A writer makes this remark: " The Eden Hospital is now probably one of the most perfect Hospitals in the world " The subsidiary buildings include two large blocks for the residence of the two Hospital nurses The liberality of the Seal family of ColootoUah has greatly added to its useful- ness, and Chunilal Seal's Out-door Dispensary is a noble instance of the benefactions of the benevolent donor. But the experiment nnder his auspices was tried. It was tried and succeeded. The Medical College of Cal- cutta was founded ; and Hindus of the highest casts learnt their lessons in anatomy, not from models of wax or wood, but from the luunau subject.
The beginning was small; but the progressive advancement was striking. In the next year it preciselyjdoubled. In the number had risen to upwards of The College highly popular. It is maintained ] y the GoTemmcnt and the Calcutta Municipality. The Albert' Victor Hospital. Kar, its present worthy Secretary, and other eminent physicians of the town. For a long time the want of an institution of this nature was greatly felt in Calcutta.
In , through the efforts of Babu Peary Chand Mitter, an enthusiastic member, an Act for the prevention of cruelty to animals was passed by the Bengal Legislature. The Society is supported partly by public subscriptions and partly by the dues allowed by the Govern- ment. The four pupils who accompanied the professor, and started in the steamer Bentinck on the 8th of March, were Bhola Nath Bose, a pupil of Lord Auckland's school at Ban-ackpur, who was supported at the Medical College by His Lordship for five years, and was considered by the late Mr.
Griffith the most pro- mising Botanical pupil in the school — Gopal Chundra Seal, Dwarka Nath Bose, a native Christian, educated in General Assembly's Institution, and employed for some time as assistant in the Museum, together with Surjeo Comar Ghuckerbutty, a Brahmin, native of Comilla, a junior pupil, and a lad of much spirit and promise.
It is now in a most flourish- ing condition, and has a building of its own on Circular Road, and all classes of people, both official and non-official, take interest in its blessed work.
It has branches scattered all over India. The management of its affairs is under the control of a Central Committee. The National Association Bengal Branch. Miss Mary Carpenter was the founder of this institution. The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science. To the single-minded devotion of the late eminent Dr. Mahendra Lai Sircar, m. Since , every succeeding Viceroy and Governor-General of India has been its patron, and the rulers of Bengal and several other personages have evinced a great interest in the institution.
The rulers of Bengal and other high personages take interest in its welfare. It is located at , Grey Street. This blessed work has been carried on by a committee appointed by the Government and the munificent donor. The Calcutta Orphanage. This institution has derived a valuable sup- port through the kind interest of the large-hearted Kumar Manmatha Nath Mittra, Rai Bahadur, the grandson of the late Raja Digambar Mittra, Bahadur, c.
The institution will soon have a building of its own, owing to the praise- worthy efforts of the enlightened Kumar. I pass on now to notice the Educational Institutions. The English company of merchants, missionaries and other enlightened persons, did their part well in making an attempt to introduce education after a European model. Even in England education was then entirely left to private and clerical enter- prise.
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The Government hardly then stepped in to take up national education as one of its serious concerns. In the days of the Mahomedans, education was not neglected. At the same time Vernacular instruction was given in the different provinces. From the earliest times the Hindus were noted for their love of learning.
Here was developed a litera- ture which is unsurpassed in its beauty and the intellectual subtlety of its contents. When Buddhism was prevalent, the Buddhist monks gave instruction to the students at several of their notable centres; and it is stated that the number of students at some of these centres was five to ten thousand. The disinterestedness of the Pandits in affording gratuitous instruction, food and even clothing to their pupiLs, and the privations to which the latter subject themselves in the prosecution of learning, are alike honourable to both, and evince a love of knowledge and desire for its diffusion.
This fund came into existence in or about the year There is a conjflicting opinion about the great banker Omichand's contribution of 30, rupees in aid of this fund. Bruchier gave the Old Court House to the authorities "on condition of their paying Rs. We read the following accounts of the sources from which the Old Calcutta Charity Fund arose. The amount is unascertained. He died in Calcutta in The amount and particulars are unascertained.
