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Get A Copy. More Details Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. All Languages. More filters. Sort order. Alexey rated it it was ok Dec 24, That I am innocent as a bride and that the crooks stay at the hotel and where I have hidden the goods. He's at a party and here am I, innocent as a bride! Like a bride and groom on their wedding day.

The one which is as white as a bride. She is dressed like a bride. Here I lay sleeping innocently like a bride , and then you come busting in and wake me up like this. When I came here as a bride , I never dreamt all the furniture I brought would be auctioned off.


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I want to watch the bride walk down the aisle. Almost as pretty as Trent's fiancee. I had to clean up after a bride who electrocuted herself. Possibly inappropriate content Unlock. Register to see more examples Register Connect. Abstract This article describes the origins and political significance of the Order of St. Catherine, or Deliverance: the second-oldest knightly order in the system of honors introduced during the reign of Peter I, the first Russian monarchical order to have its own set of statutes, and the only one reserved exclusively for women. The foundation of the Order of St.

Catherine has traditionally been described as a project driven by, and reflecting the vision of the tsar himself. However, as the newly discovered archival documents analyzed in this article indicate, the key role in this episode actually belonged to Tsaritsa Catherine Alekseevna and her advisors and clients, while the tsar seems to have been at best a passive observer.

Petersburg and the Higher School of Economics Moscow for all their comments and suggestions. The specific topic under study is the foundation of the Order of St. Catherine, or Deliverance, the second-oldest chivalrous knightly order in the new system of honors introduced to Russia during the reign of Peter I the Great , and the only one reserved exclusively for women. Catherine was conceived, designed, and established by Peter himself. As a result, the project as it emerged was both their creation largely and a means by which they simultaneously built their own political and cultural capital.

Du [illegible—eds. The text of the translation is situated in the right half of each of the pages, with the left half reserved for subsequent corrections. Numerous corrections are indeed provided, both by the original Russian translators and, on top of those, by Prince Kurakin himself, in his distinctive and barely-legible handwriting. Petersburg Typography, 19 and later reprinted by N. Whether or not Peter knew anything about this project, he appears not to have had any time to edit the document that was ostensibly so crucial for his dynastic strategy: the Statutes of the Order of St.

Catherine went to press as received from The Hague. Catherine: And now, having finally created it, [a badge] made of gold and with a sash denoting the third, ordinary rank [of the Order], as well as two model drawings, the first of which depicts [the badge] that can be worn by no one other than your own person; and the second one, below it, that is to be worn by princesses of the blood, as well as the twelve [noble] ladies described in the regulations of the Order, — all of these, as well as the written statutes of that Order, I now send along with this letter, hoping that all of it will meet the approval of Your Majesties, while also being in accord with the deed itself.

As for the stipulation, mentioned in the statutes of the Order, that it is to be awarded to women only, this [point] has been introduced on the basis of the custom of these [foreign] parts, — on the model of the Order of the [Holy Roman] Empress [of the German Nation] kak tsesareva imeet ordin , which is awarded to no one other than [noble] ladies. But this [stipulation] should in no way prescribe the intentions of Your Majesties.

In the end, I give myself over to the gracious protection vruchaiu sebia v milostivuiu … protektsiiu of Your Majesty, [my] most-gracious sovereign tsaritsa. Catherine of Mount Sinai. Figure 1. Knight of St. Catherine [of Mt. Buonanni Filippo, Catalogo degli ordini equestri, e militari: esposto in imagini, e con breve racconto, offerto alla santita di n. Clemente XI. Courtesy of David M. Their first Institution was to guard the said Sepulchre, to secure Travellers, defend the Grecian Pilgrims, and to relieve them with Hospitality.

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Their Habit was White, and they lived under the Rule of St. But when the Turks obtained these Countries, these Knights were ill treated and driven away, and the Order almost abolished; nevertheless some Shadow remains for such as travel to visit the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, do now and then pass to this Monastery at Mount Sinai, where in imitation of the Padre Guardian of Jerusalem, the principal Monk in this Convent makes them Knights of St. Catherine of Mt. Catherine an attractive candidate for revival by any Christian sovereign eager to have his or her own order of knighthood. Andrew the First Called, the first Russian monarchical order of knighthood, was among them.

Catherine was to be composed exclusively of women and devoted to such non-martial pursuits as regularly praying for the health of the tsar and occasionally ransoming a prisoner from the Turks. Although contemporaries knew of the existence of many female orders, 39 and even some female orders of ransom, 40 there had never been an exclusively female order devoted to St. Indeed, there was no exact parallel to the new Russian monarchical order: it was clearly made up to suit the occasion and fulfill the wishes of its patron.

