. In Roman use, these prayers tended to be brief, succinct, and stylized in phrasing and construction. Sacramentaries could also contain more liturgical material, texts for the celebration of other rituals that would later be moved into the pontifical or the ritual. During the 8th century, elements from both Roman and Frankish use resulted in a mixed sacramentary tradition, called the Gelasian tradition once attributed to Pope Gelasius I.

The first exemplar is the Old Gelasian Gelasianum Vetus ; the earliest manuscript dates from about the year ce and may have been produced near Paris. At first, most 20th-century editors hypothesized that this sacramentary was based on a lost Roman presbyteral book, used not by the pope but by the clergy in charge of the numerous smaller church communities in Rome, the tituli title churches.

More recently, some have challenged this assumption, proposing instead that the Old Gelasian was the work of Frankish Merovingian compilers using both Roman and Frankish sources, and stressing the importance of political factors in its shaping. In the latter part of the 8th century, the reigning king of the Franks, Charlemagne also regarded as the first of the Holy Roman Emperors requested a copy of a Roman sacramentary from Pope Hadrian d. This sacramentary, known as the Hadrianum traditionally attributed to Pope Gregory I , became the basis for another textual family, that of the Gregorian sacramentaries.

Eventually the texts in the supplement were integrated into the main text, and other material was added. It is this Gregorian sacramentary tradition that formed the core of what became the later Missale Romanum. Like the libelli missarum , similar collections of descriptions of how to perform various liturgical rites were also gathered in Rome. A number of these ordines dealt with the Mass particularly papal Masses , but others were to be used for other liturgical celebrations, some of which along with the Eucharist would come to be classified as sacraments primary liturgical rites in the 12th century, for example, baptism.

Others dealt with wider patterns of liturgical celebrations—for example, Holy Week—or liturgical rites that, while remaining part of the Roman liturgy, would not appear on the later medieval list of the seven sacraments, for example, funeral rites. Still others contain directories of material to be used at the Divine Office. Beginning in the 9th century, this ordo Missae began to be elaborated by the interpolation of other ritual elements, including gestures, versicles and responses, longer psalmody, and private prayers many of them apologiae , penitential in tone for the presider to recite at several points during the Mass.

Examples include the preparation for Mass for instance, prayers to accompany the donning of individual liturgical vestments , during the chants of antiphons or responses like the Introit, the Kyrie, or the Gloria , or during the communion rite. This development seems to have taken place in roughly three stages; the last, the Rhenish type during the early 11th century, is marked by several very florid ordines missae , which present what amounts to a private, parallel rite for the bishop- or priest-presider interwoven with the public structure and prayers of the Mass itself.

The readings at Mass were originally marked in the margins of copies of the New Testament or Bible. Further, the epistle and gospel readings could be reproduced in two separate books, the epistolary and the evangeliary. All of the western rites had their own lectionaries at this time; the eventual list that makes its way into the various forms of the later medieval full missal Missale plenum in the Roman rite is a Frankish-Roman hybrid. At the end of the 11th century, Pope Gregory VII initiated a liturgical reform aimed at purifying this Roman liturgy from excessive Teutonic elements.

This marked the effective end of the elaborate ordines missae used in parts of France and Germany, although some of the apology-type prayer elements, for example, the Confiteor , remained as part of the ordo missae through the end of the medieval period and beyond. The general tendency during later medieval centuries was for the consolidation of liturgical books into single volumes designed for the use of a priest-presider either for a private Mass or a more public Mass. In the 13th century, the liturgical books for the growing papal curia were streamlined to take into account their increasing administrative duties.

These were the books adopted by the one of the new mendicant orders, the Franciscans, due in part to their more active urban ministry and their non-monastic, mobile way of religious life. As might be expected, the use of the printing press in the following century had an immense impact on the eventual uniformity of the Roman liturgy. A print edition of the Missale Romanum , based on the 14th-century Missal of the Roman curia, was published in This was this edition that, combined with a redaction of the Mass rubrics prepared in the first years of the 16th century by John Burchard Ordo servandus per sacerdotem in celebration Missae sine cantu and sine ministris secundum ritum S.

Ecclesiae Romanae , would form the basis of the edition prepared after the Council of Trent — To eliminate errors, clerical improvisations, and confusion among the laity during the turbulent Reformation period, Pope Pius V mandated this new edition, the Missale Romanum for all Roman Catholic communities, with the exception of diocese and religious orders whose Eucharistic rites were two hundred years old or older, who had the option to retain them.

Several religious orders opted to retain their Missals, including older monastic orders like the Carthusians and the Cistercians, and newer orders of mendicants and canons like the Dominicans and the Premonstratensians Norbertines. The pontifical seems to have undergone at least some of the same stages of development as the missal. First, libelli containing the prayer texts for individual rituals conducted by the bishop were collected from other sources including sacramentaries and ordines and compiled into more complete volumes, which could also contain texts for various blessings that a bishop might be called upon to bestow.

Church Singing in the Kyivan Churches in the Era of Met. Sheptytsky (1865-1944), Daniel Galadza

These earliest pontificals, all dated after ce , would also contain other material that would be later transferred to the rituale, or manual of other rites for the use of a priest; pontifical rituals would eventually be excluded from this presbyteral volume. Included in the pontifical were, for instance, rites for confirmation and ordination, coronation rites, rites for the reconciliation of penitents and for the consecration of a cemetery, and blessings for use at Mass and Office.

There are several examples of early medieval pontificals dating from the 9th and 10th centuries. One midth century text, a hybrid Roman-Germanic pontifical, was produced in Mainz, a key diocese in the Holy Roman Empire. Political influence accelerated its rapid spread north of the Alps and its acceptance in Rome. During the late 13th and 14th centuries, this pontifical came into contact with another Pontifical, compiled and edited by of the bishop of Mende southern France , William Durandus d. Durandus used earlier Roman pontificals as well as local sources for his Pontifical, and it was this version of the Pontifical with minor editing by papal secretaries and masters of ceremonies Agostino Piccolomini and John Burchard that became the first printed edition of the Roman Pontifical A later printed edition by Alberti Castellani, became the text used for the Roman Pontifical issued after the Council of Trent In the early medieval period, there was no one single book containing all of the non-eucharistic liturgical texts over which priests would preside.

Like the sacramentary and the pontifical, the texts of many individual rites were first produced in booklet form, the libellus , a practice for ritual texts that continued through the high Middle Ages. Other blessing prayers benedictiones could also be listed among these other ritual materials.