Charles Weston, as executor to the estate of Lawrence Constantius, an opulent Portuguese, deceased. In , Dr. Bell delivered a series of lectures on experimental philosophy in this school, where lectures were also provided. In the property of the Old Calcutta Charity amounted to current Rs. Its fund in was Ks. The two institutions were amalgamated and known as the Free School.
The imited value of the two was Bs. It will not be amiss here to say something about the Free School Society, It came into existence on the 2l8t December, To meet the deficiency of a public charitable institution on a large scale in this great capital was among its objects. The Marquis of Comwallis, the Governor of Chinsurah, warmly sympathised with its objects. Hodges advertised a Government School near the Armenian Church for teaching reading, writing and needle- work.
Archer, in , opened a school for boys. His success attracted others to the field. In those days the office of school-master was recklessly adopted by all kinds and classes of men, who, instead of taking to the occupation of a lacquey or shoe-maker, foimd the office of a pedagogue more congenial to their taste.
Thus a "broken-down soldier, a bankrupt merchant and a ruined spendthrift betook themselves to this profession. They looked upon it as one of the sources of income. It is said that an individual named Andiram Dass set up a school in his house, where a number of young Hindus used to attend daily upon him for hours and to wait his pleasure and convenience to get some scraps from his book. This pious philanthropist used to give out five or six words every day for their study. He kept a school in which a number of Hindu youths received their training, the fee ranging from Bs. Bomesh Chandra Dutt, c.
X Vide CliTt's Depoeition. Warren Hastings, whose Persian and Bengali teacher he was. Archer's school was not the only one at the time. Farrell's Seminary and the DhurumtoUa Academy were its rivals. Halifax, Lindstedt, and Draper also opened their schools about this time. In all these, a plain English edu- cation was given ; and the principles of navigation and book- keeping were also objects of study.
Drummond did a great deal to raise the standard of education to a higher level. It was at his instance the annual examinations were held. As at present, so was it formerly, a grand day for boys. It was a day of fear, of trembling and of joy. The prospect of a defeat — a discomfiture — was appalling to the lads; while the imcertain prospect of a prize and the too certain prospect of the joyful holidays were indeed soul-enlivening and soul- thrilling. To him alone is to be attributed the introduction in those days into his school of the study of English literature and the Latin classics.
At this Academy, Derozio, after- wards the famous teacher of the Hindu School, received his early training. We have already spoken of Mr. Kiemander's Mission School. At Mr. Seal's Free College Patriotic College Oriental Seminary a. Union School a. Literary Seminary Charitable Morning School Of these educational institutions, the Oriental Seminary deserves prominent notice. Bonnerjee, the eminent Calcutta Barrister, were among its early students.
Its founder was Babu Gour Mohan Addy. He then entered into partnership with one Mr. Morning pupils. The object of the institution declared in this meeting was as follows : — " That the primary object of the institution is the tuition of the sons of the respectable Hindus in the English and Indian languages, and in the literature and science of Eim pe. Hither- to all the sittings of the Committee were held at the house of the Chief Justice.
Nicholas Willard, Monitor BuksheCi Teacher of Persian The services of the late David Hare, for ameliorating the condition of the Indians, have deservedly made his name honoured and respected. It was on his lands, which he made over to the Government, that the Hindu and Sanskrit C! His efforts to make the Medical College of Calcutta useful and popular in its early days of struggle are matters of high praise.
Al- though he may not be called an educated man in the common acceptation of the term, his absorbing interest in education and his idea of spreading Western education in the land of the East, entitle him to be regarded as an educationist of a high order. He was a great philanthropist and a friend of the poor. He came to this city in , as watch-maker, and after following that profession for some time, he gave it up and devoted his time and f ortime to the education of the natives.
