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The generous extension of the concept of built heritage also conveyed some serious ideological drifts, an adverse impact that has not yet been fully measured. The latter leads to an abusive aesthetic value granted to all material forms of human expression. In these current circumstances, it is necessary to understand the limit of validity of ideas and methods underpinning the traditional heritage management practices.

The prescriptive and normative doctrine, originally associated with the preservation of historical monuments, becomes irrelevant with regard to an expanded conception of the built heritage, and incompatible with our evolving view of history and perception of time. Further, the concepts and methods developed for preserving architectural objects prove unsuitable for the preservation of urban and territorial heritage. Similarly, methods and mechanisms devised for the conservation of natural sites and historical gardens cannot be extended to the category of cultural landscapes. To the extent that value assessments are made by a wide group of stakeholders, rather than by traditional preservation professionals such as Art and Architecture historians, these surveys are useful for understanding sociological and cultural conditions underpinning perceptions towards heritage and its preservation.

Sometimes, it refers to abstract moral principles, sometimes to a physical characteristic observed in one object. There are no clear distinctions for instance between utility value and economic value. The typologies of proposed heritage values reveal themselves totally absurd, quite simply because they are not based on mutually exclusive categories.

He explained that science cannot decide questions of value, that values cannot be intellectually arbitrated at all because they lie outside the realm of truth and falsehood. Bertrand Russell, Science and religion. Such prescriptions, of which explanatory statements are not explicit since the character is never explicitly described, are unenforceable and should not resist a legal challenge. Architectural projects are hence submitted to a highly discretionary approval process, entrusted to advisory councils on cultural heritage. In practice, members of advisory board can veto any projects not corresponding to their personal taste.

Therefore, their decisions are highly unpredictable. The worst architectural intervention could be approved, the best projects are likely to be rejected.


Built environments are submitted to an ongoing transformation process. They are the product of continuous adaptation to the evolving needs, lifestyle and constructive practices of society. Further, even high-value historical structures are subjected to the material lifecycle of building: interventions are thence de rigueur. It entails that the preservation of architectural and urban form should not be envisioned restrictively and be concerned with only a minority of built objects, either deemed worthy of strict conservation or candidate for demolition. It is a social responsibility of all architects and urban designers to engage with heritage preservation, and with the built environment more broadly, on those terms.

These rules can be discovered through the theoretical reconstruction of their historical formation and transformation processes. Questa scelta scaturisce anche da ISBN Si tratta di un suggestivo saggio di analisi urbana che deve molto al maestro del suo autore, Gianfranco Caniggia, al quale si deve per inciso una memorabile opera su Como. I quartieri sono separati da aree verdi, parchi, giardini o campi coltivati, formando una sorta di gigantesco mosaico insediativo.

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Di memorie e di pensieri. Anche nella letteratura le pagine di Quer pasticciaccio brutto de via Merulana di Carlo Emilio Gadda restituiscono una Roma reale e al contempo fantastica, casi alcuni passi dei romanzi di Pier Paolo Pasolini Una vita violenta e Ragazzi di vita. Anche questo progetto non ebbe seguito, se non nel Corviale di Mario Fiorentino che ne rappresenta un frammento. Una tradizione elevata fondata anche sul fatto che era nata nella prima scuola di architettura italiana. Costruire opere moderne ISBN La congruenza tra la tipologia originale e la sua traduzione in volumi, spazi e particolari costruttivi e decorativi venne infranta.

Il Palazzo di Montecitorio - dal quale la metafora pasoliniana del Palazzo come roccaforte isolata del potere - fu progettato nel da Gian Lorenzo Bernini per la famiglia Ludovisi.

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E1lissi, cerchi e rettangoli davano vita a un insieme di forme che anticipavano di qualche anno la geometria frattale di Benoft Mandelbrot. Va anche ricordato che a quel progetto non corrispondeva ancora una tecnica costruttiva adeguata, per cui esso venne considerato troppo ardito, anticonvenzionale da tutti i punti di vista. A conclusione di questo itinerario, per mia scelta parziale, accidentale e frammentario, vorrei proporre alcune considerazioni che ritengo di un certo rilievo. Inoltre Roma nacque come una federazione di nuclei insediativi urbani su colli diversi.

Civil, Environmental, Architectural Engineering, Univ. This paper investigates the composition of heterogeneous fragments, excerpts from the inventory of collective memory, and the resulting unpredictable architecture in an urban context. The project focuses entirely on the city of Rome, its classical antiquities, its Renaissance and Baroque works and different branches of modernism found there.

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The experimental setting, that some may deem fantastical, is derived from the superimposition of an existing environment and works introduced from other contexts. Introduction The representation of a space in which coherence of place and time is not a requirement was exemplarily practiced by the artist Canaletto in in a painting in which the project of the Rialto Bridge over the Grand Canal in Venice developed two centuries beforehand by the famous architect Palladio is represented together with two buildings that are part of the city of Vicenza, that is, Palazzo Chiericati and the Basilica.

The inventions resulting from the union of individual architectures into unitary visions that do not organically belong together due to shared birth or co-ordinated development is a particular iconography in which buildings abandon the passive and ornamental function thanks to which we have got to know them and reacquire an actively elevated role in the project. The buildings represented in the perspective representation of the scene have a physical appearance permitting precise evaluations of the choices to be applied in as far as they affect the themes of the private and above all the public space, the volumes, the surfaces, the materials, and the technologies.

A similar procedure that tests the possibility of enhancement of the context and the monument was started by the greatest architect of the era of romantic classicism, Karl Friedrich Schinkel, and can be seen in one of his best known designs called Large composition, how Milan Cathedral should be situated So the monument of the Lombard city is represented on a hill that overlooks a large city on the coast, perhaps Trieste, in order to test a new version of the relationship, here between architecture and nature.

Robert, William Marlow, and many other artists painted representations that were syntheses of real information and imagined components. At the start of the nineteenth century, Karl Friedrich Schinkel painted views of architecture immersed in scenic romantic landscapes that were sometimes re-elaborations from his travel notes based on real building components but conceived and assembled by himself in free compositions. He interpreted the landscape and composed images for his own world.

From the very start, he made a strict choice and believed in his own vision with sacred religiosity. Semerani , pp. Several contemporary artists have become experienced in the study of place by varying real elements in it, that is, in the analysis of the imaginary environment deriving from. The digital designer Anton Reppon, Russian by birth and American by adoption, has been praised by the critics for a series of images in which he simulates new environments for eleven important buildings in New York, masterpieces of contemporary architecture in the American metropolis that are imagined as being isolated in a desolate inhospitable context, in the desert or on the open sea, becoming unknown and therefore unreachable.

