We used a proteogenomics strategy, taking advantage of the combination of proteomics datasets and bioinformatics tools, to identify novel protein coding-genes and splice isoforms, assign correct start sites, and validate predicted exons and genes. Results: Our proteogenomics workflow, Peptimapper, was applied to the genome annotation of Ectocarpus sp.
We generated proteomics data from various life cycle stages of Ectocarpus sp. First, we directly generated peptide sequence tags PSTs from the proteomics data. Second, we mapped PSTs onto the translated genomic sequence. Closely located hits i. Third, we evaluated each cluster and compared it to gene predictions from existing conventional genome annotation approaches. Finally, we integrated cluster locations into GFF files to use a genome viewer.
We identified two potential novel genes, a ribosomal protein L22 and an aryl sulfotransferase and corrected the gene structure of a dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. Document type : Journal articles. Files produced by the author s. Peptimapper: proteogenomics workflow for the expert annotation of eukaryotic genomes. To our eyes here, on Earth, there are stars that seem to shine a lot and others that seem to shine only a little. The stars that seem to shine a lot are not always the truly brightest stars. Look at me. I get up on a chair.
I seem to be very tall, like a giraffe or my husband, Mr.
Peptimapper: proteogenomics workflow for the expert annotation of eukaryotic genomes
I got up on a chair, that's all. In fact, I am not tall, I am kind of short, like Alexia [any notoriously short person in the class] or some short celebrity. So, for the stars that seem to shine a lot, maybe they really do shine a lot, or maybe they shine only a little, but because they are very near to the Earth, they seem to shine a lot. This section picks right up from where the previous cliffhanger left off, by explaining why a star that seems bright might not actually be bright.
More vocabulary is introduced, and students will be able to refer to apparent or intrinsic magnitude or brightness. Number concepts are introduced with the concept of magnitudes. Making a chart on the board as these concepts are explained will be integral in conveying the relationships between distance, brightness, and measurements of magnitude.
Although there are stars with negative magnitudes including stars we are studying, like Sirius , for simplicity's sake we will refer to any star with a negative magnitude as a star of first-magnitude. Do explain that a very bright-looking star, like Sirius, actually has a magnitude of As an end to this lesson, you may choose to spend some time using transparency sheets and identifying which stars are of which magnitude; it is a great opportunity for choral repetition and to drive the idea of magnitudes home to students.
When the constellations are taught, be sure to identify the magnitudes of the stars within them. English Translation: There are bright stars and dim stars. If a star has a great intrinsic luminosity, it is that it emits a lot of energy, a lot of light. As we know, a star's intrinsic luminosity is a product of the heat of the star's gases and its size. But apparent brightness, the brightness we can see, or perceive, from the Earth, is a product of the star's luminosity and the star's distance from the Earth.
So, apparent brightness depends on the star's intrinsic luminosity and the star's distance from the Earth; intrinsic luminosity depends on the heat of the gases and the size of the star. Apparent brightness is what is apparent to our eyes. So, the stars that seem the brightest have a great apparent brightness, and the stars that seem the dimmest have a small apparent brightness.
Apparent brightness is called magnitude. Curiously, you say that a star with a bright magnitude is of 1 st magnitude, or of magnitude one, and that a star with a very weak magnitude is of 5 th magnitude, or magnitude five. The bright and very bright stars are called stars of first magnitude. Stars that are rather bright are called stars of second magnitude, or magnitude two. Stars of medium brightness are called stars of magnitude three; weak stars are of fourth magnitude; and very weak stars are of fifth magnitude.
Stars of first magnitude are the stars that you can see first , because they are the brightest to our eyes. Because the apparent magnitude is also a matter of the distance from the star to the Earth, it is possible for a star that is truly weak to possess a magnitude of the first degree if the star is very close to the Earth.
Also, it is possible for a star that is truly bright to possess a magnitude of fourth degree if the star is very far from Earth. The chart in Appendix B lists the 20 brightest stars, or more accurately, the 20 stars that look the brightest to our eyes here on Earth. Each heading is written in the form of an incomplete sentence that is easily completed by entering the information listed below it. The progression from left to right, of the information in the chart, is as follows. The second column lists each star's name in French; the third and fourth column give, respectively, the name, in French and then English, of the constellation in which the star can be found.
In the fifth column is the color of that star as determined by internal temperature of the star , and in the sixth is the amount of light-years away from the Earth the star is located rounded to the nearest light-year. The information in this section can be taught partway through the proceeding section on constellations, to break things up a bit.