We find him closely associated in all progressive movements then started for the good of the country. His zeal and energy for the introduction of trial by jury into Civil Courts, the emancipation of the Press, and his strenuous opposition to the cooly trade are only a few instances of his many-sided activity. He died on the 1st of June, , and a tomb was immediately erected by a rupee subscription. The inscrip- tion on the tomb is as follows: — "He was a native of Scotland and came to this City in the year , and died 1st June, , aged 67, after acquiring a competence by probity and industry in his calling, as a watch-maker.
A full-length statue was determined on, which can ] e seen between the Presidency College and Hare School. The inscription on the pedestal is as follows : — "In honour of David Hare, who by steady industry having m. Banerjee, d. A speech or essay on some point connected with the intellectual and moral improvement of the Indians is delivered at every anniversary of his death ; and a Hare Prize Fund was also opened for the encouragement of the Bengali language.
The su1 sequent histoiy of the Hindu College can be told in a few words. The Managing Committee applied to the Grovemment for help, and the Government readily came forward and desired that the Committee of Public Instruction should henceforth exercise control over its management. Ultimately it came to a happy settlement by the selection of Dr. A profound Sanskrit scholar, a grammarian, a philosopher and a poet, he was at the same time the life of society and a practical clear-headed man of business.
On the stage as an amateur, or in the professor's chair as the first Orientalist of our time, he seemed always to be in his place ; he has written on the antiquities, the numismatology, on tlie history, litcratnre, chronology and ethnology of Hindustan ; and on all theat! His works sliow all the erudition of the German school, without its heaviness, pedantry and conceit ; and his style is the best of all styles — the style of an accomplished English gentleman.
It is a Government institution. La Martiniere College — Was founded by General Martin, who bequeathed two lakhs of rupees for a school for the Christians, and a further sum of one lakh and fifty thousand rupees " to add to the permanency of the school. This is one of the most wealthy insti- tutions in Calcutta. Claude Martin was a native of Lyons in France. He fought under Count Lally in India. Subsequently ho was in the service of the East India Company, where he rose to the rank of Major- General.
Hill, B. Sc, late of the Imperial Library of the Government of Lidia, has recently written a valuable biography of Claude Martin. To the gene- rosity of the two residents — one vacated his house for the location of the College, and the other contributed liberally for its support— it owes its existence. In the Right Rev. Carew purchased the present building originally intended for the Sans Souci Theatre. It was then named St. John's College, and since the advent of the Belgian Jesuits, its management has been made more efficient and the present name given. The General Assembly's Institution.
Eor several years the schod was held in various hired premises. At length in , when the new building was completed, it was transferred to its present site in Cornwallis Square. The situation is perhaps the best that could have been selected. In , the institution was temporarily closed in consequence of the missionaries having joined the Free Church. It was re-opened in by the Church of Scotland under the superintendence of the Rev. Alexander Duff, d. On the disruption taking place, the General Assein] ly's Institution was temporarily closed, and Dr.
Teachers, pupils, and converts folloAved Dr. DufT and tlie other missionaries ; and the institution was removed to a hired house at NimtoUa. The present building was completed with the aid of the funds raised by Dr. Duff in Scotland, England and India in , when the institution was removed there.
It has School and College Departments. At his first residence, he delivered lectures on the evidences of Christianity, which resulted in the conversion of the late Rev. Baner- jee, D. E, Dr. Bishoiis College. The College had a boarding house attached to it and was endowed with several scholarships — the holders of which were allowed board and education free of cost.
From the foregoing hasty sketch, it would be difficult to charge the inhabitants of Calcutta with cruel apathy and indifference to education. It would seem that in those days they displayed a warm and active interest in the moral and intellectual training of the rising generation ; nor were the Government and the officials slow to recognise their own responsibilities. The enlightened mind of Wari'en Hastings anticipated one of the needs of the country by founding the Calcutta Madraaa in the year , on the European model.
