Upcoming SlideShare. Like this presentation? Why not share! Embed Size px. Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Timothyigibinosun Follow. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. The Physics of Productivity 1. Potential Energy. Not only in the physical sense of the word but in every facet of our living, be it our jobs, our studies, an upcoming event, a dance hall party or even writing an article. We all have the capacity to perform the task; we all have the potential energy to begin the voyage from a 10 meter apex to the ground once all the parameters are taken into consideration.
Like a rock, a simple multiplication or relative comparison of our mass, acceleration and the task at hand can determine how much energy we have and if we have the capacity to complete the task! How do we measure mass? In physics and as far as the concept of potential energy is concerned, mass refers to the weight of an object. Measured in kilograms in our formula above, the mass is a critical factor in determining the potential energy of a body. With you and I, mass would be referring to the content of the individual or the company embarking on a task.
By content I refer to the planning, the preparedness, the funding, the logistics, the contingency systems, the tools, the resources. I refer to the availability of expertise, knowledge and understanding of a task ahead. The first law of thermodynamics asserts that energy but not necessarily thermodynamic free energy is always conserved  and that heat flow is a form of energy transfer.
For homogeneous systems, with a well-defined temperature and pressure, a commonly used corollary of the first law is that, for a system subject only to pressure forces and heat transfer e. This equation is highly specific, ignoring all chemical, electrical, nuclear, and gravitational forces, effects such as advection of any form of energy other than heat and pV-work. The general formulation of the first law i. For these cases the change in internal energy of a closed system is expressed in a general form by.
The energy of a mechanical harmonic oscillator a mass on a spring is alternatively kinetic and potential. At two points in the oscillation cycle it is entirely kinetic, and at two points it is entirely potential. Over the whole cycle, or over many cycles, net energy is thus equally split between kinetic and potential.
This is called equipartition principle ; total energy of a system with many degrees of freedom is equally split among all available degrees of freedom. This principle is vitally important to understanding the behaviour of a quantity closely related to energy, called entropy.
Entropy is a measure of evenness of a distribution of energy between parts of a system. When an isolated system is given more degrees of freedom i. This mathematical result is called the second law of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics is valid only for systems which are near or in equilibrium state. For non-equilibrium systems, the laws governing system's behavior are still debatable.
One of the guiding principles for these systems is the principle of maximum entropy production. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Physical property transferred to objects to perform heating or work. This article is about the scalar physical quantity. For an overview of and topical guide to energy, see Outline of energy. For other uses, see Energy disambiguation. For other uses, see Energetic disambiguation. The Sun is the source of energy for most of life on Earth. As a star, the Sun is heated to high temperatures by the conversion of nuclear binding energy due to the fusion of hydrogen in its core.
This energy is ultimately transferred released into space mainly in the form of radiant light energy. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main articles: History of energy and timeline of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and random processes. Main article: Units of energy. Second law of motion. History Timeline. Newton's laws of motion.
Analytical mechanics Lagrangian mechanics Hamiltonian mechanics Routhian mechanics Hamilton—Jacobi equation Appell's equation of motion Udwadia—Kalaba equation Koopman—von Neumann mechanics. Core topics. Circular motion Rotating reference frame Centripetal force Centrifugal force reactive Coriolis force Pendulum Tangential speed Rotational speed. Main articles: Mechanics , Mechanical work , and Thermodynamics.
Main articles: Bioenergetics and Food energy. Main article: Energy operator. Main article: Energy transformation. Main article: Conservation of energy. Energy portal Physics portal. See e. Lehrman, Robert L. The Physics Teacher. Bibcode : PhTea.. A worker stacking shelves in a supermarket does more work in the physical sense than either of the athletes, but does it more slowly. However, the maximum energy that can be "recycled" from such recovery processes is limited by the second law of thermodynamics.
Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on October 11, Retrieved May 1, The University of Chicago Press. Jacaranda Physics 1 2 ed.
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Archived from the original on Retrieved Bibcode : JChEd.. Archived at the Wayback Machine " in Shiyomi, M. Global Environmental Change in the Ocean and on Land. San Francisco: W. The Feynman Lectures on Physics; Volume 1. A: Addison Wesley. Klotz, R. Thermal Physics. New York: W.
Bibcode : PhRv Bibcode : PhR Bibcode : NatSR Alekseev, G. Energy and Entropy.
Moscow: Mir Publishers. Freeman and Co. This book, originally a Scientific American issue, covers virtually every major concern and concept since debated regarding materials and energy resources , population trends, and environmental degradation. Crowell, Benjamin , "ch. Ross, John S. Michigan State University. Santos, Gildo M. Energy in nature and society: general energetics of complex systems. New Century Senior Physics.
Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press. Energy at Wikipedia's sister projects.
Calorimetry: Measuring Energy
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Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read View source View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote. The next available band in the energy structure is known as a conduction band. In a conductor, the highest energy band that contains electrons is partially filled, whereas in an insulator, the highest energy band containing electrons is completely filled. A conductor differs from an insulator in how its electrons respond to an applied electric field. If a significant number of electrons are set into motion by the field, the material is a conductor.
In terms of the band model, electrons in the partially filled conduction band gain kinetic energy from the electric field by filling higher energy states in the conduction band. By contrast, in an insulator, electrons belong to completely filled bands. When the field is applied, the electrons cannot make such transitions acquire kinetic energy from the electric field due to the exclusion principle.
As a result, the material does not conduct electricity. The highest energy band is partially filled in a conductor but completely filled in an insulator. Visit this simulation to learn about the origin of energy bands in crystals of atoms and how the structure of bands determines how a material conducts electricity.
Explore how band structure creates a lattice of many wells. A semiconductor has a similar energy structure to an insulator except it has a relatively small energy gap between the lowest completely filled band and the next available unfilled band. This type of material forms the basis of modern electronics. The only difference is in the size of the energy gap or band gap E g between the highest energy band that is filled the valence band and the next-higher empty band the conduction band.