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Thus, a rate is defined by the unique name of the user, the id of the shop and the rate, from 0 to 5. In this way, a user can only vote once for each shop. Apart from the rating, registered users can make suggestions, which are addressed to the administrators of the system. They are not associated to particular shops, because the user can make a general suggestion. They have a unique id, a title, a message, and the name of the user. On the other hand, the development of the view is guided by the navigation diagram. It contains the functionality for the different roles: unregistered user, registered user, and administrator.

As an example, Figure 5 presents the part of the navigation diagram corresponding the unregistered user, which is used since the app is started until the user logs in. The first element is the index window , which is shown when the app is started. It contains access to the actions available for a not registered user.

The main functionality is given by the search window. The search is defined by a set of filters by name, type and subtype of activity, proximity and level of accessibility. All of them are optional.

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After clicking in the search button, the search results window is opened showing a map of the resulting establishments. They are marked with a color green, yellow, orange and red corresponding to the accessibility level A, B, C and D, respectively. Clicking in the market, the details window displays the information about that shop.

This information includes the average rating of that shop. Other operations accessible from the index window are the sign up window , to create a new user account, the sign in window , to enter the advanced mode of operation, and the about us window. The role of registered user includes these functionalities plus two new options: rating an existing establishment, and proposing a new suggestion; both with the corresponding windows. The role of administrator user has additional operations to edit, add and remove establishments, and to manage suggestions and users.

In this way, the app is prepared to allow a complete administration of the system. This section presents the implementation of the most interesting operation of the app, which is the search for accessible shops. Figure 6 a shows the initial screen, which consists of a logo and several buttons that provide access to the available operations. The collapse menu button, or hamburger button, is placed in the top-left corner to allow the user to access the operations from any screen. Different views of the app. Once the menu is displayed, it is possible to access the different actions that can be performed depending on whether the user has logged in the application or not, and the role of the user see Figure 6 b—d.

Figure 7 a shows the screen which is opened after selecting this option; the search filters are displayed and can be selected or not by the user. The levels of accessibility are represented with standard colors: A—green; B—yellow; C—orange; D—red. Different views of the app related to the search. The shop filtering during the search process is done in different phases with the aim of reducing the use of data and energy of the app:.

First filtering. The app connects to the server indicating the search criteria. The records that contain the name, address, type, sub-type and level of accessibility queried by the user are obtained from the database, and the server returns a list of shops that meet these criteria, avoiding those that do not match them. Only the ids and GPS coordinates are sent, thus requiring a minimum amount of data. Second filtering. According to the current GPS location, the app calculates which shops are inside the maximum distance requested by the user; those that are at a greater distance are discarded.

Then the app sends to the server the list of desired ids, and the server reports the list of shops including their basic characteristics: id, location, name, address, type, sub-type, level of accessibility, and evaluation.

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These are shown as color markers in a map; as depicted in Figure 7 b, the markers are selectable showing the basic features of the shop. Search details. In the case that the user wants to see more detailed information about a specific shop, the id is sent to the server and it reports all the information stored in the database concerning this shop. It is shown in the app, as in Figure 7 c. Additionally, the registered users have the possibility to rate the shops, Figure 7 d. The needs of users have expanded further concerning mobile apps. In this sense, customers are the ones judging the usefulness of applications, which leads to a range of learnability attributes.

In addition, usability in apps is closely related to learnability [ 23 ]. To this end, a usability evaluation of the app was conducted to assure a good reception among potential users. There are three categories of usability evaluation methods [ 24 ]: inquiry, inspection, and testing. The usability inspection approach is carried out by usability specialists, and sometimes software developers, users and other professionals, who evaluate user interface elements against a set of specific criteria [ 25 ].

Some common inspection methods are heuristic evaluation [ 26 ] and cognitive walkthrough [ 27 ]. Both techniques help find obvious usability issues in a quick and inexpensive way [ 25 ] and can be applied at the deployment stage of the software development lifecycle [ 24 ]. Cognitive walkthrough was part of the method selected to examine usability in the app in order to provide depth and granularity to our evaluation process [ 28 ].

