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Text Size: A A A. Donate Today. Chat Online Chat Closed. More from diabetes. Healthy Recipes: Heart-Healthy Salmon - healthy-recipes Know the Link: Know Diabetes by Heart - know-the-link The laws are based on the theory that glycemic control predicts lower driving risk either by preventing retinopathy and other complications or by indirectly distinguishing persons who are innately conscientious [16] , [17]. In this study we tested whether glycemic control, as measured by glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c , was associated with the risk of a motor vehicle crash.

We selected all drivers reported to the Ontario Ministry of Transportation Medical Advisory Board who had an underlying diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. This population-based sampling strategy included all licensed drivers in Ontario with the accrual interval spanning from January 1, to January 1, , representing all years available for analysis. Candidates were identified from mandatory annual reviews submitted by drivers who held commercial licenses or mandatory reports submitted in the aftermath of a documented motor vehicle crash.

We also included all other diabetic patients reviewed for any other reason such as those appealing a license suspension or those with notifiable medical conditions reported by physicians [19].

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Individuals were excluded if no HbA1c was available; otherwise, all drivers were analyzed. We classified each individual according to the manner through which they came to the attention of the licensing authority. Individuals involved in a motor vehicle crash were defined as cases. Such cases were identified by the authorities responsible for investigating a crash.

All other individuals who were not involved in a motor vehicle crash were defined as controls. Such controls are not a random sample of the population because they come to attention by reports submitted by others or because of legal requirements for having a valid driver's license. Controls ought to include all diabetic drivers who developed diabetes or obtained a license during the study period, but do not because of noncompliance with legislation or other reasons.

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We obtained the medical record of each person's diabetes care from available files. These records reflect submissions from community physicians corresponding to each patient; the accuracy of these reports has never been validated although each is submitted and signed by a licensed physician [20]. We used the hemoglobin HbA1c as the primary measure of long term blood glucose control since it reflects glycemic control over 2 to 3 mo, is widely available with a liquid chromatography assay, and is the objective standard for traffic policy decisions around the world [21] , [22].

In secondary analyses we also examined the patients' degree of monitoring, total years since diagnosis of diabetes, and specific complications. These secondary analyses were conducted for exploratory purposes and did not involve statistical power calculations in advance. Missing data were handled using methods blind to outcome status. The type of diabetes was not always recorded in available documents; instead, we classified individuals on the basis of whether they had started insulin treatment before or after age 20 y.

The duration of diabetes was also gauged by categorizing patients who had been on insulin for 20 y or more. Data on specific complications, monitoring, and treatments were accepted as recorded under the assumption that not documented implied not present.

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Information on diet, exercise, weight, compliance, alcohol, lifestyle, age of first licensing, driving patterns, commercial licenses, past infractions, diabetic education, visual acuity, and at-fault analysis was not recorded and deemed not possible to impute from sources. Our primary analysis compared the mean HbA1c among cases involved in a crash to controls who were not involved in a crash using an unpaired t-test with two-tailed statistics.

Logistic regression was used to quantify associations using odds ratios and adjusting for baseline confounders using a step-wise forward selection procedure models constrained to 12 events per covariate to avoid overfitting and used the c-statistic to gauge overall accuracy [23]. Odds ratios are good approximations of relative risk for low probability events such as the annual risk of a crash [24]. A nonparametric test for trend was also conducted using the Cochran-Armitage method [25]. Data validation was conducted blind to outcome to correct HbA1c values outside the plausible range 4.

During the 2-y study interval a total of 3, individuals were reported to licensing authorities, of whom were diabetic patients who had HbA1c values documented. Most patients had end organ damage including retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Overall, one in six lacked hypoglycemic awareness and one-third had a history of hypoglycemia that required outside assistance. The spread of HbA1c values was remarkable, ranging from 4. Overall, 57 patients were involved in a crash cases and were not involved in a crash controls.

In keeping with a potential adverse association, the mean HbA1c was lower among those who crashed than controls 7. The finding was evident across the range of HbA1c values and suggested that the risk of a crash in the bottom quartile was more than twice the risk in the top quartile Figure 1.

Relative risk of a motor vehicle crash for drivers at different levels of glycemic control. Solid circles indicate point-estimates and vertical lines indicate standard error bars. Overall results show a correlation between lower HbA1c levels and higher relative risk of a crash with no evidence of a U-shaped relationship. The observed association between low HbA1c values and increased crash risks tended to be consistent for patients with different characteristics Figure 2. The risk was observed for patients with longer and shorter durations of diabetes, regardless of whether measured as time since diagnosis or time since starting insulin.

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Moreover, the risk was observed for those treated with insulin, oral hypoglycemics, both, or neither. In addition, the risk extended to those with no mention of severe hypoglycemia, hypoglycemic unawareness, or other specific chronic complications. The largest single anomaly yet not statistically significant and overlapping the main analysis was the subgroup not treated with insulin or oral hypoglycemic medications.