The Canadian photographer Chris Helgren, whose studio is in Toronto, has committed himself to an experience on the theme of combining contributions from different times in the same place. The artist shapes an experimental environment by redesigning places and cities using slippage in time and between places, a shaping that is not real but imagined, and is possible albeit with a little variation. Methodology Part of the laboratory experience matured in the teaching of the Urban and Architecture Composition II course regular professor Enrico Pietrogrande, co-workers Alessandro Dalla Caneva and Nicola Sartorello, academic year on the Civil Engineering - Architecture degree course at the University of Padua in Italy Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering has closely approached the above-mentioned experiences by providing for the development of projects by the students in composing collages that show images of possible urban contexts in the city.

The developments are real and true urban scenes starting by inserting architectures, preferably monumental and freely chosen from the formal stock offered by history, in a fragment of urban fabric autonomously decided by the student with no conditions attached. The buildings of the piazzetta San Marco, the church of the Salute, but above all the Palladian architecture of the three churches of San Giorgio Maggiore, Le Zitelle, and the Redentore become the buildings favoured in the construction of an imagined Venice affected by a dialogue from distance.

Rossi did not hide how much the formal operation staged using the theatre of the world certainly referred to the Venetian Capriccio. Canaletto proposing the insertion of Palladian buildings in a real place like the Rialto Bridge highlights a logical formal operation in which the meanings that unexpectedly emerge from the composition represent the true meaning and authenticity of reality. Rossi , pp. Consequently, in the experience proposed in these pages the beautiful is not investigated by the application of schemas or principles but trusts its own representation to its evocation, its rhythm, its view, and to its movement, using the stated purpose of communicating the meanings and reawakening memories in order to rediscover the connection between reality and imagination.

Quatremere De Quincy , p. Contessi , made of inert fragments of reality such as towers, churches, town halls, chimneys, and schools, emptied of the presence of mankind but paradoxically revealing an intense interior life responding to our emotive, symbolic, and ideal investments. Rossi , p.

Therefore, this imagined reality coincides with the nature of the form, a form that through its size, proportions, and relationships knows how to restore the fundamental reason that caused it. The most important results seem to be the ability of the compositional game to lead to the production of a multiplicity of images in which formal eclecticism combines historically diverse objects and translates them into the evocation of unexpected meanings, which is far from a search for originality.

It is remarkable that forms that do not seem to be more meaningful since they are linked to a particular moment in history, recontextualised, make their meaning recognisable, or assuming the new position within the context, they produce a transformation of the meaning that makes them extraordinarily actual in the present. However, the essence of Aldo Rossi is really appropriation, that of the use of historical forms, the forms of the past, recomposed so that their meaning is changed, brought up to date, so that they are suddenly rediscovered. Monestiroli , p.

Applications Four developments in the city of Rome are now proposed. Rome suspended between the dome of St. The Reichstag and St. So the Reichstag and St. Certain elements of architecture such as St. The Reichstag building from Berlin has nothing to do with the history of Rome but the unusual effect is even more evident precisely because of this and the emergence of architectural meanings and values inside the composition is also evident.

This aspect constitutes the original moment of the entire urban composition. The meanings that emerge from the composition are more interesting than the stylistic and functional aspects: the city is the place where the experience of life as lived by mankind is represented. The formal logical experience that students Carlotta Picci and Damiano Ricca achieve is composed of the insertion of a well-known historic form, Palazzo Vecchio in Piazza della Signoria in the city of Florence, within a picturesque view of the eighteenth-century urban landscape in Rome Figure 2.

The students Chiara Pomes and Lorenzo Piccinini confronted another place identifying Rome, the Piazza del Campidoglio, by changing the backdrop perspective of the piazza, that is, Palazzo Senatorio, which was consolidated in the structuring of the public space desired by Pope Paul III and planned by Michelangelo between and Figure The perception of another building, Palazzo Madama, which stands in Piazza Castello in Turin, opens various opportunities to conclude the space, new relationships between the Roman context and the baroque architecture that Filippo Juvarra designed to cover the medieval building.

Lastly, Elisa Castagna and Eric Cavallin centred attention on on the Piazza di Spagna in order to evaluate the effect produced in the heart of the historic-artistic Rome by the presence of distinctly contemporary forms such as one of the towers of the Neuer Zollhof complex developed by Frank O.

Conclusion Architecture is a spatial experience that we face in our daily lives in the real world. We have lost the habit of comparing ourselves in this experience, often considering the city and its human works to be a foreign fact since the habit makes us insensitive to the meaning of things so it seems obvious and entirely natural to be immersed inside the spaces in which we live every day and that the forms architecture takes have built according to the measure of human life. Leonini , pp. The city possesses its own character that cannot be evaluated by a purely social or functional analysis but has to be above all considered from the formal point of view.

As Aldo Rossi reminds us, the ability of the project to unite the logical aspect of architecture with the poetic aspect represents the highest form of realism, the only way to relate the real experience of ISBN For the old Masters the city was built according to aesthetic principles and so they worried about arranging the buildings according to determined sizes and proportions, more evidently in the main places in the city. The aim was to make that monumental meaning manifest itself in space due to which a collectivity recognised in it the symbolic and emotional values that produced it.

The Acropolis in Athens and the Field of Miracles in Pisa have taught us that the expressive force of form depends on the free but mathematically established disposition of buildings in relation to each other. The architectural project today should be oriented more than ever to operating inside or on the edge of the historic city, considering the relationships that the forms establish with the pre-existing historical environment. This means thinking of the project not as an autonomous or isolated entity but an architectural fact that is placed in relation to other parts of the city.

In this way the project is conceived to build an idea of urban landscape in which the experience of emotional life by mankind does not feel excluded or even worse alienated but may inhabit that place. In fact, the city is credible if its forms manage to restore or represent the values in which a collectivity recognises itself and the city manages to enrich itself in the multiple layers of meaning which are then stripped away when it is treated as a simple value of use or merchandise for exchange. References Arisi, F. Contessi, G. Focillon, H. Giedion, S. Leonini, L. Esperienza delle cose Marietti, Genova.

Monestiroli, A. Il progetto del monumento tra memoria e invenzione Edizioni Gabriele Mazzotta, Milan. Quatremere de Quincy, A. Dizionario storico di architettura Marsilio, Venice. Rossi, A. Aldo Rossi. Disegni Skira editore, Milan. Semerani, L. Sestieri, G. Venezia, F. Gehry between and They are the territories with the not understandable structure and history of forming, unplanned unpredictable in development.