For instance, a French monastic volume, dating from about the year ce , contains both a psalter as well as a ritual section which in turn includes several benedictiones as well as an ordo missae. Beginning in the 12th century, these presbyteral texts began to be collected in a separate book, the Rituale sometimes entitled Sacerdotale , Manuale , or Agenda.

Here, priest- presiders could find the texts for these other liturgical rites, which were part of their ministry: for example, baptism, marriage, anointing of the sick, and funerals. Lists of blessings for various persons and religious objects also included, for example, the blessing of candles or palms. Monastic ritual collections often included other rites proper to monasteries abbatial blessings, profession of monastic vows and omitted others that might be not within the scope of their pastoral care like baptism, or the purification and blessing of women after childbirth.

At times, the contents of these ritual collections would be altered by canonical legislation. For example, the Fourth Lateran Council prohibited priests from taking part in what were known as trials by ordeal. If incense is used, a server incenses the host and the chalice when each is shown to the people after the consecration. After the consecration when the priest has said, Mysterium fidei Let us proclaim the mystery of faith , the people sing or say an acclamation using one of the prescribed formulas. At the end of the Eucharistic Prayer, the priest takes the paten with the host and the chalice and elevates them both while alone singing or saying the doxology , Per ipsum Through him.

Then the priest places the paten and the chalice on the corporal. With hands extended, he then says this prayer together with the people. At the end, the people make the acclamation, Quia tuum est regnum For the kingdom. Then the priest, with hands extended, says aloud the prayer, Domine Iesu Christe, qui dixisti Lord Jesus Christ, you said. After this prayer is concluded, extending and then joining his hands, he gives the greeting of peace while facing the people and saying, Pax Domini sit simper vobiscum The peace of the Lord be with you always.

The people answer , Et cum spiritu tuo And also with you. Afterwards, when appropriate, the priest adds , Offerte vobis pacem Let us offer each other the sign of peace. The priest may give the sign of peace to the ministers but always remains within the sanctuary, so as not to disturb the celebration. In the dioceses of the United States of America, for a good reason, on special occasions for example, in the case of a funeral, a wedding, or when civic leaders are present the priest may offer the sign of peace to a few of the faithful near the sanctuary.

At the same time, in accord with the decisions of the Conference of Bishops, all offer one another a sign that expresses peace, communion, and charity. While the sign of peace is being given, one may say, Pax Domini sit semper tecum The peace of the Lord be with you always , to which the response is Amen. The priest then takes the host and breaks it over the paten. He places a small piece in the chalice, saying quietly, Haec commixtio May this mingling. Meanwhile the Agnus Dei is sung or said by the choir and congregation cf. When the prayer is concluded, the priest genuflects, takes the host consecrated in the same Mass, and, holding it slightly raised above the paten or above the chalice, while facing the people, says, Ecce Agnus Dei This is the Lamb of God.

With the people he adds, Domine, non sum dignus Lord, I am not worthy. After this, standing and turned toward the altar, the priest says quietly, Corpus Christi custodiat me in vitam aeternam May the Body of Christ bring me to everlasting life and reverently receives the Body of Christ. Then he takes the chalice, saying quietly, Sanguis Christi custodiat me in vitam aeternam May the Blood of Christ bring me to everlasting life , and reverently receives the Blood of Christ.

The Communion chant begins while the priest is receiving the Sacrament cf. The priest then takes the paten or ciborium and goes to the communicants, who, as a rule, approach in a procession. The faithful are not permitted to take the consecrated bread or the sacred chalice by themselves and, still less, to hand them from one to another. The norm for reception of Holy Communion in the dioceses of the United States is standing. Communicants should not be denied Holy Communion because they kneel.

Rather, such instances should be addressed pastorally, by providing the faithful with proper catechesis on the reasons for this norm. When receiving Holy Communion, the communicant bows his or her head before the Sacrament as a gesture of reverence and receives the Body of the Lord from the minister. The consecrated host may be received either on the tongue or in the hand, at the discretion of each communicant. When Holy Communion is received under both kinds, the sign of reverence is also made before receiving the Precious Blood.

If Communion is given only under the species of bread, the priest raises the host slightly and shows it to each, saying, Corpus Christi The Body of Christ. The communicant replies, Amen , and receives the Sacrament either on the tongue or, where this is allowed and if the communicant so chooses, in the hand. As soon as the communicant receives the host, he or she consumes it entirely. If, however, Communion is given under both kinds, the rite prescribed in nos. The priest may be assisted in the distribution of Communion by other priests who happen to be present.

If such priests are not present and there is a very large number of communicants, the priest may call upon extraordinary ministers to assist him, i. These ministers should not approach the altar before the priest has received Communion, and they are always to receive from the hands of the priest celebrant the vessel containing either species of the Most Holy Eucharist for distribution to the faithful.

When the distribution of Communion is finished, the priest himself immediately and completely consumes at the altar any consecrated wine that happens to remain; as for any consecrated hosts that are left, he either consumes them at the altar or carries them to the place designated for the reservation of the Eucharist.

Upon returning to the altar, the priest collects any fragments that may remain. Then, standing at the altar or at the credence table, he purifies the paten or ciborium over the chalice, then purifies the chalice, saying quietly, Quod ore sumpsimus Lord, may I receive , and dries the chalice with a purificator. If the vessels are purified at the altar, they are carried to the credence table by a minister. Nevertheless, it is also permitted, especially if there are several vessels to be purified, to leave them suitably covered on a corporal, either at the altar or at the credence table, and to purify them immediately after Mass following the dismissal of the people.

Afterwards, the priest may return to the chair. A sacred silence may now be observed for some period of time, or a Psalm or another canticle of praise or a hymn may be sung cf. Then, standing at the chair or at the altar and facing the people the priest, with hands joined says, Oremus Let us pray ; then, with hands extended, he recites the prayer after Communion. A brief period of silence may precede the prayer, unless this has been already observed immediately after Communion. At the end of the prayer the people say the acclamation, Amen.