This unit will introduce 11 constellations and 2 asterisms. All of them can be pretty easily seen in January, when the unit will be taught. Constellations to be studied were chosen by taking into consideration not only the best times of year to see them, but also the apparent brightness of some or all of the stars that make up the constellations so that students have a chance of spotting them if they try , as well as the appeal of the "pictures" formed by the constellations, and the stories that relate one constellation to the other.
I highly recommend creating your own version of the illustrations Rey made for his books. Printable overhead transparency sheets will work well for this. You can design the framework for the constellations the star-dots on the computer, using different-sized stars to represent the different magnitudes be sure to include a key ; then you can print another file that has only the imaginary lines you would use to connect-the-dots that will make an image out of the stars.
You can begin like Rey does in Find the Constellations , by showing the star-dots and naming the constellation; then you can place the connecting-lines sheet over the star-dots sheet and label different parts of the image, like the handle and bowl of the Big Dipper. By working back and forth and alternating with and without the overlay, you can ease students into being able to identify the images with out the connecting-lines. Like Rey on pages and , I recommend creating different little mini quizzes to assess comprehension. First, give a sheet of the star-dot images with the connecting-lines, later, one of the images without connecting-lines; for each sheet, instruct students to provide the appropriate constellation names.
For a more advanced quiz, rotate the star-dot images on the sheet, so that students must determine correct orientation of the image to identify it correctly. Below I give some particulars on the stories behind each constellation, as well as information about the stars. There are many ways to transmit this information, a few of which will be shown in the Lesson Plans section of this unit. For notable stars in each constellation I give a color, which can be incorporated into the artistic renderings of the constellations. The other stars should not appear as remarkable as these; they should be more neutral in appearance.
However, since they will be smaller in size to represent the difference in magnitude, they can be somewhat colorful; their size will not allow the color to stand out well anyway. The quantity of stars of each magnitude is given for each constellation so that you may be sure to provide enough supplies for students to create artistic renderings of the constellations.
The Twins lie in the zodiac, the band of sky through which the Sun seems to move. It follows the line of the ecliptic, which is the path that the Earth travels as it revolves around the Sun. In astrology, when it is said that someone is a Gemini, it is meant that when that person was born, the Sun looked as if it was in front of the Gemini constellation, or the area of sky represented by the Gemini constellation.
Rey says that the Twins look like "two matchstick men holding hands," and I think that says it perfectly! The two brightest stars of the constellation are named after the twins, Castor and Pollux, of Greek mythology; according to the myth, Pollux was immortal, Castor was not. When Castor was killed in battle, Pollux begged Zeus to bring him back to life; Zeus agreed to let Pollux share his immortality with his brother, but only in shifts so that, while one was alive, the other was "dead," in the underworld.
It is said that through their constellation in the sky, they are finally able to be in the same place at the same time, together. In ancient times, people used to confirm oaths by saying "By Gemini," to prove their loyalty to the oath being taken. That phrase evolved over time into "By jiminy," and then become personified in the Disney character, Pinocchio's friend Jiminy Cricket. Castor seems to be a single star of magnitude 1.
For our purposes, we will treat it as a star of magnitude 2 1. The Castor stars are located 50 light-years away.
Pollux is the 16 th brightest star in the sky; it has a magnitude of 1. It is located 34 light-years away. It is yellowish-orange in color. The constellation is made up of 1 1 st -magnitude star Pollux , 2 2 nd -magnitude stars one of which is Castor , 4 3 rd -magnitude stars, and 11 5 th -magnitude stars. To find The Twins, first locate the Charioteer; the Twins are just east of him.
Some say the Charioteer is named after the mythical inventor of the chariot; others say it represents any generic chariot driver. It is shaped like an angular face under a pointed hat. A good way to associate this constellation's name with its image is that the sharp angles of the image created by connecting the star-dots make his face look tough, like the driver of a battle wagon, or chariot. His eye is the yellowish, 1 st -magnitude star Capella, which is located 42 light-years away.
It is the 6 th -brightest star in the sky, and is 16 times as large as the Sun. The constellation is made up of 1 1 st -magnitude star Capella , 2 2 nd -magnitude stars, 3 stars of 3 rd -magnitude, and 2 of 4 th -magnitude. To find Capella from the Big Dipper, start at the first star of its handle, and draw a straight line that follows past the bowl and continues down.