Fringe belts still contain original samples of unique civil architecture, and more over some traditional industries, gardens, etc. Old times, functional processes evidently leaved imprints in the forms of individual house holdings as well. The comparative analyses of modern renovate projects shows similar attitudes toward understanding of city structure. Thus, understanding of laws of urban gaps forming will allow professionals to compose strategies of the urban renovation taking into account modern requirements for the city environment.

Methods of research and protection of cultural heritage sites were created. Historical science usually examines architectural objects, existing urban design ensembles, and historic towns on a certain stage of development, whereas applied research and practical urban planning focuses on functional areas, structure, and infrastructure of populated areas. It is possible to integrate and divide areas of different historical periods, functional and technological content with conscious planning of buffer structure-saving areas.

This system can be seen as an instrument for preservation of historic urban areas, landscape, architectural, and preservation sites in the city structure, as well as for overcoming spatial segregation. Each of the periods leaves characteristic, recognizable image of the city structure and system of regulations imposed on urban planning.

In a sense, optimal morphological structure is a component of sustainable development of populated areas, for which the humanity began struggling consciously only in the last quarter of the twentieth century. The concept of a modern city — a dense city, protecting natural environment around and within itself, solving its environmental, transportation and other issues not at the expense of continuous absorption of vacant land, but at the cost of structuring and technologizing urban and agglomeration processes based on coexistence of cultures and biotopes.

It is viewed from the standpoint of environmental or at least functional imprint in the region. Scale and globalism of the process suggests that currently in urban reconstruction two fundamentally different methodological stages can be observed. As a separate goal should be regarded the restoration of native eco-systems through functioning of the city and non-exhaustion of natural resources while combining spaces, biotypes and cultures.

Methodology of technocracy, which continues to live today, at least in the regulatory and procedural documents, is based on the fact that natural processes of city-systems development including social life, relative freedom of the economy, and their material embodiment in the city environment are determined by planning and construction industry. At a time when urban life was treated as a conveyor belt and daily life and culture as derivatives of industrial processes, ideas of spatial self-organization were prohibited.

While the Machine represents an age of homogenization, Life is an age of pluralism and differences. Thus, the architecture of Life is an age of differences expression. There comes the age of intercultural interaction, where a system of values and lifestyle of the West and other countries come to coexistence, symbiosis. The doctrine of Humanism, which made the man a rational being secondary only to God and gave him control over the living and the natural world, ISBN Kurokawa states that the question of human survival, even from only an environmental perspective, depends entirely on the ability to co-exist with the other life forms and eco-systems on the planet.

These areas received different names from different authors. This is the replacement of ideas about monocentric city to polycentric one; it is a gradual development of ideas of uncontrolled city development. Theory of urban planning was enriched by the research in the sphere of landscaping by concepts of urbo-morphological research: consolidation of the market, social structures, landscape and urban zoning, and typology of borders in the city stitches, barriers, fringe belts, etc.

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The largest terrain vague is considered to be industrial areas. For centuries in cities there was an overlapping of transport, residential and industrial areas, including banks of water bodies, etc. New urban phenomenon is of interest due to the power of expression within the city fabric and is generally perceived as a negative or unknown problematic phenomenon, currently, in a focus of large-scale transformations.

The relevance of their study is in the examination of urban spatial relationships they establish, morphological systems they create, and typological planning models can they produce. For example, The Distillery District — at the same time the largest residential precinct in the heart of Toronto, the largest in North America collection of industrial architecture of the XIX century Victorian period with more than forty architectural monuments, the area of theaters and art galleries, art studios, festivals, fairs and special events.

The new owners have refused to rent out shops for retail, catering networks, or any other operating franchises and, accordingly, most of the buildings are occupied by unique boutiques, art galleries, jewelry stores, restaurants and coffee shops. The new theater, youth center for performing arts that occupies the so-called Tank-house storage are home for Theatre Company and stage for drama productions of George Brown College. Currently, a series of high-end residential projects in the unoccupied areas surrounding the District is planned, but this is extremely controversial.

The Distillery District before, during and after the reconstruction is to be protected as a historic monument of national importance in compliance with Ontario Heritage Act Port technologies, size and quality of ships, warehousing and handling of goods are changing. The difference between the European and the US ports is that European are common administrative facilities and in the United States piers function separately. Converting each of the piers is easy. In Manhattan, Boston, Baltimore, San Francisco, Seattle, there formed a trend of intensive commercial use of port areas.

Reconstruction of port areas in European cities managed by a single administrative unit is a complex process. An outstanding example is the reconstruction of HafenCity in Hamburg into residential precincts of increased comfort. Closer to the coastline the scale of construction, materials and architectural techniques are changing.

The height of modern car parkings and the medieval warehouses, material brick and the color is uniform, so the building are perceived organically. As we move to the shoreline through the new residential group — piers gradually, piece by piece goes away a reminder of historicism of buildings and comes a realization that a pedestrian comes to a modern residential area with a unique rich plasticity of space. Currently, they are complex hubs of intersections of different transport modes. However, some experience shows that it is quite possible.

A sample could be a project of renovation of the fringe belt of Yeniseysk of the XVIII century which mostly green area with historic housing, barns, traditional crafts inclusions, monastery and green private and public spaces. Thus, this area can work on the town structure preservation, regulation of economic activity as a green belt with the touristic service system inclusion around the historical core and off regulation of the built and natural environment.

References Baum, M and Christiaanse, K. Kukina, I. Lavrov, V. Troll, C. Whitehand, J. This paper focuses on a particular way of conceiving the built reality by man, typical of the Mediterranean, and its consistent and procedural transformation. The built reality, constituting physical contingent matter to be transformed, recovered, rehabilitated, is returned to the center of the current architectural debate. Architecture is the reality that man has built around himself, measuring the space through the practice of gestures, movements, actions he cans take.

Introduction These notes are concerned with a particular way, typical of the Mediterranean area, of reading the built reality and its consistent and, in some way, processual transformation. This reality, which is the physical matter to transform, recover and rehabilitate, is read as a center around which it is possible to reconstruct a debate on current architectural design tools.

Against many abstract and aesthetising drifts that occupy the contemporary architecture scene, it is necessary, I believe, to consider architecture as the physical structure of shapes, forms and materials that man has built around himself, measuring the space through the gestures customary, movements and acts he do. On a closer inspection, however, it is a return, a reprise of themes developed during the last century that has involved not only architecture but also other disciplines such as art, literature, painting, cinema, all converging toward the same center2.