When the prayer after Communion is concluded, brief announcements to the people may be made, if they are needed. Then the priest, extending his hands, greets the people, saying, Dominus vobiscum The Lord be with you. They answer , Et cum spiritu tuo And also with you. The priest, joining his hands again and then immediately placing his left hand on his breast, raises his right hand and adds , Benedicat vos omnipotens Deus May Almighty God bless you and, as he makes the Sign of the Cross over the people, continues, Pater, et Filius, et Spiritus Sanctus the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

All answer, Amen. On certain days and occasions this blessing, in accordance with the rubrics, is expanded and expressed by a prayer over the People or another more solemn formula. A Bishop blesses the people with the appropriate formula, making the Sign of the Cross three times over the people. Immediately after the blessing, with hands joined, the priest adds, Ite, missa est The Mass is ended, go in peace , and all answer, Deo gratias Thanks be to God.

Then, as a rule, the priest venerates the altar with a kiss and, after making a profound bow with the lay ministers, departs with them. If, however, another liturgical action follows the Mass, the concluding rites, that is, the greeting, the blessing, and the dismissal, are omitted. When he is present at the Eucharistic Celebration, a deacon should exercise his ministry, wearing sacred vestments. For the deacon. Assists the priest and remains at his side; Ministers at the altar, with the chalice as well as the book; Proclaims the Gospel and, at the direction of the priest celebrant, may preach the homily cf.

The Introductory Rites. When he reaches the altar, if he is carrying the Book of the Gospels , he omits the sign of reverence and goes up to the altar. It is particularly appropriate that he should place the Book of the Gospels on the altar, after which, together with the priest, he venerates the altar with a kiss. If, however, he is not carrying the Book of the Gospels , he makes a profound bow to the altar with the priest in the customary way and with him venerates the altar with a kiss.

Lastly, if incense is used, he assists the priest in putting some into the thurible and in incensing the cross and the altar. After the incensation of the altar, he goes to the chair together with the priest, takes his place there at the side of the priest and assists him as necessary. If incense is used, the deacon assists the priest when he puts incense in the thurible during the singing of the Alleluia or other chant.

Then he makes a profound bow before the priest and asks for the blessing, saying in a low voice, Iube , domine, benedicere Father, give me your blessing. The priest blesses him, saying, Dominus sit in corde tuo The Lord be in your heart. The deacon signs himself with the Sign of the Cross and responds, Amen. Having bowed to the altar, he then takes up the Book of the Gospels which was placed upon it.

He proceeds to the ambo, carrying the book slightly elevated. He is preceded by a thurifer, carrying a thurible with smoking incense, and by servers with lighted candles. There the deacon, with hands joined, greets the people, saying, Dominus vobiscum The Lord be with you.

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Then, at the words Lectio sancti Evangelii A reading from the holy Gospel , he signs the book with his thumb and, afterwards, himself on his forehead, mouth, and breast. He incenses the book and proclaims the Gospel reading. When the deacon is assisting the Bishop, he carries the book to him to be kissed, or else kisses it himself, saying quietly, Per evangelica dicta dicta May the words of the Gospel. In more solemn celebrations, as the occasion suggests, a Bishop may impart a blessing to the people with the Book of the Gospels. Lastly, the deacon may carry the Book of the Gospels to the credence table or to another appropriate and dignified place.

If, in addition, there is no other suitable lector present, the deacon should proclaim the other readings as well. After the introduction by the priest it is the deacon himself who normally announces the intentions of the Prayer of the Faithful, from the ambo. Next, he hands the priest the paten with the bread to be consecrated, pours wine and a little water into the chalice, saying quietly, Per huius aquae By the mystery of this water , and after this presents the chalice to the priest.

He may also carry out the preparation of the chalice at the credence table. If incense is used, the deacon assists the priest during the incensation of the gifts, the cross, and the altar; afterwards, the deacon himself or the acolyte incenses the priest and the people. During the Eucharistic Prayer, the deacon stands near the priest but slightly behind him, so that when needed he may assist the priest with the chalice or the Missal.

From the epiclesis until the priest shows the chalice, the deacon normally remains kneeling. If several deacons are present, one of them may place incense in the thurible for the consecration and incense the host and the chalice as they are shown to the people. At the final doxology of the Eucharistic Prayer, the deacon stands next to the priest, holding the chalice elevated while the priest elevates the paten with the host, until the people have responded with the acclamation, Amen.

After the priest has said the prayer at the Rite of Peace and the greeting Pax Domini sit semper vobiscum The peace of the Lord be with you always and the people have responded, Et cum spiritu tuo And also with you , the deacon, if it is appropriate, invites all to exchange the sign of peace. He faces the people and, with hands joined, says, Offerte vobis pacem Let us offer each other the sign of peace. Then he himself receives the sign of peace from the priest and may offer it to those other ministers who are closer to him.

If Communion is given under both kinds, the deacon himself administers the chalice to the communicants; and, when the distribution is completed, he immediately and reverently consumes at the altar all of the Blood of Christ that remains, assisted if necessary by other deacons and priests. When the distribution of Communion is completed, the deacon returns to the altar with the priest and collects the fragments, if any remain, and then carries the chalice and other sacred vessels to the credence table, where he purifies them and arranges them in the usual way while the priest returns to the chair.

It is also permissible to leave the vessels that need to be purified, suitably covered, at the credence table on a corporal, and to purify them immediately after Mass following the dismissal of the people. Once the prayer after Communion has been said, the deacon makes brief announcements to the people, if indeed any need to be made, unless the priest prefers to do this himself.

Then, together with the priest, the deacon venerates the altar with a kiss, makes a profound bow, and departs in a manner similar to the procession beforehand. The duties that the acolyte may carry out are of various kinds and several may coincide. Hence, it is desirable that these duties be suitably distributed among several acolytes.

If, however, only one acolyte is present, he should perform the more important duties while the rest are to be distributed among several ministers. In the procession to the altar, the acolyte may carry the cross, walking between two ministers with lighted candles.

Upon reaching the altar, the acolyte places the cross upright near the altar so that it may serve as the altar cross; otherwise, he puts it in a worthy place. Then he takes his place in the sanctuary. Through the entire celebration, the acolyte is to approach the priest or the deacon, whenever necessary, in order to present the book to them and to assist them in any other way required. Thus it is appropriate, insofar as possible, that the acolyte occupy a place from which he can conveniently carry out his ministry either at the chair or at the altar.

If no deacon is present, after the Prayer of the Faithful is concluded and while the priest remains at the chair, the acolyte places the corporal, the purificator, the chalice, the pall, and the Missal on the altar. Then, if necessary, the acolyte assists the priest in receiving the gifts of the people and, if appropriate, brings the bread and wine to the altar and hands them to the priest.