The object of this institution was to impart instruction in Arabic, and also in Persian, then the Court language of the country. This institution came into existence from the handsome donation of Rs. William Jones as its president. According to Lord Teign- mouth, it was due to Warren Hastings' endeavour that Europeans began to make an attempt to learn the Oriental languages. Previous to tliis, in , the Benares Sanskrit College, and in , the Agra College, were established. A writer dealing with this topic remarks that it was in Hughli the seeds of English education were first soAvn ; and one Robert May, dissenting missionary, residing in Chinsura, opened in his dwelling-house, in July , a school with 16 boys on the Lancastrian plan.
The munificent Maharaj Adhiraj Tej Cliand of Bm'dwan exhibited a gi'eat desire to spread English education in the country. With no encouragement from the authorities, and under fear of deportation by the Company, they not only devoted themselves with zeal to their work of conversion, but they were also the first among the Europeans to study the vernacular dialects. Hare's educational efforts were directed in the first place towards the encouragement of the verna- cular.
He supplemented the deficiencies of numerous Guru Patshalas by the employment of inspecting Pandits and the grant of printed book's. He then established a sort of central vernacular school du'ectly imder the School Society. This was a large institution and numbered about boys. It was the best vernacular school of the day. VJ, papo i'J2. If absent only one day he got six annas, if two days four annas, and if he was absent for more than two days then he got nothing.
Distinguished lads from the vernacu- lar schools were sent to the Hindu College, in which the Society always maintained 30 boys. An English school was afterwards established adjoining the central vernacular — a number of select boys of the vernacular school would attend the English classes also. It was thus from sunrise tiU 9 A. Lord Dalhousie and the Hon'lile Mr. Halliday did much for the promotion of vernacular education. But Lord William Bentinck's administration is marked by the encouragement and promotion of the study of English in the school.
His advent at this juncture proved an incalculable support to the advocates of English education in this country. Ill " I Aink it is clear that we are not fettered by the Act of Parliament of ; that we are not fettered by any pledges expressed or impb'ed ; that we are free to employ our funds as we choose ; that we ought to employ them in teaching what is best worth knowing ; that English is better worth knowing than Sanskrit or Arabic ; that the natives are desirous to be taught English, and are not desirous to be taught Sanskrit or Arabic ; that neither as the language of law, nor as the language of religion, has the Sanskrit or Arabic any peculiar claim on our encouragement ; that it is possible to make the natives of this country thoroughly good English scholars ; that to this end our efforts ought to be directed.
In , the Calcutta University was established in imitation of the London University. It is merely an examining body, with the privilege of conferring degrees in Arts, Law, Medicine and Civil En- gineering. It consists of a Chancellor, a Vice-Chancellor and a Senate. Its governing body is 'called the Syndicate, composed of the Vice-Chancellor and a few members elect- ed by the different Faculties. In , the noble Lord Bipon appointed an Education Commission, which aimed to complete the scheme inaugurated in Its purpose was to probe the present system with a view to bringing to light its defects and shortcomings, and finding out the means for their remedy.
I cannot do better than refer to the Resolution published in March i, issued from the Home Depart- ment of the Government of India, for a comprehensive state- ment of the educational policy of the Grovernment. At present, in Calcutta, more than a dozen first grade Colleges exist, owned by the Government, the missionary bodies and private individuals. I have already mentioned some of these Colleges. Among the Native first grade Colleges, the Metropolitan Institution founded by the late Pandit Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar and affiliated in , the City College, belonging to the Sadharan Brahmo Somaj, affiliated in , the Ripon College, founded by Babu Surendra- nath Banerji, and affiliated in , the Central CoUege, foimded by Babu Khudiram Bose, and affiliated in , and the Bangabasi College, affiluited in as a second grade College, and in as a first grade College, may be mentioned.
He was admitted into the Sanskrit College on the 1st June, , and pro- secuted his studies there till From to , he served the Government on a salary ranging from Rs. He died in July He has taken the noble Sanskrit away from being the weapon of superstition and Brahminical enthralment to be the lever for giving dignity to the language of the masses.