This multidisciplinary movement expressed the closeness to reality through different forms of expression. In particular, the post-war Italian archi1. Plasticity, which later in this text we will try to prove being the typical and common character of masonry organisms and urban fabrics, lies, here, in the ability to generate, in coherence, adherence and continuity, new theories, taking advantage of cracks and fessures, of predispositive conditions to future transformation of the previous one, being inserted in substrate that could be its fertile base.

The reality does not exist except as it is interpreted, losing the physical and material sense that characterizes it, especially in architecture. The focus of the debate is eccentric. It coincides with the material world that man has formed and forms around him. A reality that forms on its forming, inseparably to human actions. Architectural reality materializes by the human relentless action. In fact, man is the effective cementing element, the active component in the realization of architecture, thus in the construction of reality.

Orientation and action belong to primordial consciousness of man, shaping the space proportioning it to his measure, stabilizing it universally: the domestic space is unchanged, indeed, compared to the extension of its existence, paths represent the synthesis of the dynamic relationship between man that moves and the immanence of nature. The mediated balance of dimensions is perceived on the border, on the edge where the differences and changes became more sensitive, changing the reference scale.

So the human reality materializes, through architecture, those slight differences and diversities that are bearers of cultural witness and heritage to be transmitted into the future. The rigid architecture of the module, repeated, serial, always the same, is opposed to the complex and organic unity that is a result of logical and rational synthesis, of the plastic absorption of the error, true essence of human doing.

In his latest study, Giuseppe Strappa summarizes processes and characters of the masonry-plastic world and precisely because of this effort it is possible to see open slots in that theoretical structure, as an opportunity to continue it, looking for a new temporary and plastic unity. Resilience as intrinsic capacity, internal to architecture physicality, of giving coherent answers to various stress types that it involves.

The measure of the ability to adapt, to respond to shocks and in general to the exceptional events is linked to another, complementary and not less interesting character, from the critical-operative point of view, that is ductility, ie the ability of the material to undergo plastic transformations, the extent of a plastic deformation that a material can endure before it breaks. Ductility, in a positive sense, is a detectable character present in traditional masonry constructions and researched in earthquake-resistant contemporary buildings, in which the plasticization of elements, still linear and serial reinforced concrete pillars and columns, for example , constituting the structural load-bearing skeleton, it is preferable to a sudden collapse of a structure.

The other important character that describes much of the built reality that we have produced as builders is plasticity. The original meaning of this term refers to plastic as the art of shaping, of modelling a malleable material. The development of this aspect has been proposed, defended and spread by a large part of architectural criticism, resulting happily accepted and easily understood by insiders.

Plasticity is the ability to transmit internal stresses through the plan, to dissipate, downloading external forces through the material, all committed and involved in this task. The organic architectural approach, in which all parts of a unity cooperate necessarily together to a unique purpose that is spatial-distributive, static-constructive, symbolic-expressive, possesses in its interior the notion of plasticity. We could imagine how much these meanings could be useful to describe material, physical, real behaviors, characterizing all masonry-plastic cities, the object of this research.

Plastic city consists of a smaller scale elements that work together spatially and constructively to the organic unity of urban composition. Collaboration between parts is necessary because the system of elements shares the same goal: the life of the city itself. An entire world will unfold: not only the monuments, but also simple urban fabrics of Italian cities, and then a lot of modern architecture, built with up-to-date tools with the great solidarity between construction and civil utility, will tell the pathos of a great plastic civilization and the possibility of a different, contemporary way of building and living.

Translated by the author. Architectural expression is the last degree, concise and intelligible, of a process, the typological process that accumulates costumes and actions that always repeat, encoding them in language and shares them spontaneously in the community of a social and cultural neighborhood. Architectural language is coded from repeated constructive costumes that become common rules, unwritten but present in the spirit of human kind of each era: the construction of a wall included, when it reached a certain height, the beating of the setting-up plan for the openings; in Roman area it was common to setting-up a row done with a different material, usually composed of two rows of regular bricks that established a material discontinuity in the vertical plane of the wall over the other resistant material, for instance the Roman tuff.

Matera is the perfect synthesis of the argument presented in this study. At ISBN Each elementary cell, every row house, each residential unit specializing its shape depending on the position and the type of relief condition present, both typologically both constructively. The residential units aggregation, apparently confused, plays at urban scale the sense of deep collaboration between parts in plastic tension with each other: beyond the structure, which lives of internal tensions and forces that discrete elements of which are composed transmit to the ground, is involved the space, the one open to the public neighborhood, establishing a hierarchical relationship with the private spaces, dug into the rock, closed and concluded.

The intervention of Caniggia recovers and restores, in a very modern way, the plastic condition of roman urban transformation, for this reason coherent and congruent with highly typical context in which it located. More info in Camporeale, A. City as Organism. The construction system adopted has undergone, also itself, a plastic transformation process during the design phases: a reinforced concrete structure, with beams and pillars of variable section according to special static role that each of them plays, has been preferred to the original elastic structure, designed as a skeleton of iron beams and pillars, lighter and to be stabilized with diagonal tie rods chipping away, from the fruition point of view, the spatiality of rooms.

A second example of an urban plastic transformation could be considered the reconstructive intervention in the historic center of Pisa by Massimo Carmassi. Starting from St. During World War II the urban fabric that incorporates the church and the convent was bombed: we could consider the act of war as a violent action that acts on the temporary unity, that is distributive, structural and spatial together, of the monastic complex.

From a break in the urban fabric, from a temporary equilibrium on hold, it could be possible to reach a new unity, which is also temporary, but congruent and coherent with the context in which it occurs. And it does it plastically, physically involving existing structures, leaning on them, triggering tensions and efforts that together with gravity and weight make alive existing walls in necessary collaboration with the new ones, recovering, that is, their deepest meaning. At the technological level, this transformation is experimentally masonry, walls are made of continuous ISBN The brick exposed expression resumes the masonry tradition of the central-northern Italian areas and it reinterprets in a contemporary way that typical architectural language derived from those areas.

San Pietro a Patierno is set on an axis polarized on the major church and on the square outside, urban node and symbol of public life. So we recognize an attempt of hierarchization in typological setting of those new buildings: the seriality of in-line houses found its specialization in the palazzo that faces the other special building of the church. A not complete palazzo, on closer inspection, but predisposed to a new plastic transformation that could return its typological unity, involving plastically existing structures and knotting, for example, the central space with a light covering.