If incense is used, the acolyte presents the thurible to the priest and assists him while he incenses the gifts, the cross, and the altar. Then the acolyte incenses the priest and the people. A duly instituted acolyte, as an extraordinary minister, may, if necessary, assist the priest in giving Communion to the people. Likewise, when the distribution of Communion is completed, a duly instituted acolyte helps the priest or deacon to purify and arrange the sacred vessels.

When no deacon is present, a duly instituted acolyte carries the sacred vessels to the credence table and there purifies, wipes, and arranges them in the usual way. After the celebration of Mass, the acolyte and other ministers return in procession to the sacristy, together with the deacon and the priest in the same way and order in which they entered. In coming to the altar, when no deacon is present, the lector, wearing approved attire, may carry the Book of the Gospels , which is to be slightly elevated. In that case, the lector walks in front of the priest but otherwise along with the other ministers.

Upon reaching the altar, the lector makes a profound bow with the others. If he is carrying the Book of the Gospels , he approaches the altar and places the Book of the Gospels upon it. Then the lector takes his own place in the sanctuary with the other ministers. The lector reads from the ambo the readings that precede the Gospel.

If there is no psalmist, the lector may also proclaim the responsorial Psalm after the first reading. When no deacon is present, the lector, after the introduction by the priest, may announce from the ambo the intentions of the Prayer of the Faithful. If there is no singing at the Entrance or at Communion and the antiphons in the Missal are not recited by the faithful, the lector may read them at the appropriate time cf.

Concelebration, which appropriately expresses the unity of the priesthood, of the Sacrifice, and also of the whole People of God, is prescribed by the rite itself for the Ordination of a Bishop and of priests, at the blessing of an abbot, and at the Chrism Mass. Unless the good of the Christian faithful requires or suggests otherwise, concelebration is also recommended at.

On Holy Thursday, however, and for Mass of the Easter Vigil, it is not permitted to celebrate individually. Visiting priests should be gladly welcomed to Eucharistic concelebration, as long as their priestly standing is ascertained. Where there is a large number of priests, concelebration may take place even several times on the same day, wherever necessity or pastoral benefit suggest it.

Nevertheless, it must be held at different times or in distinct sacred places. It is for the Bishop, in accordance with the norm of law, to regulate the discipline for concelebration in all churches and oratories of his diocese. For this same reason, concelebration is recommended whenever priests gather together with their own Bishop either on the occasion of a retreat or at any other meeting. In these instances the sign of the unity of the priesthood and also of the Church inherent in every concelebration is made more clearly manifest.

For a particular reason, having to do either with the significance of the rite or of the festivity, the faculty is given to celebrate or concelebrate more than once on the same day in the following cases:. This holds also, with due regard for the prescriptions of law, for groups of religious. A concelebrated Mass, whatever its form, is arranged in accordance with the norms commonly in force cf. No one is ever to enter into a concelebration or to be admitted as a concelebrant once the Mass has already begun. Seats and texts for the concelebrating priests; On the credence table: a chalice of sufficient size or else several chalices.

If a deacon is not present, his proper duties are to be carried out by some of the concelebrants. In the absence also of other ministers, their proper parts may be entrusted to other suitable members of the faithful; otherwise, they are carried out by some of the concelebrants. In the vesting room or other suitable place, the concelebrants put on the sacred vestments they customarily wear when celebrating Mass individually. Should, however, a good reason arise, e. When everything has been properly arranged, the procession moves as usual through the church to the altar, the concelebrating priests walking ahead of the principal celebrant.

On reaching the altar, the concelebrants and the principal celebrant, after making a profound bow, venerate the altar with a kiss, then go to their designated seats. The principal celebrant, if appropriate, also incenses the cross and the altar and then goes to the chair. During the Liturgy of the Word, the concelebrants remain at their places, sitting or standing whenever the principal celebrant does.

When the Alleluia is begun, all rise, except for a Bishop, who puts incense into the thurible without saying anything and blesses the deacon or, if there is no deacon, the concelebrant who is to proclaim the Gospel. In a concelebration where a priest presides, however, the concelebrant who in the absence of a deacon proclaims the Gospel neither requests nor receives the blessing of the principal celebrant. The homily is usually given by the principal celebrant or by one of the concelebrants. The Preparation of the Gifts cf.

After the prayer over the offerings has been said by the principal celebrant, the concelebrants approach the altar and stand around it, but in such a way that they do not obstruct the execution of the rites and that the sacred action may be seen clearly by the faithful. The deacon exercises his ministry at the altar whenever he needs to assist with the chalice and the Missal. However, insofar as possible, he stands back slightly, behind the concelebrating priests standing around the principal celebrant. The Preface is sung or said by the principal priest celebrant alone; but the Sanctus is sung or recited by all the concelebrants, together with the congregation and the choir.

After the Sanctus , the priest concelebrants continue the Eucharistic Prayer in the way described below. Unless otherwise indicated, only the principal celebrant makes the gestures. In this way the words can be better understood by the people. It is a praiseworthy practice for the parts that are to be said by all the concelebrants together and for which musical notation is provided in the Missal to be sung.

In Eucharistic Prayer I, or the Roman Canon, the prayer Te igitur We come to you, Father is said by the principal celebrant alone, with hands extended. It is appropriate that the commemoration of the living the Memento and the Communicantes In union with the whole Church be assigned to one or other of the concelebrating priests, who then speaks these prayers aloud, with hands extended. The Hanc igitur Father, accept this offering is likewise said by the principal celebrant alone, with hands extended. From the Quam oblationem Bless and approve our offering up to and including the Supplices Almighty God, we pray that your angel , the principal celebrant alone makes the gestures, while all the concelebrants speak everything together, in this manner:.

The Quam oblationem Bless and approve our offering with hands extended toward the offerings; The Qui pridie The day before he suffered and the Simili modo When supper was ended with hands joined; While speaking the words of the Lord, each extends his right hand toward the bread and toward the chalice, if this seems appropriate; as the host and the chalice are shown, however, they look toward them and afterwards bow profoundly; The Unde et memores Father, we celebrate the memory and the Supra quae Look with favor with hands extended; From the Supplices Almighty God, we pray that your angel up to and including the words ex hac altaris participatione as we receive from this altar , they bow with hands joined; then they stand upright and cross themselves at the words omni benedictione et gratia repleamur let us be filled with every grace and blessing.