What Whateley has done for popu- Ifirising logic, or Socrates philosophy, Iswar Chandra has done for facilitating the study of Sanskrit Grammar, rendering a study hitherto so abstruse as easy as Greek. For an account of Iswar's improved system, see Report of the Committee of Public Instruction for His elementary Sanskrit Grammar and Reader have been introduced into the course of study of the chief Missionary Institutions in Calcutta, and into various mofussil schools, as being the best means of grounding pupils thoroughly into the Bengali idiom and in etymology and in making them familiar with technical terms.
The Mugdabodha is being gradually diRplaced by the natives themselves. Iswar's name will go down to posterity with those of Wilkinson of Sehore and of Dr. Ballantyne who has made Bacon intelligible to the Pandits of Benares — men who have done so much m enlisting the learned and influential classes of this country in a course of diffusing enlightened ideas. The movement that he started for the re-marriage of Hindu child- widows shoAvs the breadth of his sympathies. It was characteristic of him that what he did he did with his whole heart.
As to his philanthropy, a remarkable writer, Mr. He never bartered his conscience for any worldly prospects. His eftbrts to establish educational institutions — and more especially his Metropolitan Institution — at a time when everybody considered that they would prove abortive, were really a marvel. Single-handed, and without any extraneous help whatsoever, he managed his institution wholly officered by the children of the soil. A Committee was appointed for the management of the institution.
Several endowments were assigned for the payment of stijienda to the pupils. Stipends were formerly allowed to Brahmin students only, and the College was originally open to them alone. That restriction has now been removed, and Hindu students of all castes are admitted there. A medical depart- ment with a dissection class was also attached to the institution, but it was abolished owing to the incompetence of the teaching staff. A valuable Sanskrit library is attached to the College.
The Calcutta School Book Society was founded in Bayley for the encouragement of school learning by providing proper books for the purpose.
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The meet- ing on Tuesday next will be merely preparatory, in order to settle the general resolutions, which have been directed to be translated into Bengali and Persian, for the better under- standing of them by the native gentlemen, and when approv- ed by the Committee, they will be made public and the subscription book opened to receive contribution of the well-disposed of every description.
The subscriptions are intended to be on a moderate rate, so that our friends need not be alarmed for the amount. I hope that yourself and our friends in general, to whom I wish to mention the sub- ject, will find this object worthy of your zealous approbation and support, as it vnW be found very useful, if well executed, for our own College, in supplying us with good books.
Dear Sir, Yours faithfully, Sd. In May , this Society received from the Government a donation of Ks. In it had under its control vernacular schools and 3, students. In its monthly grant from Government was Rs. Men like Sir Antony Butler, J. Harrington and others used to take much interest in it. I cannot close my brief and somewhat incomplete description of the Educational Institutions without record- ing the efforts of many pious workers in the field of female education.
One Mrs. Durel's Seminary for Girls attained in those days much celebrity ; and Rev. Lawson has been reputed for his cleverness in composing sweet poems and as being a good sculptor, painter and musician. His female school was in a very good condition ; and he paid special attention to English composition. The Military Orphan Society concerned itself in imparting practical lessons to girls. Thomson, much moved by the destitute condition of the offspring of European soldiers, established the Female Orphan Asylum at the Circular Road.
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The Gk v- emment subscribed Rs. The Eidderpur School was not then in existence, and Mrs. We are told that the pupils at Mrs, Hedge's school were ' childish, vain, imperious, crafty, vulgar and wanton. Hovendon founded another orphan society for the training of ladies. This Society first succeeded in cstahlishing a school con- taining 32 girls, to which within one year 8 more girls were admitted.
Reading, writing and needle-work were taught here. In , this institution was incorporated with the Bengal Christian School Society. In the same year the Ladies' Society for native female education was established. Miss Cook afterwards Mrs. Wilson did much for the success of this institution.
The late Hon'ble J. Drinkwater Bethune gave a real start to female education in Bengal. In November , a girls' school called after the name of that gentleman was established in Cornwallis Street. To this school is attach- ed a boarding house for the Lady Principal and the students. The school has now been raised to the standard of a first grade College, teaching up to M. Ward has stated that the wives of Eaja Nubkissen were famed for their learning.