Conclusions The current status of the theory, the critics and the architectural practice requires an urgent global rethinking of the entire discipline that could be materialized on concepts recovery already established, but lost, misunderstood, distorted during the course of history. The masonry plastic world has undergone an important phenomenon of slowing down, almost a complete stop, due to the absence of method in practice and critical theory regarding urban plastic transformations. Baldacci, R. Camporeale, A. Caniggia, G.

Studi e note Alinea, Firenze. Carlotti P. Carmassi, M. Gregory, P. Gregotti, V. Laureano, P. Mehaffy, M. Maretto, P. Mulazzani, M. Opere e Progetti Electa, Milano. Muratori, S. Pareyson, L. Restucci, A. Rocchi, P. Tra restauro conservativo e consolidamento Marsilio, Venezia. Severino, E. Stabilini, L. Strappa, G. Il mondo plastico murario in divenire Franco Angeli Editore, Milano. Elaboration by the author. Aporias in contemporary regeneration processes Nicola Marzot. The paper considers the contemporary condition of crisis of the building market as being responsible of a stimulating challenge with respect to the current architectural practice.

In fact, beyond a certain threshold, any crisis suddenly shift from a temporary state into a permanent condition. The paper aims at tracing back the premises of this embarrassing aporias to the pre-modern age, and the foundation of Urban Morphology and Building Typology to the need to overcome the enduring struggle between Architecture and Planning upon which Modernity grounded its prejudicial legitimacy.

In conclusion, it will be demonstrated how this opposition has affected, and still does, the possibility of any urban form transformation, especially within the historical context Conzen, Introduction The persisting condition of crisis of the building market, which has been mostly affecting the western world over the last decade, seems to offer a stimulating challenge to the current architectural practice. In conclusion, it will be demonstrated how this opposition has affected, and still does, the possibility of any coherent urban form transformation, especially within the historical context Conzen, While the former tend to emphasize the autonomous capacity of architecture to subvert the existing condition, mostly acting at a formal level, therefore substituting to an ISBN So doing, this horizon of investigation never presume to know who is doing what, why, when and where, which are the basic aspects of any consistent research.

To clarify this fundamental difference we will compare three canonical texts dealing with the architectural quality of the city and its transformation over space and time. Forming processes. Three canonical positions The architecture of the city Rossi, ; Architecture as a theme Ungers, and Delirious New York Koolhaas, are the selected texts for the experiment. In that sense they are all apparently post-modern, coherently with the cultural climax they were part of. Here lies the prejudicial aspect we are interested in, which will be affecting their design strategy.

These do not seem to have changed over the years, as the author himself recalls in his various introductions, and this means there was never any call for him to bring the text itself up to date. The purpose of his argument thus becomes to bring out, through reference to situations which have really occurred and are historically founded, the existence of closely correlated systems of laws and characters in order to try to create a theory of the city, an urban science.

The text is divided into four sections: the structure of urban artifacts; the primary elements and the concept of area; the individuality of urban artifacts; architecture; the evolution of urban artifacts. The city is considered as an artifact, a work that grows in time in accordance with a logic of continuous adaptations of the existing patrimony to changing needs.

As the art of composition, architecture is pure rationality, it has its own lexical elements and its own rules of syntactical-grammatical articulation. These elements and rules do not belong to history but to the world of forms. In this way Morphology is concerned with concrete urban artifacts, white typology with their constructional logic. The general validity of these principles is not undermined by the fact that they are embodied in widely different situations; in fact this constitutes the foundation of their truth. If anything, says Rossi, it is the type that is the organizational model of this function.

Function does not lend itself to becoming an effective parameter for the analysis of reality, though the Modern Movement made excessive use of it. Other parameters that had a considerable success were those that had an economic nature and social content. Rossi, however, never doubted that the persistence of these phenomena was not necessarily a synonym of choice but rather the effect of an inertia to change, due in part to the nature of the materials employed. This would help understand why the cardo and decumanus of Roman cities are better preserved than all the other signs of lesser importance.

As such it is a fundamental contribution to the comprehension of part of the state of things in which we still live. In this way Ungers seeks to express his criticism of ingenuous Functionalism and the consequent subordination of architecture to purpose, technology and the reasons of the economy, which have made it an applied art. This urge to attribute a communicative capacity to architecture, regardless of the question of interdisciplinarity, was typical of the s.

Themes, precisely because they are not natural or spontaneous aspects but the result of conscious choice, are partial.

le polaroid di questa fotografa italiana raccontano la quotidianità dei rifugiati

It only as such that they succeed in ensuring architecture has the linguistic function which the author seeks to attribute to it. But for the same reasons the choice of these aspects, to be widely shared, a collective choice and not a personal poetic inaccessible to most people, should possess a historicity of their own: i. As the immediate result of choices not shared, the language of architecture will prove in various cases to be conditioned by the nature of the theme, so being translated into a catalogue of codes, meaning strongly specialized languages.

But the theme can also express the transition from a state of order - the layout of a planned city - to its abandonment because of a change in the general context which seemingly alludes to a state of chaos. An example is the early medieval city, which developed on the earlier system in continuity with its most elementary aspects.

Each of these strategies, says Ungers, makes it possible to clarify the theme of transformation through the language of architecture, making architecture the language of transformation, enhancing the idea of a possible variety within the unity of the system. His purpose, on the contrary, is to show that the composition of contrasts is sometimes the only strategy available for coping with a design problem and, as such, it may be the source of aesthetic reverberations.

The theme of fragmentariness is also taken as an act of freedom from the often dogmatic imposition of unity. The city lives by the richness of discontinuities, of contradictions, unlike the village, which emphasizes unity. But the theme of the assemblage also becomes a metaphor for the language of contemporary architecture as the place of the fragmentation.

If architecture is the visualization of an idea, which by virtue of its partiality enables it to be communicative, the simultaneous presence in the same space and time of opposed themes, i. This is due to the fact that architecture as a language presupposes specialization, a drastic reduction of its semantic potential by emphasis on a single aspect.

But this very choice in practice decrees its rapid obsolescence. The second is with the existence of simple organisms, unicellular by nature, which remain incorporated in more complex spatial structures by a process of growth, as in the case of the ancient Greek temple in which the naos, the innermost cella accessible only to the priests, is the operative memory of the primitive form of the temple.