The commemoration of the dead Memento and the Nobis quoque peccatoribus Though we are sinners are appropriately assigned to one or other of the concelebrants, who speaks them aloud alone, with hands extended. At the words Nobis quoque peccatoribus Though we are sinners all the concelebrants strike their breast. The Per quem haec omnia Through him you give us all these gifts is said by the principal celebrant alone. From the Haec ergo dona Let your Spirit come upon to the Et supplices May all of us who share inclusive, all the concelebrants speak all the following together:.

The Haec ergo dona Let your Spirit come upon with hands extended toward the offerings; The Qui cum passioni Before he was given up to death and the Simili modo When supper was ended with hands joined; While speaking the words of the Lord, each extends his right hand toward the bread and toward the chalice, if this seems appropriate; as the host and the chalice are shown, however, they look toward them and afterwards bow profoundly; The Memores igitur In memory of his death and the Et supplices May all of us who share with hands extended.

The intercessions for the living, Recordare, Domine Lord, remember your Church , and for the dead, Memento etiam fratrum nostrorum Remember our brothers and sisters , are appropriately assigned to one or other of the concelebrants, who speaks them aloud alone, with hands extended. From the Supplices ergo te, Domine And so, Father, we bring you these gifts to the Respice, quaesumus Look with favor inclusive, all the concelebrants speak all the following together:.

The Supplices ergo te, Domine And so, Father, we bring you these gifts with hands extended toward the offerings;. The Ipse enim in qua nocte tradebatur On the night he was betrayed and the Simili modo When supper was ended with hands joined; While speaking the words of the Lord, each extends his right hand toward the bread and toward the chalice, if this seems appropriate; as the host and the chalice are shown, however, they look at them and, afterwards, bow profoundly;.

The Memores igitur Father, calling to mind and the Respice, quaesumus Look with favor with hands outstretched. The intercessions Ipse nos May he make us an everlasting gift , Haec hostia nostrae reconciliationis Lord, may this sacrifice , and Fratres nostros Welcome into your kingdom are appropriately assigned to one or other of the concelebrants, who speaks them aloud alone, with hands extended. In Eucharistic Prayer IV, the Confitemur tibi, Pater sancte Father, we acknowledge up to and including the words omnem sanctificationem compleret bring us the fullness of grace is spoken by the principal celebrant alone, with hands extended.

From the Quaesumus, igitur, Domine Father, may this Holy Spirit to the Respice, Domine Lord, look upon the sacrifice inclusive, all the concelebrants speak all the following together:. The Quaesumus igitur, Domine Father, may this Holy Spirit with hands extended toward the offerings; The Ipse enim, cum hora venisset He always loved those and the Simili modo When supper was ended with hands joined; While speaking the words of the Lord, each extends his right hand toward the bread and toward the chalice, if this seems appropriate; as the host and the chalice are shown, however, they look toward them and afterwards bow profoundly; The Unde et nos Father, we now celebrate and the Respice, Domine Lord, look upon this sacrifice with hands outstretched.

The intercessions Nunc ergo, Domine, omnium recordare Lord, remember those and Nobis omnibus Father, in your mercy are appropriately assigned to one or other of the concelebrants, who speaks them aloud alone, with hands extended. As to other Eucharistic Prayers approved by the Apostolic See, the norms established for each one are to be observed. The concluding doxology of the Eucharistic Prayer is spoken solely by the principal priest celebrant and, if this is desired, together with the other concelebrants, but not by the faithful.

Then, with hands extended, he says the prayer itself together with the other concelebrants, who also pray with hands extended and with the people. Libera nos Deliver us is said by the principal celebrant alone, with hands extended. All the concelebrants, together with the people, sing or say the final acclamation Quia tuum est regnum For the kingdom. After the deacon or, when no deacon is present, one of the concelebrants has said the invitation Offerte vobis pacem Let us offer each other the sign of peace , all exchange the sign of peace with one another.

The concelebrants who are nearer the principal celebrant receive the sign of peace from him before the deacon does. While the Agnus Dei is sung or said, the deacons or some of the concelebrants may help the principal celebrant break the hosts for Communion, both of the concelebrants and of the people. When this prayer before Communion is finished, the principal celebrant genuflects and steps back a little.

Then one after another the concelebrants come to the middle of the altar, genuflect, and reverently take the Body of Christ from the altar. Then holding it in their right hand, with the left hand placed below, they return to their places. The concelebrants may, however, remain in their places and take the Body of Christ from the paten presented to them by the principal celebrant or by one or more of the concelebrants, or by passing the paten one to another.

Then the principal celebrant takes a host consecrated in the same Mass, holds it slightly raised above the paten or the chalice, and, facing the people, says the Ecce Agnus Dei This is the Lamb of God. With the concelebrants and the people he continues, saying the Domine, non sum dignus Lord, I am not worthy. Then the principal celebrant, facing the altar, says quietly, Corpus Christi custodiat me ad vitam aeternam May the body of Christ bring me to everlasting life , and reverently receives the Body of Christ.

The concelebrants do likewise, communicating themselves. After them the deacon receives the Body and Blood of the Lord from the principal celebrant. The Blood of the Lord may be received either by drinking from the chalice directly, or by intinction, or by means of a tube or a spoon.

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If Communion is received by drinking directly from the chalice, one or other of two procedures may be followed:. The principal celebrant, standing at the middle of the altar, takes the chalice and says quietly, Sanguis Christi custodiat me in vitam aeternam May the Blood of Christ bring me to everlasting life. He consumes a little of the Blood of Christ and hands the chalice to the deacon or a concelebrant. He then distributes Communion to the faithful cf. The concelebrants approach the altar one after another or, if two chalices are used, two by two.

They genuflect, partake of the Blood of Christ, wipe the rim of the chalice, and return to their seats. The principal celebrant normally consumes the Blood of the Lord standing at the middle of the altar. The concelebrants may, however, partake of the Blood of the Lord while remaining in their places and drinking from the chalice presented to them by the deacon or by one of the concelebrants, or else passed from one to the other.

The chalice is always wiped either by the one who drinks from it or by the one who presents it. After communicating, each returns to his seat. The deacon reverently drinks at the altar all of the Blood of Christ that remains, assisted, if necessary, by some of the concelebrants. He then carries the chalice over to the credence table and there he or a duly instituted acolyte purifies, wipes, and arranges it in the usual way cf. The Communion of the concelebrants may also be arranged so that each concelebrant communicates the Body of the Lord at the altar and, immediately afterwards, the Blood of the Lord.