You will see three faint stars that form the nose, and can then locate the rest of the stars that form the Charioteer's face. The story of these three begins with a foolish boast by a very beautiful and very vain Cassiopeia. Some sources say she said that she was more beautiful than the sea nymphs, who were goddesses of the sea, some say that she said her daughter was more beautiful; either way, the goddesses did not appreciate being compared to mere mortals.
Neptune, a powerful Sea God, sent a whale some say a sea-monster to destroy their domain; to stop the destruction, Cepheus was told to sacrifice their daughter, Andromeda. He agreed to do so, and chained her to a rock by the sea. Just as the whale was about to swallow her, the hero Perseus killed it, rescued Andromeda, and then married her; he is also represented by a constellation, but not one that we will study here.
They are said to have flown off on Perseus' winged horse, Pegasus, who is also represented by a constellation not addressed here. Cassiopeia is a bright constellation located close to the Little Dipper and its Pole Star. She is recognizable by the W shape she makes in the sky.
The traditional way of illustrating constellation images often does not correspond very well to a decipherable image; the picture is symbolically drawn around the star points, with much liberty taken in the interpretation. As you can see from Rey's books, his illustration technique is more simplistic and easier to associate with a true image. Unfortunately, the Cassiopeia constellation is a bit troublesome in this regard. The traditional image shows a full figure of the queen, but the Rey version leaves us with something that you can try to pass off as a queen's throne, but that really looks like an angular image of her two breasts.
I will show my students the traditional image, and will then show how, if you include another star, you can form the seat of her throne. I expect that some student will volunteer his own opinion, and though I will not deny that I can see it, I will make a point of not adopting it. The Cassiopeia constellation is comprised of 3 stars of 2 nd -magnitude, 2 of 3 rd - and 1 of 4 th -magnitude. Cepheus is a much dimmer constellation than Cassiopeia which should not necessarily be construed as a statement on the intelligences of man versus woman!
His constellation forms an image of a pointed hat atop a man's face, much like the Charioteer. Cepheus' face makes an inlet for his mouth; it is not as angular and "tough-looking" as the Charioteer's, since he is a King and commands, but does not participate in, war. The biggest difference between the Cepheus and Charioteer constellations is that Cepheus has a pigtail at the nape of his neck, like an aristocrat would. The Cepheus constellation is made up of 3 stars of 3 rd -magnitude, 8 of 4 th -magnitude, and 1 of 5 th.
To find Cepheus from the Big Dipper, follow the line of the Pointers past the Pole Star; it will hit the top side of his hat, close to its point. The Andromeda constellation shows the girl lying down, with the chain affixed to her wrist. At her bent knee is a small hazy spot known as the Andromeda Nebula. It is a galaxy, and the most distant object the human eye can see unaided. The constellation is comprised of 3 2 nd -magnitude stars, 1 3 rd -magnitude, 13 4 th -magnitude, and 2 5 th -magnitude stars. It is easiest to spot her by first looking for the three brightest stars in line at her foot, rear end, and head.
The Whale is very difficult to spot, as all its stars are dim except for the one at his mouth. If you follow Andromeda's head-star diagonally down towards the left, you can spot the whale's mouth. It will be a fun challenge to see who can spot this one! The mouth is a 2 nd -magnitude star, there is 1 star of 3 rd -magnitude, and 12 of 4 th -magnitude. The Whale is also known as Cetus or the Sea Monster. If you draw a straight line westward from Capella in the Charioteer, a straight line southward from the Pole Star, and look in the northwest quadrant formed by the intersection of those lines, you should see the upright W of Cassiopeia.
Just northwest of Cassiopeia is Cepheus, facing her sideways, the point of his cap across from the east-most top of her W. Just southwest of Cassiopeia is Andromeda, lying flat, the bright star of her rear end just south of the west-most top of her mother's W.
Along the same line, but further south, is the star at the mouth of the Whale. Orion is one of the most recognizable constellations in the sky. He is named after an ancient Greek hunter-warrior; there are many different myths about him, across cultures and continents. In his constellation image, he carries a shield in his left hand, and holds a club over his head with his right; he's also got a sword hanging at his hip.
The Vanished Diamond - Wikipedia
Designations of left and right are given according to the constellation, so that Orion's left hand will be the hand we see on his right side if we are looking at him. Orion has more bright stars than any other constellation. Rigel is 33 times the diameter of the Sun, which classifies it as a giant star any star with a diameter between 10 and times that of the Sun.