In absolutely general terms it represents the idea that architecture, to be translated into a language, should draw its references unequivocally from the location in which it is set, and that the old and the new should therefore become reciprocally interdependent elements in the organization of existential space. So the way the subject is interpreted not only varies from context to context, but should explicitly state this differentiation as its distinctive trait. With certain clear ISBN Innovation and tradition are therefore complementary. The emphasis on syntax should not make us lose sight of the relationship with the existing structures, understood as a rich repertory of reciprocally interrelated forms.

Modern architecture therefore has to include traditional architecture within itself, if it is to supersede it with full awareness, in such a way that this superseding can be not just felt but also seen. Architecture is above all a language in images. Even though Ungers does not tackle the issue explicitly, it seems we can say that the idea of architecture as a language presupposes its being rooted in a context, and that every form of distancing, including a conceptual distancing, from this position, entails shifting the question to the criteria of the formation of languages, i.

But it is necessary to remember that this level of generalization is not a language, but only a generative grammar which seeks to provide a rational explanation for the variety of languages, which is not negated by starting from a basis in rules that are common, since these are innate, hence not a product of culture. It holds that we can talk about architecture as a language only if we decide to analyze it in accordance with an interpretation which will govern its transformation subsequently.

The way we understand the world, and so build it, clearly depends on how we perceive it.

The nature of the parameters or themes chosen is decisive in relation to the results eventually obtained. In particular synecdoche seems to offer the possibility of verifying the quality of a form which, through a condensation or rarefaction of the image, leads to a new expression not contained in the original. Nevertheless, though he demonstrates an ability to systematically document the genesis and development of continuing practices that are analyzed with a comprehensive historico-critical approach, Koolhaas acknowledges that they lack supporting theory.

This book is an interpretation of that Manhattan which gives its seemingly discontinuous - even irreconcilable - episodes a degree of consistency and coherence, an interpretation that intends to establish Manhattan as the product of an unformulated theory, Manhattanism, whose program - to exist in a world totally fabricated by man, i. Although the premises of this relatively unknown theory can be recogni2. The needle is the thinnest, least voluminous structure to mark a location within the Grid. It combines maximum physical impact with a negligible consumption of ground.

It is, essentially, a building without an interior. The globe is, mathematically, the form that encloses the maximum interior volume with the least external skin. It has a promiscuous capacity to absorb objects, people, iconographies, symbolisms; it relates them through the mere fact of their coexistence in its interior. Instead of su-.

The quest for the supernatural, in which Coney Island had deliberately placed its hopes of survival in the face of mass society and its secret rituals, thus took coherent form. Dreamland is located on the sea. In less than a decade they have invented and established an urbanism based on the new Technology of the Fantastic: a permanent conspiracy against the realities of the external world.

The site has now become a miniature state: the program its Ideology; and architecture the arrangement of the technological apparatus that compensates for the loss of real physicality Despite the concern expressed by the defenders of well-meant town planning, who would have replaced the city of entertainment with a more decorous urban park, Coney Island has consolidated its success over time, becoming known for extraordinary construction initiatives of remarkable impact.

In fact, an advertisement announcing the launch of the Globe Tower building project, the largest that the world had seen, appeared in a New York newspaper in This building attracted interest because of its many formal and programmatic features. It is the American genius of Samuel Friede, Inventor of the Globe Tower, to exploit the Platonic solid in a series of strictly pragmatic steps. The larger it is, the more immense these interior planes; since the Globe itself will need only a Single, negligible point of contact with the earth, the smallest possible site will support the largest reclaimable territory.

A single planning exercise, providing an ele7 8. A new era of architecture and town planning opened up with little sign, as yet, of any full and conscious awareness. There is clear paradox in the idea of a single building whose life is in reality fragmented into a countless series of incompatible episodes while the steel structure guarantees a minimum of unity without interfering with the intended use of the individual buildings it houses. The latter can be continually updated without the need for any work on the structural framework.

In terms of urbanism, this indeterminacy means that a particular site can no longer be matched with any single predetermined purpose. From now on each metropolitan lot accommodates - in theory at least an unforeseeable and unstable combination of simultaneous 9. The skyscraper became a factor in the promotion of a new approach to urban planning. The technology of the fantastic employed in Manhattan was translated into a technology of pragmatism at the service of property investors. Even more, the author neither questioned the possibility of having architecture and the city, nor doubting about the intentionality underlying its recycle.

Form, therefore, becomes independent from any transient aspect regarding the urban phenomenon, whether it is material or functional, replacing the role Planning was claiming through its zoning principles and the myth of functionalism, intended as the unavoidable premise of any architectural strategy. This statement seems therefore a major achievement with respect to the ambiguity prompted by Aldo Rossi, where form tends to identify with nature, paying a direct homage to the culture of the Enlightenment.

In both cases, however, the prejudicial search for an To let experimentation take command again in the New York island, it is necessary to hide the promoter real intentions. Life and Form are, therefore, contradicting but complementary aspects of the same urban phenomenon. References Caniggia, G. Conzen, M. A study in town-plan analysis Institute of British Geographers, London. Koolhaas, R. Marzot, N. The new city Italia-y Shapers of Urban Form. Oswalt, P. Assuming this permanence beyond historical epochs, as the grounding principle of the architectural practice, naming it Composition, it becomes the natural environment into which architecture establishes its valuable horizon.

As a consequence, neither the nature of architecture is questioned not its necessity. If architecture becomes a discourse on itself, or a meta-language, its words explicitly refer to its underlying practice. Notwithstanding architecture cannot exceed the limitation of its system, intended as a Laugue, because it remains circumscribed by its set of rules, according to Ungers it can at least elucidate its premises and foundation, ambiguously swinging in between the practical and the conceptual level. Architecture is not simply a representation of new driving forces, claiming a role in the society, through a great Gesture, but, even more, its operational institutionalization.

The bin-up case study of the semi-spoiled fabric in the medieval citadel of Gozo and the search for the reorganization of the Frankenberger district of Aachen - a semi-peripheral area built between the end of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries - will show the diversity of critical orientation that leads to design a coherent built with the langue which is proper of the languistic context. Something that is not given in itself but that to be understood in the fullness of its exclusive values requires essentially an exegetic operation. So to order the structure of our speech is the question of recall the condition of historicity which can not be the exclusive prerogative of the only author - of those who propose the transformation of reality - but belongs to an entire community.

In fact, he aspires to a different idea of civil progress and arrives to conceive highly valuable architectures, both in the categorical plurality of structural values and in the unity. Muratori says , from a mentality fueled by an excess of analytical attitude. On the one hand, the works carried out relate harmoniously to the consolidated city, albeit in the diversity of language and the expectation of content even formalstructural ; on the other hand thought is slowly changing in the scholars of time - exponents of rationalism pre-enlightenment like Descartes towards a volunteer detachment from the medieval city spontaneously formed, not recognizing in it any value even in the monuments.