In this case the principal celebrant receives Communion under both kinds in the usual way cf. The concelebrants approach the middle of the altar one after another, genuflect, and receive the Body of the Lord; then they go to the side of the altar and consume the Blood of the Lord, following the rite chosen for Communion from the chalice, as has just been said. The Communion of the deacon and the purification of the chalice take place as already described.

Then the deacon, or one of the concelebrants, arranges the chalice as appropriate in the center of the altar or at the side on another corporal together with the paten containing particles of the host. The concelebrants approach the altar one after another, genuflect, and take a particle, dip it partly into the chalice, and, holding a purificator under their chin, consume the intincted particle. They then return to their places as at the beginning of Mass.

The deacon, however, consumes at the altar all that remains of the Precious Blood, assisted, if necessary, by some of the concelebrants. He carries the chalice to the credence table and there he or a duly instituted acolyte purifies, wipes and arranges it in the usual way. Everything else is done by the principal celebrant in the usual way until the end of Mass cf.

Before leaving the altar, the concelebrants make a profound bow to the altar. For his part the principal celebrant, along with the deacon, venerates the altar with a kiss in the usual way. At a Mass celebrated by a priest with only one minister to assist him and to make the responses, the rite of Mass with a congregation is followed cf.

If, however, the minister is a deacon, he performs his proper duties cf. Also see the Decree Presbyterorum ordinis, no. Sacred Congregation of Rites, Instruction, Eucharisticum mysterium, nos. Paul VI, Apost.

Medieval Christian Liturgy

Institutio generalis de liturgia horarum, no. Rituale Romanum Ordo paenitentiae, Praenotanda, no. This first liturgical apprenticeship can be made a part of the "Introductory Course in the Mystery of Christ and the History of Salvation" which the Decree, Optatam totius, no.

Prosper of Aquitane, Indiculus, c. Ratio fundamentalis, no.

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Constitution, Sacrosanctum concilium, no. Decree, Optatam totius, no. Constitution, Sacrosanctum concilium, nos. A list of questions which seem important to treat in the liturgical instruction imparted in seminaries. According to the norm laid down in the Constitution, Sacrosanctum concilium, "The study of the sacred liturgy is to be ranked among the compulsory and major courses in seminaries and religious houses of study; in faculties of sacred theology it is to rank among the principal subjects. It is to be taught under its theological, historical, spiritual, pastoral and juridical aspects.

Thus, the discipline of the liturgy is to be taught in such a way as to satisfy modern day needs:. Indeed, the sacred liturgy through prayer opens up for the students the source of the Christian mystery, and thus it nourishes their spiritual lives and fosters unity among the various disciplines of the theological course to a high degree.

The items on this list which are proposed here are not intended as a rigid framework for setting up the curriculum for liturgical formation. Rather this is to be done according to the requirements of local circumstances. According to the norm laid down by the Ratio fundamentalis institutionis sacerdotalis, the seminarians are to begin their studies with an introductory course in which they are initiated into the mystery of Christ and the history of salvation, a course which is "designed to enable the students to appreciate the idea which lies behind their ecclesiastical studies, their general plan, and their connection with the apostolate.

At the same time it should help them to deepen their own faith, to understand at greater depth their priestly vocation, and consequently to commit themselves with greater awareness. In this introduction there should be some treatment of the role of the sacred liturgy in the economy of salvation, in the life of the Church, and in the spiritual life of each Christian. It would be most useful at the beginning of the course to give the students a brief explanation of the Mass and of the major Hours of the Divine Office.

The order of the liturgical matters presented above could be changed around so that liturgical formation harmonizes more closely with the other theological disciplines and with the life of the seminary itself. For instance, a deeper study of the first chapter of the Second Vatican Council's Constitution on the Liturgy will be most profitably received by the students who already have been instructed in some of the first, elementary notions of sacred theology.

Also, it is sometimes useful to treat the liturgical year and the various celebrations of the liturgy while they are actually being celebrated. Similarly, to associate the liturgical study of the sacraments with the theological study of them is most opportune. All the material presented in this list is not intended to be what the liturgy professor must impart with fullness in his lectures. He should make a selection of the topics which will succeed in giving his students an essential, global view of the liturgy, at least by touching upon the main points and by avoiding omissions which would be harmful to the preparation of future priests.

The more detailed questions, not dealt with in the lectures, should be proposed to the seminarians for their private study or for study in small groups, as has already proved useful for obtaining fine results in other disciplines. The liturgy teacher must not forget that his main job is to lead the students to study the liturgical texts which the seminarians must understand.

This is so that when they become celebrants of the liturgy they will be capable of leading the people to a knowledgeable and fruitful participation in the mystery of Christ.


When it is pointed out, as often is done in this list, that the ancient sources be approached and studied, this should be understood as an exhortation to an ideal which, of course, can only be reached by taking account of the particular resources and limitations of the individual seminaries. Great care should be exercised to join together harmoniously liturgical studies with other disciplines being taught, as the Instruction states in nos.

There are many questions which are interconnected, especially regarding the doctrine of the sacraments and their pastoral administration. These questions should be treated either by the liturgy professor or by other professors, but care should be taken to be certain to avoid omissions as well as useless repetition. Indeed there should be interdisciplinary cooperation so that at the same time matters will be treated from the liturgical, dogmatic, canonical, historical, and pastoral points of view, providing the students with special advantages. It is helpful to begin with an introduction into the idea of worship presented from the anthropological and psychological viewpoint, inasmuch as it influences the human mind and may be found, albeit in a deformed way, even in secularized societies.

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The Christian liturgy, however, completes and goes far beyond the simple idea of cult. This will be made clear by explaining and commenting on the doctrine in nos. In the liturgy the sanctification of man is manifested by signs perceptible to the senses and is effected in a way which is proper to each of these signs; in the liturgy, full public worship is performed by the Mystical Body of Christ Jesus, that is by the Head and His members. According to the norms of nos.

This should be suitably explained from the doctrine of Sacred Scripture, from the examples of the early Church, and from the texts of the Fathers. Furthermore, it is fitting to include an explanation of the conditions under which it is legitimate to celebrate the liturgy even quasi-privately.

There must be insistence upon the different status of members and the variety of offices which is demanded by a liturgical assembly. Therefore, there must be a description of the parts of the celebrant, of the ministers, of the choir, and of the people. The part of the faithful laity and their active participation should be explained according to the mind of the Second Vatican Council.