There were other noted Indians whose services in this cause are of considerable importance. It is im- possible to ignore the important services rendered by the missionaries. Their Infant and Girls' Schools all over Calcutta and its surroundings, held at the private residences of Hindu inhabitants, are a valuable medium for the diffusion of female education. The special feature, in the course of studies in these schools, was that in the colloquial vernacular Biblical lessons were imparted.
Moral and reli- gious instruction has been the chief characteristic of this institution. To Mataji Maharani Tapashwini belongs the rare credit of founding this institution. The Hindu public have warmly seconded the noble effort of this philanthropic lady, and this institution has become popular among all sections of the community. I have not described various other educa- tional institutions for females. The zeal of the Brahmos in this connection deserves much praise; and schools and colleges for European girls are now conducted in Calcutta in an efficient manner.
Among Mahommedans, also, female education has found its way, and several Moslem girls' institutions have lately sprung up, and Maharaja Manindra Chandra Nandi Bahadur of Cassimbazar has made a large contribution in aid of one of them. In the Oriental Commercey an interesting account of the list of books import- ed from Eui'ope is given. It was first located in Dr.
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Strong's residence on the Esplanade free of charge. In it was removed to the Fort William College building, and finally in it was transferred to its present building and was named after the beneficent Lord Metcalfe. Both Europeans and Natives were its early subscribers and life members. In the Calcutta Municipality used to contribute for the support of the institution and began to exercise its control over it along with the life members. In , the Government of India amalgamated this institution with, the Imperial Library. The consent of the proprietors or life members was obtained before the Government assumed its sole control.
J Calcutta Review, Vol. Some of them have their own houses, others are located in rented houses or in the houses of private persons. These bodies render useful services to the community. They organise lectures, publish pamphlets, and sometimes issue magazines. As a rule they eschew politics. Europeans and Indians of rank take interest in these institutions. It was estab- lished on the 15th of January , with the object of investigating whatever is performed by man or produced by nature in all parts of Asia.
It is not a light task to convey, in a few sentences, an adequate idea of the many and varied valuable services of this institu- tion. In the field of research its services have been invalu- able. The revival of Sanskrit learning and the assignment to it of its proper place in the republic of letters have been in a large measure due to it.
The Theosophical and several other kindred bodies derive material assistance from its numerous and valuable publications. Such men as the late Dr. Rajendralala Mittra, d. It has a splendid library attached to it, containing, among other things, Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, Hindustani, Burmese and Nepalese manuscripts. The building of the Museum is a massive and imposing one on the Chowringhee Road. The building of the Asiatic Society is located at 57, Park Street. The Agri' Horticultural Society of Lidia. The Society has a nursery garden at Alipur, where all species of plants and flowers are grown for sale to the public and for distribution amongst its members.
Annually a Flower Show is held there. The ScJwol of Arts. Hodgson Pratt in the early part of that year. The object of this institution is to impart instruction in drawing, etching, en- graving, and moulding. Monsieur Rigaud — a French Plaster-coat maker — was its first teacher.
In the Ben- gal Government took charge of this school. The school is now under a European Principal and is open to all comers. A fine picture gallery is attached to the school. The Bethune Society — Was established to create a taste for literary and scientific pursuits, and to promote an intellectual intercourse between the Europeans and Indians. Such men as the late Hon'ble Mr. Justice Phear, Colonel Malleson, Rev. Banerjee, Mr.
Monomohan Ghosh, Barris- ter-at-law, Babu Prosonna Kumar Sarvadhikari and others took warm interest in its proceedings, read discourses and delivered lectures under its auspices. Justices Phear, and Beverley, Rev. The object of the Asso- ciation was to promote social progress in the presidency of Bengal, by uniting Europeans and Natives of all classes in the collection of facts bearing on the social, intellectual and moral condition of the people. Many interesting and important lectures were given on subjects relating to Law, Education, Health and Trade, in its connection.