Betelgeuse is a supergiant because, with a diameter times greater than that of the Sun, it easily meets the supergiant requirement of having a diameter of over times the Sun's. Although Betelgeuse is so much larger and closer than Rigel, it does not appear as bright because Rigel is hotter. Towards the bottom of his sword is a star that looks kind of fuzzy; it is actually a luminous gas-cloud called the Great Orion Nebula.
Rigel is located at Orion's left foot, Betelgeuse at his right shoulder. The constellation is most recognizable by the three closely-spaced bright stars of his belt. He is located just south of the Twins. The Orion constellation is comprised of 2 1 st -magnitude stars Rigel and Betelgeuse , 5 stars of 2 nd -magnitude, 4 of 3 rd , 9 of 4 th , 6 of 5 th , and 1 nebula.
Big Dog and Little Dog are Orion's hunting dogs.
As the Earth rotates, it looks like these dogs follow Orion across the sky. The brightest star in our sky, a bluish 1 st -magnitude star named Sirius, is located in the Big Dog constellation. Sirius is actually a double star; it has a twin named Sirius B that is so faint it can only be seen with a large telescope, during ideal viewing conditions.
It is fairly close to us, at a distance of 9 light-years. Almost as close as Sirius is Procyon, at a distance of 10 light years; it too is a double star. Procyon, the 8 th brightest star in our sky, is one of the two visible stars that make Little Dog; the constellation is nothing more than a small line, at best representing a pup's tail. Procyon is Greek for before the dog ; it rises about 40 minutes before Sirius, which is known as the Dog Star. Big Dog is made up of 1 1 st -magnitude star Sirius , 4 2 nd -magnitude stars, 2 3 rd -magnitude stars, 5 4 th -magnitude stars and 1 5 th -magnitude star.
Little Dog is made up of 1 1 st -magnitude star Procyon and 1 3 rd -magnitude star. Like the Twins, The Bull lies in the zodiac. It is best known for the Pleiades, a small cluster of tiny stars that looks like a little silver cloud. Six of its stars are visible to the naked eye, although there are about five hundred within the cluster.
The Pleiades are nicknamed the Seven Sisters; it is possible that in the past a seventh star was visible without telescopes, and some myths tell of a lost sister to account for the missing seventh star. Also noteworthy in this large constellation is Aldebaran, the 13 th brightest star; it is a 1 st -magnitude star, orangish-red in color, and represents the bull's eye. The bull's hindquarters are dimmer than its large head; Greek myth says that it is because the bull is really Zeus in disguise, swimming, his legs under water.
The Bull is composed of 1 1 st - magnitude star Aldebaran , 1 2 nd -magnitude star, 2 of 3 rd -magnitude, 15 of 4 th -magnitude, 3 of 5 th , and a cluster of tiny stars collectively called the Pleiades. What about the Dippers? Because of their popularity, I expect some students to be asking about the Dippers, wondering why we aren't discussing the Big or Little Dipper. Leaving them for last is purposeful, as we will need to introduce the idea of an asterism as opposed to a constellation. This will be easier after taking the time to discuss so many constellations.
I also want to get students to ask for them, to tap into that desire for more. Contrary to popular belief, the Big Dipper is not a constellation; it is an asterism.
An asterism is a pattern formed by a part of an established constellation that doesn't appear on the official list of 88 constellations. The Big Dipper is that large, ladle-shaped image in the sky; the tip of its handle forms the snout of the Great Bear, and the bowl of the ladle forms a kind of saddle across his back. The outer edge of the bowl, or the back end of the saddle, is formed by two stars, called the Pointers; if you follow their slight curve, they will point you toward the Pole Star the only bright star in that area, so easy to spot.
No matter where you are, if you are facing the Pole Star you are facing north; it changes position so little in the sky that we can say it does not change at all. For a better explanation of why this is so, see the next section of this unit, entitled The Pole Star and Changing Sky Views. In the Northeast, The North Star will lie about halfway between the horizon and the point directly overhead called the zenith. The Little Dipper is also an asterism. It is part of the Little Bear constellation, but because the other stars of that constellation are very faint, we will content ourselves with looking for only the Little Dipper, and not Little Bear.
The two stars that form the outer edge of its bowl are called the Guardians of the Pole, because they seem to march around the pole, like guardians. If you spend some time stargazing one night, you will see the stars move across the sky. Really, the stars just seem like they're moving; it is actually the Earth that moves, by spinning on its axis. As the Earth spins, its "nighttime" side slowly turns towards different portions of the sky, so different stars are visible at different times.