At the same time, the distinction must be explained between the common priesthood of all baptized people and the ministerial priesthood by virtue of which the presiding priest leads the liturgical assembly "in the person of Christ. The preeminent office of the bishop is to be set out according to the mind of the dogmatic Constitution Lumen gentium. With a short historical exposition, the professor should demonstrate how liturgical laws are under the control of the sacred hierarchy and how this belongs to the hierarchy by divine right.

Also it should be explained how, in the course of time, there has been, obviously, some variety in the way this right has been exercised.

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Thus the instruction comes up to the present day, setting out what is decreed about the liturgy in the Constitution no. Likewise by an historical exposition, it should be set out why the Church little by little even from the most ancient times has forbidden improvisation in the composition and offering of made up prayers in the liturgy, and how, at the present time, she has imposed limits upon flexibility, variety, and experiments. The teacher should treat more widely the use of Sacred Scripture both in the readings and in the songs taken from them.

Nor should the instructor neglect to lecture about non-biblical readings and about the hymns composed by the Church. General principles should be put forward about Bible celebrations, the homily, and catechetics, emphasizing the great importance of Sacred Scripture for understanding the signs, actions, and prayers of the liturgy.

Great care should be shown in pointing out the specific usefulness of sacred song and its place in the liturgy. Thus, there should be pointed out the diverse kinds of songs: psalmody by which the psalms and biblical hymns are sung, hymn singing, doxologies, acclamations, etc. With various examples one should point out the dialogue that takes place between the celebrant and the assembled faithful. The different kinds of prayers should be explained: both the priest's prayer for instance, orations, thanksgivings, blessings, exorcisms, indicative formulas, private prayers , and the prayer of the assembled faithful such as Sunday prayers, silent prayer, litanies, etc.

If possible, a brief history of sacred song should be given including its origins, its early development, and the nature of Gregorian chant. One should also recall other forms of approved tradition and should finally point out the principles in the Instruction of the Sacred Congregation of Rites of March 5, , about sacred music in the liturgy.

Something should also be said about liturgical language, setting out a brief history of the discipline in this matter both of the West and of the East. If the teacher has the skill and training, it could be shown how the translation of the Sacred Books, especially from Greek into Latin, brought about the formation of a Christian language, and it could be shown how certain principles are to regulate translations into the vernacular today. Since the liturgy does not only use words but also signs "chosen by Christ or by the Church to signify invisible divine reality," [18] one should speak, in the lessons given, both about gestures and physical bearing as well as about the material things used in liturgical worship.

When teaching about the gestures and bearing and their meaning and their power to move souls, one should draw instruction from Sacred Scripture and from the works of the Church Fathers. With care, efforts must be made not to allow this teaching to remain abstract, but insure that it filters down to liturgical practice. Even if done briefly, it is helpful to explain singly the meaning, especially the biblical meaning, of the various natural elements used in the liturgy, such as light, water, bread, wine, oil, incense, etc. Since today there are some "who try to divest liturgical worship of its sacred character and therefore believe falsely that one is not to use things and garments which are sacred but substitute for them things which are common and vulgar," it will be necessary to refute these opinions just as one must do with those who "pervert the genuine nature of the sacred liturgy.

There should be a theological explanation about the places dedicated to worship and to their meaning. The rite for the dedication of a church should be explained. Also the purpose of the altar, the place destined for the reservation of the Blessed Sacrament, the chair of the celebrant, the ambo pulpit , and the baptistry should be studied.

Efforts should be made so that the seminarians are trained to draw from the ideas of their other studies a better understanding of the history and laws of sacred art. Something appropriate should be said about Christian iconography and about the principles of modern sacred art which need to be respected as they are useful for Christian people. From all this the teaching role of the liturgy is quite clear, and it is also clear how, "although the sacred liturgy is above all the worship of the divine Majesty, it also contains abundant instruction for the faithful.

In all these things account must be taken of the difficulties faced by modern man, and apt means for confronting them should be proposed to future pastors of souls. For this it is useful to have in mind some of the sciences of man, such as psychology and sociology, taking account, however, of what is stated in the Instruction above in no.

When giving an orderly exposition of the individual liturgical actions and of the sacraments, the history of each rite must be dwelt upon both to effect understanding of modern liturgical usage and to make sacramental theology more clear and precise.

To allow everything in the course of the liturgical lectures to proceed better, it will be useful to give some short emphasis to each phase and to all periods in the whole history of the liturgy and to point out the reciprocal connection between the liturgy and Christian spirituality. This, insofar as possible, should begin with a description of Jewish prayer used in the time of Christ, especially that of the synagogue, that used in private homes and that of the Passover celebration, so that the seminarians can recognize the similarities to Christian prayer while also noting what is "original" about Christian prayer.

Then there should be a description of the liturgical assembly in the age of the Apostles. It is also desirable that the students be exposed to the liturgical sources of the first centuries for instance, the Didache St. Clement of Rome, St. Justin, St. Irenaeus, Tertulian, Hyppolitus of Rome, St. Cyprian, the Didascalia and the Apostolic Constitutions, the Pilgrimage of Hygeria and texts selected from the early anaphoras and from the catecheses of the Fathers. As the laws and texts of the liturgy gradually evolve in the Churches in various regions, it would be suitable at this point to delineate the diverse liturgical families, both of the East and of the West, with a brief explanation of the origin, their history, and their characteristics.

This is of the highest importance especially for those areas where many faithful of the Eastern-rite Churches live.

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It is advisable to make clear the affinities among the rites. In explaining the individual liturgical actions, especially the sacraments, a special place should be given to the texts and rites of the different liturgies which serve to enrich doctrine and nourish devotion. The work of the Council of Trent should be set out, showing how it corrected liturgical abuses and promoted liturgical unity.

The decrees of this Council about the sacred liturgy should be presented. Likewise, it should be explained how, through the disposition of this Council, and according to its mind, the Roman Pontiffs amended the liturgical books, which were widely disseminated and remained in use until our own time. Then, it would be opportune to narrate briefly how from the 17th to the 19th century, notwithstanding all sorts of difficulties, the liturgy made progress, thanks especially to the quality of historical study: thus we could mention devotion to the Eucharist, the conscientious observance of the rubrics, pastoral work promoted so that the faithful might understand and participate in the liturgy.

This led the way to the renewal begun by Pope St. To understand better modern liturgical renewal, it would be most useful to outline for the students the series of documents by means of which liturgical renewal was gradually accomplished. Before all else, there must be an explanation of the New Testament texts about the institution of the Eucharist.