Unfor- tunately this Association and also the Bethune Society have now ceased to exist. The Mahommedan Literary Society — Was established in , and its popularity and success among all sections of the community were mainly attributed to the untiring zeal and industry of the late Nawab Bahadur Abdul Lateef, c. This Society has been founded with a view to promoting social feeling and literary activity amongst all classes, and especially among the Mahommedans. Lectures were provided, and social re-unions, innocent and healthy sports and entertainments were organised, at which the rulers of Bengal freely mixed with the student community.
The late lamented Mr. Wilson, m.
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It is located on the east wing of the Sanskrit College and has a splendid library attached to it. The Marcus Square Recreation Ground is the outcome of this institution, where healthy sports, for the students ol the Calcutta Colleges, are arranged. A Committee has been appointed to look after its affairs.
Liotard, the late Babu Kshetrapal Chakravarty and the Raja were its founders. Its original object, among others, was to make the Bengali language known among the Western savanttt and to arouse their interest in it. The business was at first conducted in English. The Right Hon'ble Professor F. Max Miiller and the late John Beames began to take interest in the Academy, but owing to the strong opinion of almost all the eminent Bengali authors, the use of the English language was discontinued in its proceedings.
The institution. It will soon have a building of its own. The Sahitya Sava. Mohendi'a Lai Sarkar, m. Among others, its object is the cultivation of History, Geography, Sociology, Mathematics, Natural Science, Philosophy both Eastern and Western and other branches of knowledge. Its special feature lies in its attitude of respect and sympathy towards the Pandit class without whose aid and co-operation the resuscitation of Sanskrit literature would be impossible. It has also got a monthly journal of its own, which has been highly spoken of in the Parliamentary Blue Book, relating to the material and moral progress of India.
His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal has kindly accepted the post of its Patron, and many leading officials have shown their kind sympathy to it by heartOy joining the institution. CJommerce plays an important part in modern history. It is one-half of politics. For in the first place the im- portance of a nation greatly depends on its wealth, and its wealth greatly depends on commerce. A desire to expand commerce, rather than a merely scientific curiosity, has been the mainspring of adventures in quest of new lands.
The same spirit has often lain at the root of military expe- ditions. Conquest and annexation have, been inspired, in modem times, not so much by a love of authority, as by a love of wealth. No Power cares to assert supremacy over a bleak and barren territory.
The character of an individual is said to be known by his company. With equal truth it may be said that the condition of a nation is known by its wealth. Morbi purus libero, faucibus adipiscing, commodo quis, gravida id, est. Sed lectus. Praesent elementum hendrerit tortor. Sed semper lorem at felis. Vestibulum volutpat, lacus a ultrices sagittis, mi neque euismod dui, eu pulvinar nunc sapien ornare nisl. Phasellus pede arcu, dapibus eu, fermentum et, dapibus sed, urna.
His interests include military history, British politics, newspaper and cartographic history, and international relations. Pas de commentaire. Arguing that capitalism is a cultural—rather than purely economic—phenomenon, Appleby Liberalism and Republicanism in the Historical Imagination traces its trajectory through European, American, and Asian successes and setbacks, its unhappy experiments in colonization, the world wars, and into contemporary India and China.
She narrates the rise of capitalism as a process of accretion, starting with Dutch agricultural innovations that were adopted and improved upon by the British. This set England on the path to controlling famine and, ultimately, freed capital and labor for trade. Appleby turns Marxism on its head as she proposes that the new social relations introduced in England as a result of converting common land into freeholds were the consequence, not the cause, of the transformation in English farming.
If this sounds like breathless global time travel, it is still a laudable effort at demonstrating that there was nothing inevitable about the rise of capitalism. Historian Appleby traces capitalism a system based on individual investments in the production of marketable goods from early industrialization to the present global economy. It changed the way people thought and planned, and the author shows how different societies respond to its challenges up to the twenty-first century and the world recession of — She explains that the financial crisis was caused by the era of deregulation from the late s to , while vast sums of money circulated through global markets and the growth in financial assets outpaced real economic activity.