Furthermore, the fact that Kurakin felt the need explain why this order was reserved solely for women suggests that this bit of invention may not have been included in the original commission, and hence, was something added on his own initiative. As we will see, although Kurakin does not mention the name of the Imperial order that he had in mind, he was undoubtedly referring to one of the two female orders of knighthood instituted in the second half of the seventeenth century by Empress Eleonora Gonzaga the Younger , the third wife of Emperor Ferdinand III , r.

Ordo Stellatae crucis ; Ger. Sternkreuzorden , was not only much larger and more German, but also much more typical of the intense Baroque religiosity cultivated by members of the late-seventeenth and early eighteenth-century Habsburgs. Figure 2. Knight of the Female Order of the Cross. Catherine were clearly meant to be presented for the consideration and amendment of the Tsaritsa alone. Whether this also meant that the initiative for the creation of a knightly order named after St.


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  • Catherine had come from the Tsaritsa herself is more difficult to ascertain, however. Noble Mr. We have received your letter, together with the Order that was sent along with it, for which we thank you very much. And since you have sent us a white sash [the original color of the sash associated with the Order of St. Catherine, which would soon be replaced with a red sash — eds.

    Andrew — eds.

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    In other words, the letter emphasized the unequal relationship between the commoner-tsaritsa and her noble-born subject, a relationship in which Catherine acted the parts of both patron and intercessor. Not only was she responsible for commissioning something from her subordinate, but as the acknowledged royal consort she was also the individual in the best possible position to make sure that he would actually be rewarded for his efforts. Indeed, the letter projected a sense that Catherine was not only empowered to make a request of her royal husband, but also quite confident that her request will eventually be granted.

    I gathered that the newly-created and recently-mailed Order was respectfully delivered on my behalf to Your Majesty and that in its form slozheniem it conforms to the will of Your Majesty skhoden s voleiu vashego velichestva. For not only did he have to wait four years before Peter deigned to award him the Russian cordon blue, which he finally did in Thus, on 15 August, , a certain Balius was paid twenty gold pieces chervonnyi for designing the star and motto of the projected new Order, while a goldsmith received fifty guilders for actually making the badge; another master got eight guilders for engraving the motto, and a seamstress got seven guilders for making the white sash with appropriate embroidery.

    This obviously put him in a position to be well-informed about the Habsburg system of honors, which as we saw above, included the female order of chivalry that served as the model for the Order of St. Catherine turns out to have been written neither by Peter, nor even by Kurakin himself, but rather by Du Mont. An analysis of their contribution, and particularly of the changes that they introduced in the translated text, provides additional insight into the process that resulted in the creation of the Order of St. Catherine and the roles and agendas of its individual contributors.

    For example, Kurakin and his assistants found themselves compelled to rewrite over and over again the passage explaining the reasons for the Pruth campaign. Catherine took place during this campaign. This section also demanded extra attention because in the summer of , peace negations at Istanbul were still dragging on and the Russian government seriously feared that the hostilities might resume at any time. This situation was complicated by the fact that one of the possible routes that King Charles XII and his troops were to take on the way back to Sweden lay through Poland.

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    Consequently, diplomatic tact may explain why Poland, which is mentioned by Du Mont, was later struck from the final version of the Statutes. First of all, it is striking that the Prince crossed out from the Russian text all references to Tsarevich Aleksei and his German bride, who had permanently relocated to Russia only in the spring of Catherine, the fall and disinheritance of Tsarevich Aleksei had not been preordained.

    Catherine, does not appear in the original text of the statute written by Du Mont and, in fact, does not even fit his concept of the order. The French project is consistently built around the theme of divine intervention and its visual symbol, the divine light. The peace comes, therefore, as a miracle pure and simple, as a divine light descending from Heaven.

    There is no room in this picture for Catherine and her legendary efforts to bribe the grand vizier, an apocryphal story that is not even hinted at in the Statutes. Catherine of Alexandria, and why the original design of the star of the Order included no images of the martyr or her symbolic attributes. Instead, the projected star of the Order was to bear two crosses. The motto of the Order, again suggested by Du Mont, was fully consistent with this concept.

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    This was a common trope of Protestant spirituality, especially when speaking about instances of contemporary as distinct from biblical or historical divine revelation, which may explain why the French Huguenot used it to describe the epiphany at the Pruth. Figure 3. Catherinian-themed order of chivalry, c.

    RGADA, f. Menshikov to Daria Menshikova , l. Catherine of Alexandria. It is well known, of course, that Menshikov was the earliest, and most enthusiastic supporter of Catherine, and that the tsaritsa always gratefully returned the favor.