In principle, for as long as Montenegro was a constituent party in the common state with Serbia, its citizenship policy was supposed to be the second-tier citizenship within a federal model.
However, as a part of its detachment from the FRY in , Montenegro adopted a citizenship law with provisions conflicting with that of the federal Yugoslavia. In the desire of the political entrepreneurs to consolidate the Montenegrin identity after independence, the Montenegrin citizenship pendulum oscillates between the ethnic and civic principles.
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While exclusively defined as the link between the individuals and the state, the Montenegrin citizenship regime exhibits strong protectionism through its restrictive provisions. A restrictive approach to membership and the intolerance of dual citizenship allowed the DPS not only to manage the fragile ethnic balances between the Serbs and the Montenegrins in Montenegro, but also to manage the number of people who were granted the right to vote.
Simply put, Montenegrin ethnics, or even citizens, residing in Serbia or elsewhere do not have voting rights in Montenegro, which has commonly been seen as a barrier to the potential votes for the opposition. This linking of rights to the status of citizenship has been criticised by the international community , and above all the EU, which Montenegro aspires to join in the future. To finish off with a Gellnerian-style metaphor, citizenship is born out of the marriage of the people and the state. It precedes the state, because it represents the community of people and their association to a particular territory.
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Cohen, Lenard J. Indiana: Purdue University Press.
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Monstat: Zavod za Statistiku Crne Gore. Population Census Accessed 20 June Ramet, Sabrina P.
Central and Southeast European Politics since Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. It covers both the states that emerged out of the initial disintegration across and Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Macedonia , as well as those that have been formed recently through subsequent partitions Serbia, Montenegro and Kosovo.
Justice evades Slovenia’s ‘erased’ citizens
While citizenship has often been used as a tool of ethnic engineering to reinforce the position of the titular majority in many states, in other cases citizenship laws and practices have been liberalised as part of a wider political settlement intended to include minority communities more effectively in the political process. Meanwhile, frequent re definitions of these increasingly overlapping regimes still provoke conflicts among post-Yugoslav states. Brothers R-United! Federal Citizenship in Socialist Yugoslavia 4. Where is my State?
Citizenship after Yugoslavia | Igor Stiks - cosenefuno.tk
Citizenship as a Factor oinYugoslavia's Disintegration 8. Partners Again?
The rise and fall of Yugoslavia as retraced and analyzed by Igor Stiks constitutes an exceptional case study of what citizenship can signify in a highly volatile historical period and geopolitical space. Stiks' meticulously documented and well thought-out analysis constitutes a unique and indispensable resource for anyone seeking to understand the role citizenship can play in a globalized world. With his customary narrative verve, Stiks sheds light on how political elites used citizenship in order to reinforce their positions.