And by not considering this appropriate to the expectations of the scholar of the time, they imagine a new urban reality, ordained in its constitutive conformation. But it will be above all the late modernity that, even considering the idea of continuous progress as a prerequisite for the development, and not just the civil one, will announce - through a favorable critical synthesis - the clue of a growing aspiration towards the knowledge of the transformative phenomena of the historical built, by questioning on the concept of city-heritage in its meaning of documentary value and by producing diverse outcomes based on a composite methodological orientation.

Analytical evaluations that the epigones of the before mentioned Italian Masters will accomplish after the 50s of the last century by creating a critical dualism that will characterize Italian school studies, which will become an inspiration source for many researches carried out in some European countries, and in particular in the Iberian Peninsula.

That is, of congruent adherence to the ideas which are present at that particular moment that is expressed in the paradigm of thought according to which the architecture, in its constitutive and legible forms, must identify itself with the spirit of time. Gardella , the Palazzo delle Poste by G. Michelucci in part of the ruin of the district of S. Croce in Florence , etc.. It is a theoretical perspective that imagines the truth of things in the depths of a procedural condition, that is, a becoming that recognizes them as not generated from nothing, thus bound to the concept that considers every transformational moment of the reality as inevitably affecting any subsequent development4.

This means that in order to understand it in the fullness of its meaning, it is necessary to keep in mind the passage of all intermediate terms that is the whole process the process of reality that is the whole of the human history becoming and of the nature. He also states that the truth of reality is the whole of his moments. The absolute is the truth of this development.

Consequently, stopping at a single element, at one point, there is a distorted view of reality. The true declares is the whole. But the whole is only the essence that is completed through its development. Il progetto sostenibile di risanamento, ricostruzione, ristrutturazione: una questione di interpretazione critica e di ottica valutativa.

In: AA. The precepts of this cultural position are deeply rooted in G. This is a point of view that is widely shared, albeit with different accents depending from the different cultural positions, even in the architects projects, such as: A. Natalini for Piazza Matteotti in Siena; M. Carmassi in the reconstruction of S. Michele in Borgo, etc.

Gregotti, G. Grassi, G. Valle, F. Sibilla Aleramo, a mother, a woman, a human being, very human. Un'autobiografia destinata ad imprimersi nel panorama letterario e a parlare nei secoli a venire. Sibilla lancia sulla scena editoriale una vera bomba a orologeria, un romanzo che propone, per la prima volta, una facciata femminista. Sono gli inizi del e Sibilla, come poche altre intellettuali, come la classe operaia, come altre donne e vite misere, sente il bisogno del risveglio della propria coscienza e ce Nel compare 'Una donna' romanzo di Sibilla Aleramo, pseudonimo di Rina Faccio.

Sono gli inizi del e Sibilla, come poche altre intellettuali, come la classe operaia, come altre donne e vite misere, sente il bisogno del risveglio della propria coscienza e ce lo comunica narrando il susseguirsi degli eventi - taluni drammatici, altri soddisfacenti - che hanno caratterizzato la sua esistenza con un breve accenno all'infanzia e con una concentrazione sul periodo - Ammiratrice inoppugnabile del padre, Sibilla si interroga sulla figura della madre e sul loro rapporto, su cosa rappresenti questa donna emaciata e depressa nella sua esistenza.

Inizia un rapporto che la soffoca, la costringe, che l'avvilisce, che ha come unico frutto un figlio, Walter, al quale Sibilla dedica l'intera sua esistenza e l'intera sua essenza. A formarsi, a pensare, a riflettere. Una lite tra il marito di Sibilla, Ulderico Pierangeli, ed il padre della stessa costringe la coppia ed il bambino al trasferimento a Milano - nel libro citata come Roma - dove Sibilla inizia a riflettere, a scrivere, a dare un'impronta al suo nome che ovunque viene richiesto e allo stesso tempo respinto.

Costretta a tornare al paesino nelle Marche, Sibilla viene violentata dal meschino marito al quale rimane legata per amore del figlio. Neppure al lettore che, in tutte le pagine, si sente ispirato, colto da nuovi intuiti, scosso nel profondo. Una lettura imprescindibile. Grazie, Sibilla, per la donna, la madre e la scrittrice che sei stata. View all 4 comments. E che l'unica, successiva preoccupazione del marito, della suocera e della cognata sia stata quella di evitare uno scandalo? Dalle pagine della Aleramo ho sentito il dolore e la sofferenza di tutte le donne vittime di violenza.

Dec 06, Simona rated it it was amazing. View 2 comments. Il volume, apparso nei primi anni del , costituisce senz'altro una valida documentazione della condizione della donna in quegli anni. Tuttavia, fin dalle prime pagine, la lettura risulta alquanto faticosa a causa di una prosa a mio parere piatta seppur carica di significato. Nonostante queste pecche che rimangono comunque soggettive il romanzo riveste un' estrema importanza culturale oltre che documentaria.

Alcune considerazioni presenti in esso sono condivisibili oggi pure. Tutte le figure maschili che entrano in scena sono pessime. E come dire Marito, padre e amante platonico figurano proprio malino. Una lettura d'epoca, uno scritto coraggioso al momento della pubblicazione, interessante come quadro storico del costume del periodo.

Oggi come allora. Ora le ragazzine che si vendono per la ricarica cellulare. Il mondo non cambia direi. Mar 14, i. Alla fine ho assegnato 5 stelle a "Una donna". View all 9 comments. Viene rappresentata qui la causa prima della crisi della struttura sociale del nostro paese che continua ancora oggi. Questo spostamento del fine ultimo dall'uomo al potere da un lato ha trasformato la condizione della donna in un autentico incubo, dall'altro ha messo in evidenza le istituzioni pervertite che ne sono state il concretarsi: matrimoni riparatori, matrimoni di convenienza, imposizione della dipendenza economica, limitazione della carriera professionale, attenuante per omicidio passionale ne sono solo alcuni.

Sfida di lettura - Marzo E incominciai a pensare se alla donna non vada attribuita una parte non lieve del male sociale. Ma la buona madre non deve essere, come la mia, una semplice creatura di sacrificio: deve essere una donna, una persona umana. Odio ammettere che, se non avessi dovuto farlo per scuola, probabilmente non avrei mai letto questo libro. Non immaginavo quanto. Mi ha colpito molto anche lo stile, molto particolare, che non cita un solo nome proprio per tutto il romanzo.