They should be compared with the texts of Jewish prayers used in daily life and in the Passover supper, as well as with other testimony which surrounds the Eucharistic institution. There should follow a short history of the Mass so as to make clear the common elements of the Mass as they appear in all liturgies, so these might be better understood in the present-day Eucharistic celebration and be more easily presented to the Christian people.

It is desirable that the students, where possible, actually read some of the early Mass texts either selected from works of the Fathers or taken from the ancient liturgies. These can be found today in many good anthologies. Especially in areas where there are faithful of the Eastern rites, the seminarists should receive some idea about the Mass in those rites, particularly about their spiritual aspect.

The various ways of celebrating the Mass should be described: stational Masses, Mass with the people present, Mass without people present. According to the Institutio generalis missalis Romani, published in , the parts should be set out: of the celebrant, the concelebrants, the ministers, the choir, and the faithful. Concelebration should be treated more completely, along with an explanation of its present discipline in the tradition of the West and the East.

According to the mind of the Institutio generalis chapters mentioned above, the requisites for celebrating Mass ought to be explained. These derive not only from force of tradition and law, but also from the necessities of the human mind and human nature itself: these include the church building, the altar, the altar's ornamentation, the sacred vessels, the vestments of the priest and ministers, etc. The instructors are to explain the two parts that, in a certain sense, constitute the Mass, namely the Liturgy of the Word and that of the Eucharist, both so closely joined together as to form one single act of worship.

The teacher then should explain fully the individual rites in the Mass, giving to each its proper importance: thus, for instance, an explanation should be given of the entrance rite, the stages of the readings in the Liturgy of the Word, up to the Gospel, the homily and the prayer of the faithful, the role of the offertory, the nature and format of the entire Eucharistic Prayer, the rite of preparation for Communion, and the final and concluding rites. As far as possible, the individual rites should be explained under their historical aspect and also by comparing them to the rites of other liturgies.

In the same way other constituent parts of the Eucharistic Prayer should be defined and explained. The distribution of Holy Communion under both species should be presented under its historical, theological, and pastoral aspects. According to the mind of the Instruction Eucharisticum mysterium of May 25, , some indication should be given of how the faithful are to be instructed to participate in the Mass so as to obtain greater fruits from this participation, and also how the Eucharist is to be seen as the center of the entire sacramental system.

When the instructor speaks about the Liturgy of the Word, he should also speak about the celebrations of the Word as indicated in the Constitution in article 35, 4. Since the worship of the Holy Eucharist outside of Mass has greatly developed through the centuries, care must be taken to explain this, taking account of the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass itself and the mind of the above mentioned Instruction of May 25, Also there should be a lecture on the part of the Roman Ritual entitled "De sacra communione et de cultu mysterii eucharistici extra missam," issued on June 21, The reception of Holy Communion outside of Mass and also the custody of the Blessed Sacrament, including the theological and pastoral reason for these practices and the juridical conditions that regulate them, should be spoken about.

Then, there should be lectures about other devotions connected with the Holy Eucharist and their principal forms, which are: processions, exposition of the most Blessed Sacrament, Eucharistic Congresses. These are recommended,. The commentary imparted on the renewed Pontifical and the Ritual should be mainly taken from the texts themselves and their Praenotanda so that the doctrine contained there might be drawn out.

It helps, in explaining and understanding this, to take account of the history of the rites. Each part of this study should include pastoral instruction by which the candidates for the priesthood will be prepared for their future sacred ministry. Christian initiation, that is, the rite of the catechumenate, the sacraments of Baptism and Confirmation along with first Communion, must be diligently explained since it is the foundation of the catechetical instruction that is given to children and also since, in many parts of the world, a large number of adults are led through the same stages in their Christian initiation.

It is, therefore, desirable that a thorough explanation be given of the history of the baptismal liturgy and of the liturgical catechumenate so that the arrangement of conferring Baptism on adults by stages might be rightly understood and shown. The baptismal rites should be explained in connection with the liturgy of Lent, the text of the Mass for the blessing of the oils, and the rites and texts of the Easter vigil, and the octave of Easter. The students should be asked and encouraged to read the baptismal catecheses of the Fathers of the Church, easily accessible today, since there are editions printed in the original languages as well as in the vernacular.

It is suitable to give a short explanation of the baptismal anniversary celebrations, both the older and the newer forms, using this occasion for a careful pastoral instruction on their importance and on the fruits that can be legitimately expected from these celebrations in the spiritual life of the parish and of the faithful.

In the same way and along similar lines, the rite of Confirmation should be explained as set out in the Apostolic Constitution Divinae consortium, of Pope Paul VI, issued on August 15, This should be done in such a way that light is thrown on the force of this sacrament and its close connection with Baptism. In a special way either the liturgy professor or the professor of pastoral theology must explain the spiritual resources provided by a good preparation and celebration of Confirmation. They also must, at the same time, explain the spiritual resources provided by a good preparation and celebration of Confirmation.

They also must, at the same time, explain the regulations about this matter laid down by Bishops' Conferences and the local ordinary. It is appropriate also to speak briefly about the Eucharist as the "crowning" of the sacraments of initiation and abut the admission of youngsters to first Holy Communion. The rite and discipline of the sacrament of Holy Orders and of the various other ministries of the Church must be presented and explained with a fullness that corresponds to the dispositions for their renewal as set down by the Second Vatican Council.

There is some question as to whether this matter should be treated in its normal place during the course of the liturgy lectures or left to a gradual treatment to be done at the times the seminarians are admitted to the ministries and to Sacred Orders. As a minimum, however, the liturgy teacher has the task of explaining the texts of the new Roman Pontifical and illustrating through a study of historical tradition the Apostolic Constitution Pontificalis Romani, issued on June 18, and the Motu Proprio Sacrum diaconatus ordinem, issued on June 18, , as well as both Ad pascendum and Ministeria quaedam, issued on August 15, In so far as possible, something should be said about the ritual of ordination used in the churches of the Eastern rites, especially in those areas where many of the faithful of these rites reside.

Efforts should be made to explain well the rite of episcopal consecration so that it will be clear that all the orders and ministries have reference to the bishop, and especially that it is clear that priests are collaborators with the bishop and have received "secundi meriti munus. The rite of marriage is to be presented historically, illustrating its variety and its proper use adapted to different places.