This technique allows us to evaluate the tool in a way a novice user would do, thus, people outside the development team carried out the analysis. A set of assumptions were proposed to refine the usability audit based on this technique:. The information exposed in the application is positively associated with potential users. The cognitive skills of an individual will contribute more toward performing the task successfully over the knowledge of the same individual.

Ease of use. Tech-savvy customers will navigate the application with ease when comparing to others. Texts captions. Length of the text is directly proportional to the informativeness quotient. By integrating cognitiveness principle with usability criteria, improvement in the expediency quotient is anticipated.

A brief questionnaire was proposed guided by the aforementioned assumptions. The results are shown in Table 2. Another part of the usability audit was accomplished by means of a methodology based on expert review or heuristic evaluation, which is the most commonly used among usability inspection methods [ 29 ]. Numerous sets of heuristics can be applied during heuristic evaluation [ 24 ]; in our case, the usability principles by Dix et al. Once all the activities in the application were reviewed, the usability principles by Dix were scored in a Likert-type scale.

The usability principles by Dix are presented hereafter, and the results of the evaluation are depicted in Table 3 :. Support for the user to determine the effect of future action based on past interaction history. Support for the user to assess the effect of past operations on the current state. Support for the user to extend knowledge of specific interaction within and across applications to other similar situations. Likeness in input-output behavior arising from similar situations or similar task objectives. Dialog initiative. Allowing the user freedom from artificial constraints on the input dialog imposed by the system.

Ability of the system to support user interaction pertaining to more than one task at a time. Task migratability. The ability to pass control for the execution of a given task so that it becomes either internalized by the user or the system or shared between them. Allowing equivalent values of input and output to be arbitrarily substituted for each other. Modifiability of the user interface by the user or the system. Ability of the user to evaluate the internal state of the system from its perceivable representation.

Ability of the user to take corrective action once an error has been recognized. How the user perceives the rate of communication with the system. Task conformance. The degree to which the system services support all of the tasks the user wishes to perform, and in the way that the user understands them. Given that observers will sometimes agree or disagree simply by chance, it is necessary to measure the agreement between raters using a statistic, and in this regard the kappa coefficient is the most common [ 31 ].

Since we had to deal with ordered-category data and two observers, weighted kappa with Fleiss-Cohen quadratic weights was applied in this study [ 32 ]. The development of this app shows the relationship between architecture and new technologies, and also the importance of new technologies for people with disabilities in their daily life. It is endowed with especially important characteristics for people with disabilities such as: easy to use, low use of data and battery, capability to adapt the app to English or Spanish depending on the language of the mobile phone.

We have not found any app considering i18n requirements [ 34 ]. Comparing to other existing apps, most of the apps found in the mobile platforms Access GC , Access Aware , Access Earth , Accessibility Plus and Mapcesible provide information about disability carparks. The lack of accessible car parks is one of the main barriers restricting independent travel for people with disabilities [ 35 ].

Empirical studies suggest that accessibility to public areas and bath in rooms are two of the strongest predictors of the hotel satisfaction for people with physical disabilities [ 36 ]. All the analyzed apps provide users with the possibility of opening Google Maps. However, the lack of detailed information about features of the route such as sidewalks, surface conditions or road incline, prevents developers from obtaining friendly routing networks for people with disabilities.

These prerequisites of special consideration should be taken into account so routing applications are tailored for them. Algorithms using collaboratively collected geodata to generate routes for people with disabilities have been proposed in literature [ 37 ]. Our app follows the Spanish regulation considering security of use and accessibility in buildings. Notice that some apps are dedicated to enforcement of accessibility laws such as parking misuse Access Aware. Other apps focus on offering a checklist to assess common building elements in facilities. In particular, Access Inspector includes a checklist to assess more than 40 common architectural elements to create accessible environments such as: access routes, kerb ramps, entrances, doors, corridors, ramps, toilets, elevators and signage.

Some apps such as Accessibility Plus and Mapcesible allow reporting new points of interest to the system. These functionalities may be an important tool to accessibility audit in commercial complexes, since limited guidelines and weak enforcement by the authorities have been identified in the literature [ 38 ].