Of course, the other side of the Earth is facing the Sun, and daytime. It takes the Earth 4 minutes short of 24 hours to get back to the same spot of nighttime sky, and the same constellations; so each star is said to set 4 minutes earlier than it did the previous night.
Les Gémeaux / The Twins
When a star comes up in view above the horizon, we say that it is rising; when it goes down and out of view below the horizon, we sat that it is setting. Just like the Sun and the Moon, the stars rise in the east and set in the west. The Pole Star stays virtually in the same spot in the sky, more or less at the pole of the sky; all the other stars seem to revolve around it in circles. On pages of Rey's The Stars , there is a great activity using an umbrella to demonstrate the way the stars seem to rotate around the Pole Star.
You would designate the tip of the umbrella as the Pole Star, and draw the constellations around it, on the fabric of the umbrella. If you can find a really large umbrella, you can have students walk around underneath it, to show how the stars actually remain fixed; in this case, the walking student would represent the Earth. Six constellations are located close to the pole, and as such will always appear above the horizon; that means they are always visible. Here we have the English language content component to Lesson Plan 1, of the same name.
It works in conjunction with the previous section, as it helps us understand the changing sky-views as we stress the move from two- to three-dimensional space. What is a constellation? A constellation is a group of stars that can be seen in the sky at night. To our eyes, these stars seem to form drawings in the sky, as if the sky was flat, like a sheet of paper, and someone drew little pictures on the paper of the sky.
Of course, we know that the sky is not flat, because we know that the Earth is not flat.
The Earth is a three-dimensional sphere, like a big ball. A sheet of paper is only a two-dimensional object. Like the Earth is a three-dimensional sphere, the gas which is all around the Earth, called the atmosphere, is also three-dimensional. Here is the Earth. In reality, maybe there was one star here, another star here, and another over there. Look how it stays in the same place.
Look how the Earth revolves around the Sun. It doesn't make a circle, like this; it makes an oval, like this. A single trip around the Sun takes how many days? We have different seasons during the year, because the light from the Sun strikes more directly the hemisphere, and so is more concentrated in the summer, and in the winter, less concentrated, so less strong. Rey as a guide.
Watch: Here is the Sun, the Earth, and over there are the planets of our solar system. The stars that can be seen are over here, on this side of the Earth. There are also stars on this side, but we can not see them, because of all the light from the Sun. Stars are fixed; the Earth is not fixed. The Earth moves, the Earth travels; the stars don't move, don't travel. In fact, stars move a very very little bit, over the course of many many years; it is a negligible movement. A light-year is the distance that light travels in one year.
Light travels , miles a second, which is almost six million million miles, or six trillion miles 6 x 10 1 2. With all those zeros, it would be really easy to make a mistake in reading the distances. So the light year was created to make the numbers more manageable. The chart in Appendix B gives the distance in light years that each star is from the Earth.
That distance, combined with the star's intrinsic luminosity determines how bright the star seems to us on Earth. There are endless wonderful activities that can be done around this unit. To practice and self-assess vocabulary, students can make flash-cards for all vocabulary, with the French word on one side and an image photo, drawing, collage, etc. For students who insist that they either can't draw, are not artistic, or will simply learn better with just the English word on the back, you may have them either cut different letters out to create the word, or artistically write the word, with mnemonic clues; the point is to get students actively creating the cards so that more thought goes into their use.
Students can use short periods of specified class time, as well as transition time, to either quiz each other or quiz themselves. I am continually amazed at how much students enjoy doing this! You may have students create their own fill-in-the-blank sky scenes, sky view charts, individual constellations, or magnitude charts for other students to complete; be sure to remind students to make an answer key and not to write the answer in the blanks themselves! If this student does an exceptional job in class, I will photocopy it so that the whole class can do it for the following evening's homework, which encourages the student to do the job right if this were to happen again I would not send the sheet to any students, as then it would become a reward for not doing the assignment the first time.
There are many different levels of questioning techniques to utilize as students advance through comprehension. Below are samples of several effective techniques. Qui suis-je? I am a bright star in the Big Dog constellation. Who am I? Objectives: To define a constellation, to describe the difference between the constellation images we have drawn and the way the stars actually exist in the sky, to practice taking notes, to illustrate the way the sky-view changes over the course of a year.
Materials: Chart paper, blue, orange, and green markers, sheets of paper and a plate, a globe, a can of aerosol hairspray CFC-free, of course! Do Now!