Assolutamente consigliato. Mar 08, Debbie Robson rated it really liked it. It is really hard to credit this book was written over a years ago. The style is so fluent and relatively modern and it is only with the circumstances of the nameless main character that we are reminded of the times she is living in and her fight to have a life of her own.

We have won a lot of battles since then but there is still the battle of juggling all the balls. Here is an example of the timeless writing style and the drive the narrative has. I was fiftee It is really hard to credit this book was written over a years ago. I was fifteen. Another colony of bathers arrived. They met each day on the beach, inviting us to join in their games. Everyone was curious about me; men of all ages watched me wherever I went. I day-dreamed, first about one boy, delicate and teasing, then another, still pubescent with a strong agile body and curly hair, reminding me of bronzes I had seen in museums.

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But none of them made my heart beat faster or inspired me to flirt with them. Here are the twists and turns of a woman trying to make sense of her life and from there working towards doing something worthwhile with it; living with an impossible controlling man, trying to be a good mother and still keeping her intellectual abilities and fighting all the time for her own sense of worth. No wonder I enjoyed it.

Been there done that but not in Italy unfortunately. Recommended to all women battling for their own space in the sun. Dec 01, Floriana rated it really liked it. Se si chiede in giro quanti conoscano Sibilla Aleramo pochi alzeranno la mano io sarei stata tra quelli che non la avrebbero alzata non avendo mai trovato il suo nome su un libro di letteratura. Trop Se si chiede in giro quanti conoscano Sibilla Aleramo pochi alzeranno la mano io sarei stata tra quelli che non la avrebbero alzata non avendo mai trovato il suo nome su un libro di letteratura.

Troppo moderno per il Croce dette un giudizio negativo , e troppo attuale per i giorni nostri! Eppure Sibilla sposata all'uomo che la ha stuprata, picchiata, che non le ha permesso di avere relazioni sociali, riesce ad emergere e diventare voce per tutte le donne. Scrive, scappa, racconta, abbandona. E vince ogni volta che qualcuno donna, ma si spera anche uomo legga questa autbiografia romanzata. Un ringraziamento va alla prof. Feltrinelli che continua la ristampa. Nov 08, Ty rated it it was amazing Recommends it for: feminists and italian culture lovers. Shelves: sexuality.

This tale based on the author's real life of a young woman from Marche forced into a shotgun wedding after a rape gripped my heart and didn't let it go until well after I was done reading it. It go into the heartwrentching choice that no one should have to make: stay in an abusive relationship or leave your child behind. This book if often, correctly, considered the genesis of italian feminist l This tale based on the author's real life of a young woman from Marche forced into a shotgun wedding after a rape gripped my heart and didn't let it go until well after I was done reading it.

This book if often, correctly, considered the genesis of italian feminist literature. Molte ragazze si vendevano senza la costrizione della fame, per la smania di qualche ornamento. A 14 anni nessuna rimaneva ancora del tutto ignara.

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  • Guai se alcuno si attentava pubblicamente a mostrarsi qual era! I probably need to think and ponder on this a bit more. Una lettura incantevole, nel senso che mi ha lasciata letteralmente incantata per diverso tempo, dopo averlo finito. Ha seminato parole e sintassi nella mia spugna cerebrale che poi sono cresciute in maniera metastatica.

    Nonostante capisca che sia un testo importante per la figura della donna e apprezzi il coraggio di pubblicare una storia che affronta tematiche indubbiamente scabrose per l'epoca, non mi sono sentita coinvolta, non mi sono emozionata, ho solo provato noia, pagina dopo pagina, non vedevo l'ora che finisse Come altri libri italiani del ', ho fatto fatica a leggerlo per la sintassi arzigogolata ormai troppo lontana dal nostro modo di scrivere e di pensare. Spessissimo mi sono persa nei meandri delle lunghe frasi piene di arcaismi, pensando bellamente ai fatti miei e perdendo continuamente il filo del discorso.

    This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. To view it, click here. Questo il destino suo e forse di tutte le donne? Perfino oggigiorno, a oltre cento anni dalla prima pubblicazione di Una donna, molte donne faticano a liberarsi di quell'atavico istinto al sacrificio che le contraddistingue e non riescono a vedere che prima ancora che una moglie o una madre sono soprattutto "una donna, una persona umana". Per questo credo che ci sia ancora molta strada da fare e sempre per questo sono fermamente convinta che questo testo, in quanto classico inoppugnabile della letteratura italiana e importante testimonianza sulla condizione della donna e la storia dell'emancipazione femminile, necessiti di essere inserito di buon grado nei programmi ministeriali per le scuole.

    Il tutto raccontato con una prosa poetica non velleitaria e fine a se stessa, ma ricca di contenuti morali. La Aleramo era avanti di almeno sessant' anni e lascia letteralmente a bocca aperta leggere di psicologia, ateismo e indipendenza della donna in un romanzo di un'epoca in cui la figura femminile era vista solamente come votata al sacrificio, come la stessa autrice fa notare sotto forma di domanda retorica parlando della condizione della madre: "Povera, povera anima!

    La vita le aveva chiesto della forza: non l'aveva. Amare, sacrificarsi e soccombere! Commemorato in silenzio e solitudine. Romanzo pubblicato per la prima volta nel E' l'autobiografia di una parte di vita di una donna italiana della borghesia italiana di inizio Novecento. Una storia che mi ha datto diversi spunti di riflessione. E' un linguaggio semplice, quello della Aleramo, di donna che non ha studiato ma che osserva, riflette e vuole capire. La si accompagna durante la sua adolescenza, mentre segue adorante il padre ed inizia a lavorare per lui.

    La si vorrebbe difendere dalla violenza dell'impiegato e impedirle di sposarlo con quei presupposti. E la si incoraggia, nella seconda parte del libro, a realizzare le sue aspirazioni, a non cedere ai ricatti del marito, a vivere la propria vita secondo la propria natura. Cosa che poi ha fatto, ma ad un prezzo sicuramente molto alto. Credo sia stata questa definizione a convincermi a leggere il libro, una definizone che vorrei un giorno riuscire a meritare anche io. E' un libro da regalare alle donne, soprattutto a quelle sposate e alle madri, che possono meglio delle altre riconoscersi in alcuni meccanismi descritti dall'autrice, anche se a volte il linguaggio porta il segno di un'epoca lontana.

    Ma solo a volte.