Rating provides both qualitative and quantitative data about the perception of people with disabilities of the amenities and places. Previous studies investigating the relationship between rating and popularity have shown that apps that achieve a higher rating also tend to be more popular [ 39 ]. Therefore, high user ratings and good reviews might have a positive impact on the sales of the establishments. The apps should control bad intentioned users.

This can also degrade user rely on online reviews, which is a promising topic for future research. The rest of apps employ citizens or users to measure the degree of accessibility. The proposed app has been developed to meet the requirements of sustainability, in both aspects of sustainable in software and by software. The app provides people with disabilities with an easy way to search and filter the establishments. The results are shown in a graphic, visual and intuitive way to give to the user the power to choose the establishment which is more adequate to their requirements.

In this sense, some authors have indicated that the filtering process is a key element in applications for people with a disability [ 42 ]. Furthermore, the app will not only be beneficial for users, but will also help improve awareness of accessibility in local businesses. The results of the usability evaluation suggest that the app offers a pleasant user experience UX.

A set of features should, however, be taken into account to make the UX more complete. Firstly, the customizability attribute of the app could be improved to offer more adaptation to the personal preferences of the users e. Thirdly, multi-threading could be enhanced by managing several information sources e.

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Regarding the future research lines of this project, we consider several aspects which could be included in the development of the app:. Access to the app through social networks like Facebook. Successful social inclusion can be achieved by being part of a social network of people in the community [ 43 ]. Empirical studies have shown that opinions in online social networks play an important role in the information diffusion [ 44 ]. On the other hand, social network analysis can be used to capture the structural features such as junctions and routes, with the aim of assessing accessibility and providing connections to establishments [ 45 ].

Moreover, online social networks are a great showcase for owners, so providing accessible environments can open new markets and business opportunities to owners. Inclusion of information related to the user such as age, sex and type of disability, with the aim of making a statistical study about the users of the app and produce a report of searches to know the information which is looked for by the users.

Aggregated statistical reporting on users registered will be prepared for disability support, to help administrators manage and improve the functionality provided by the app. Data controllers and processors must be proactive in addressing the privacy implications of any new change in the system. Notice that sensitive personal information is a special category and will only be available under explicit consent. Therefore, people with disabilities must be in control of who they tell about their disability. Information without their permission must not be passed on.

Access to personal information will be limited by system permissions to authorized people to comply with the Equality Act Although electronic consent eConsent has not been widely used [ 49 ], an eConsent process might be implemented to adopt a more visual approach with voice over capabilities [ 50 ], thus being more accessible to users with disabilities. Add photos of the shops. We intend to include photos of the establishments to show in a visual way the entrance, door and all the information stored about the establishment.

This feature is usually included in the apps for people with disabilities. Textual information might not reflect important details which are shown in an image. Moreover, studies have reported that individuals can categorize visual information faster than using words [ 51 ]. These features could make it easier for people with disabilities to identify the access that best suit their needs. Conceptualization, D. The authors declare no conflict of interest.

The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Feb Juan M.

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Find articles by Juan M. Find articles by Salvador Parada-Sarabia. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Dec 23; Accepted Feb Abstract People with motor disabilities must face many barriers and obstacles in their daily lives, making it difficult to perform everyday tasks.

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Keywords: accessibility, sustainable app development, motor disability, new technologies. Materials and Methods 2. Definition of the Accessibility Levels Unfortunately, there is no universally accepted standard for the definition of the levels of accessibility to buildings. The criteria and parameters that define each group are: Level A. Table 1 Summary of the levels of accessibility to the buildings defined in this research.

D Not accessible The rest of the cases. Open in a separate window. Collection of Accessibility Information After defining the different levels of accessibility, an extensive fieldwork was carried out in the center of the city of Murcia to collect data from shops, banks, bars, restaurants and other public establishments. Figure 1. Figure 2. A Sustainable Mobile Application for Finding Accessible Shops The purpose of this research is to help people who suffer from some type of motor disability to cope better with their urban environment and to avoid some of the day-to-day difficulties derived from their condition.

Analysis and Selection of Technological Alternatives The massive adoption of mobile devices by the general population makes this type of hardware a good option to reach most people. Requirements Specification The features—and requirements—of the mobile application were elicited and documented. Each of them has different actions available: o. Figure 3. Design of the App The design of the developed app follows the standard model-view-controller architecture; the model defines the data structure of the information stored in the system, the view defines the user interfaces, and the controller contains the control logic of the application.