Appleby concludes that since capitalism is a set of practices and institutions that permits billions of people to pursue their interests in the marketplace, it is highly likely that panics and bubbles will occur again. This is an excellent book. Appleby excels at stripping away revisionist layers to give the reader the perspective of past actors. As for the present, she recommends globalized capitalism as a remedy for easing poverty, but warns that mathematical models often ignore the messiness of social relations.
Politics and technology fill many pages, yet Appleby insists that capitalism is above all a matter of culture. She situates the decisive mental turn that produced capitalism in the political upheavals that swept England between and the Glorious Revolution. Having previously written on English economic thought in this period, she argues that England emerged from the time of troubles with at least some share of power in the hands of people who viewed economic activity as legitimate and not as demeaning or morally suspect. Furthermore, economic calculation and forward-thinking action had become relatively pervasive on the part of producers and even of consumers.
Institutions favorable to economic development grew out of the changed attitudes, while progress in agriculture and the expansion of commerce played important supporting roles as necessary conditions for sustained expansion. Most attention in the next phase centers on the U. In the later nineteenth century, the subject of imperialism gets a good airing. As with slave-worked plantation agriculture earlier, Appleby tries hard to bring the Western land grab in Africa and elsewhere under the umbrella of capitalism, but to this reader less than convincingly.
In fact, nineteenth century imperialism, like the wars of the first half of the twentieth century, owes more to militant nationalism, in my view, than to capitalism. This is not to deny that the colonial powers strove to turn a profit from their ventures, but that falls short of making profit the dominant motive for the last great expansion overseas. Appleby manages to devote fully a hundred pages to the period since the end of fast postwar growth, say from on. All the expected bases are touched, from the emerging economies of Asia to the explosion in information technology and the recent current?
While many crisp set pieces here as elsewhere enliven the account, Appleby has little new to add, and I would have wished that the space had been devoted to more detailed and nuanced treatment of the earlier material, some of which flew by like the near landscape from a high-speed European train. A botched reference to J. Landes and none to F. Braudel, and almost nothing on pre-factory industry seems to me to leave out too much.
There is also, in my view, too great an emphasis on nation states as units of analysis, and too little on the role of cities and regions. She locates its origins, preeminently, in 18th century England, where command of the seas meshed with the first application of industrial energy sources to large machines. He used bells and clocks to instill punctuality. Exact record keeping enabled him to identify and fine refractory employees. In Capital, Marx visits the same scene in the full flush of 19th century industrialization.
But in all diseases they are especially prone to chest-disease, to pneumonia, phthisis, bronchitis and asthma. Marx was no gadfly, and he had the facts. Whether progress in the industrial art of bone china was worth the cost in human bones can be debated — up to a point. But a text which glamorizes the Staffordshire pottery sheds without even noting — let alone disputing — the evidence so famously brought against them in Capital is, properly, to be suspected of cleaning things up.
The main class conflict in their world was between factory men and landlords; to them slaveholders were a feudal throwback. They displayed the Blue Eagle with enthusiasm, until the Supreme Court shot it down. It would have been better — more manageable, more clear — to end the history of capitalism in For Keynesianism, the Wagner Act, Social Security, the alphabet agencies and the WWII mobilization gave us economic recovery in new forms, in which the private sector was — once again — reshaped by the state. The modern economy — regulated and guided by public policy, for better or worse — is capitalist in name only.
This brings us, finally, to the Great Crisis of But we do not get what we deserve, after reading so far: thoughtful closure on a grand theme. Instead, there is a certain jaded, seen-it-all-before quality to the prose. Move along, nothing to see here. Still, pure narrative needs theory to give it theme. Appleby is rightly wary of facile models — however fancy their math — that fail to come to grips with technological and social change.
Norton, pagesJames K. Perhaps I am underestimating the appeal this book might have for, say, a history undergraduate or a general reader looking for a survey and preferring a literate narrative to an account filled with tables and graphs there are none. But for the economic historian, despite pithy accounts of particular episodes, the stress on the overly familiar and the inability to engage closely with the hard questions causes the book to fall a bit short.