Each analysis examines correlation of lower HbA1c levels with higher risk of a crash. Analyses of chronic complication subgroups exclude patients reporting corresponding symptom. Results for full cohort appear at bottom and show an odds ratio of 1.

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The observed association between low HbA1c values and increased crash risks persisted when adjusted for potential confounders. None of the statistical models yielded a contrary result although results in some models were not statistically significant. Two other patient characteristics were independent risk factors for a crash.

No other baseline characteristic Table 1 was a significant predictor of risk in univariate analyses. We studied a selected sample of diabetic adults driving during a 2-y interval using a population-based approach. The main finding was that lower HbA1c levels were associated with an increased risk of a motor vehicle crash. The adverse association was observed across the range of HbA1c values, persisted after adjustment for independent confounders, yet was not as large as the relative risk associated with a history of severe hypoglycemia requiring outside assistance.

The attributable risk was substantial, so that eliminating the association by extrapolating the risk observed at the highest HbA1c quartile to all drivers at all HbA1c quartiles would have eliminated about half of all observed crashes. These findings are difficult to explain with random chance, reverse-causality, or simple reporting bias.

A major limitation of our research relates to the nonrandomized design and sample selection. That is, adults with diabetes self-select how to control their glucose as well as how to drive a vehicle. One explanation for the association, therefore, could be that those who are stringent about controlling their blood glucose are paradoxically more careless about driving a vehicle.

Another explanation could be that tightly controlled patients drive in more dangerous settings. A third explanation could be that unreported alcohol consumption influences both driving risk and glucose control e. Many other biases are possible including Berkson's paradox, Neyman Bias, Hawthorn effects, restricted generalizability, imperfect compliance with the law, and spectrum bias [19] , [26]. These limitations are unavoidable in trauma research except for studies that focus on volunteer samples, unnatural tasks, or hypothetical risks [27]. We have no data on baseline time spent driving, yet such data are unlikely to explain our findings.

First, all individuals maintained valid licenses, remained active in the community, and were at risk for a crash. Second, no prior study shows diabetic adults drive substantially more than the prevailing average or that small differences in HbA1c predict large differences in driving time [28].

Third, research in other domains indicates time spent driving is a poor predictor of crash risk; for example, teenagers account for a large number of crashes despite a small amount of time spent driving and senior citizens have a heightened risk primarily explained by the very low distance drivers [29] , [30]. No surprise, therefore, that license regulations account for fitness to drive but have no restrictions based on the amount of driving the person intends.

Our findings join a growing and contentious literature correlating low HbA1c values with adverse consequences in adults with diabetes mellitus. For example, three recent randomized trials found that intensive treatment regimens led to both lower HbA1c values and an increased incidence of severe hypoglycemia among diabetic patients [31] — [33]. These trials and our study do not prove that striving for a normal HbA1c is harmful; instead, the adverse association might indicate that customary treatments for achieving euglycemia are inexact and potentially hazardous to high level cognitive behavior [34] — [37].

Many patients, furthermore, are aware of their HbA1c results so that a double-blinded trial becomes unfeasible and susceptible to subtle confounders. Such behavioral factors are germane in clinical research since patients with a normalized HbA1c might develop a false sense of security whereas those with a high HbA1c might abandon their activities and ironically become protected from mobility related injury [38]. The basic implication of our study is to underscore the difficulty in judging fitness-to-drive in adults with severe diabetes mellitus [39].

This pitfall calls into question traffic laws that prevail in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Germany, Holland, Australia, and other countries that single out diabetic patients for specialized review. At a minimum, the data suggest that a patient's HbA1c level is neither necessary nor sufficient for determining fitness-to-drive.

Whether a comprehensive medical review, functional performance assessment, formal driving test, detailed record of hypoglycemia episodes, or other measure could be more accurate and cost-effective remains a topic for future research. Unfortunately, most other measures of diabetes control are based on self-report that can be easily denied when applying for a driving license.

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The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the Ontario Ministry of Health or the Ontario Ministry of Transportation. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

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PLoS Med. Published online Dec 8. Aluri suggests focusing on small ways to keep the condition from progressing:. The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends adults who are overweight between the ages of be screened for type 2 diabetes. Your provider can help determine if this is right for you. Diabetes Diet or Insulin? How to Best Control Blood Sugar. Is a Ketogenic Diet Good for Diabetes? Myths About Type 2 Diabetes While we often think of type 2 diabetes as a condition in older adults, Dr.

Fact: Eating too much sugar in and of itself might not cause diabetes, particularly in early adulthood. But, eating excessive calories and sugar can lead to an increase in weight that can result in insulin resistance, which could then result in diabetes. If I have diabetes, I can no longer eat most foods.