Figure 4.

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Entity-relationship diagram of the information stored in the database. Figure 5. Navigation diagram of the app, corresponding to the role of unregistered user. Results 4. Running Example: Sustainable Search This section presents the implementation of the most interesting operation of the app, which is the search for accessible shops. Figure 6. Figure 7.

Usability Evaluation The needs of users have expanded further concerning mobile apps. A set of assumptions were proposed to refine the usability audit based on this technique: Informativeness. Table 3 Usability principles by Dix usability evaluation. Discussion The development of this app shows the relationship between architecture and new technologies, and also the importance of new technologies for people with disabilities in their daily life.

Conclusions and Future Work The proposed app has been developed to meet the requirements of sustainability, in both aspects of sustainable in software and by software. Regarding the future research lines of this project, we consider several aspects which could be included in the development of the app: Access to the app through social networks like Facebook. Author Contributions Conceptualization, D. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References 1. United Nations Factsheet on Persons with Disabilities. United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Bertolini L. Sustainable accessibility: A conceptual framework to integrate transport and land use plan-making. Two test-applications in the Netherlands and a reflection on the way forward.

Cheng J. Measuring Sustainable Accessibility. Curtis C. Planning for sustainable accessibility: Developing tools to aid discussion and decision-making. Pitarch-Garrido M. Social sustainability in metropolitan areas: Accessibility and equity in the case of the metropolitan area of Valencia Spain Sustainabiliaty. Kern E.

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IEEE ISO; Geneva, Switzerland: Davis A. Dorset House; Hong Kong, China: Cruz-Zapata B. Ouhbi S. Sustainability requirements for connected health applications. Carrillo de Gea J. Automated support for reuse-based requirements engineering in global software engineering. Bisht C. Engineering Vibration, Communication and Information Processing.

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Folmer E. Architecting for usability: A survey. Baxter K. Evaluation Methods. Your Users. Nielsen J. A first time consultation in Geneva, Switzerland brought together local governments from around the world and UN Human Rights to discuss the growing human rights challenges in cities, especially in the face of massive and rapid urbanisation.

More information All Stories. Briefing the Human Rights Council, she outlines the "dramatic impact" of the crisis on fundamental rights More information All Stories. Climate change has specific adverse impacts on women and girls — but women also have much to contribute to climate action. Join us in promoting and defending human rights for everyone, everywhere.

Stand up for human rights and take action for stronger respect, greater freedom and more compassion. Follow us:. Turn on more accessible mode. Turn off more accessible mode. Local governments for human rights Right to mental health Venezuela speech Women and climate change Stand up for human rights Local governments unite to defend and promote human rights. A rights environment for the highest standard of mental health. Venezuela: High Commissioner Bachelet calls for dialogue and change. Climate change: highlighting the need for gender-specific action.

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Kashmir report UN human rights report says neither India nor Pakistan have taken any concrete steps to address the numerous concerns raised in the previous report. Venezuela report UN human rights report urges the Government of Venezuela to take immediate measures to halt the grave violations of economic, social, civil and political rights documented in the country. Sudan: Protest casualties Bachelet urges Sudanese authorities to launch proper investigations into allegations of excessive use of force.

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Nicaragua: concerns about amnesty law Bachelet alerts against a law in Nicaragua that could prevent accountability for human rights abuses. Libya: Inhuman detention facilities We are deeply concerned about the ghastly conditions for migrants and refugees detained in Libya, and ongoing disappearances and human trafficking following interception at sea by the Libyan Coast Guard. Hungary Special Rapporteur on human rights of migrants will visit Hungary from 10 to 17 July Sudan Experts denounce measures taken by the authorities to shut down Internet in Sudan, saying it stifles free expression and association.

Extractivism Extraction of natural resources routinely inflicts acute human rights violations on racial and ethnic minorities, indigenous peoples and other marginalised groups, says UN expert. India Experts says up to nine million people face possible eviction from forested areas following a case brought by wildlife organisations, who claim human settlements encroach on protected forests. Council closes fortieth session The Council concluded its fortieth regular session.

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