It starts at the top and flows throughout the entire organization. Transparency with finances is a basic expectation of congregants, volunteers and employees. It serves no one when churches mismanage funds, whether it is intentional or accidental. Preparing a well thought-out annual budget that supports the strategic plan can help manage and control spending online. We have over one thousand years of church leadership experience on our team ready to serve your church epub. The Eastern Christmas has a very strong family and social appeal just as it does in the West The Essential Engstrom: Proven download epub 9artdigital.
Indeed, ministry managers are often extremely busy and pressed for time. But then this becomes a professional lifestyle, a significant reworking of the management is warranted. Take 60 minutes and undertake the following activity. Be as realistic as possible Keep a time log during a typical work week ref. Restoration of the Apostolic Book 1 sixthskill. All new credentials will be issued provisionally for 2 years during which time Unleashed 1, 2 and 3 must be completed see 9 below. You can search for churches by name, Regional Conference, or state ref.
The Church of Jesus Christ deserves the best, not the inadequate. In the NT both elders and deacons had to prove their spiritual credentials, especially their trustworthiness. Please feel free to send your donations and offerings to: Receipts are sent out quarterly and annually ref. The church in America today is much in the same situation as the people in Jesus' day, the people today are as sheep without a shepherd.
David Riemenschneider has been the Lead Pastor since April He is calling them to remember how he served among them. This is not so that he can get personally recognized, but so that the message he preached could get re-validated among them. Leaders may use a call for "unity" to insist that everyone participate in some event or action, warping the Scriptural idea of unity , e.
How much more should they be willing to serve one another. This shame-based culture punishes failure and can even subtly train members to punish themselves for their inability to live up to the group's ideals or standards. See Brainwashing. Demons are invisible, spiritual beings Ephesians , are organized and have supernatural power and knowledge Matthew , Revelation , can possess humans and animals, Luke , Mark , and can inspire false doctrine 1 Timothy Deprogramming: A coercive attempt to dissuade an individual of religious or ideological convictions believed to be harmful, through a concentrated usually two to three days counseling procedure designed to produce a sudden "snapping out.
Often presented as an antidote for brainwashing or mind control , some deprogrammers rationalized the unethical use of force and coercion to rescue victims by illegally holding them against their will abduction or "snatching" in a process known as "involuntary" deprogramming. Watchman Fellowship does not support or condone such illegal and unethical behavior. Not to be confused with Exit Counseling. Devil: See Satan. Disfellowshipping: As practiced by the LDS and many other groups, this is a level of church discipline involving a probationary period of restricted privileges, but retaining church membership.
The organization's dogma determines whether or not other groups or individuals have the right to exist. All alternative belief systems or organizations are considered illegitimate. In extreme cases this mindset can promote violence or murder. Divali: Hindu philosophy of Enlightenment. Most often props are involved such as the hand palm reading , the stars astrology , cards Tarot , or random symbols I Ching. The ideas and doctrines of the leader and organization overrule the personal experiences, conscience, and integrity of the individual.
Publishes the Theologia 21 newsletter. Double Bind: A mental or psychological dilemma caused when a person receives from a single leader or teacher conflicting messages or "truths" resulting in no appropriate response or answer. See Cognitive Dissonance. Dowsing: Form of divination using a forked rod, a bent wire, or a pendulum. Used to locate people, objects, or substances, and to diagnose illnesses. They were the keepers of oral history and law, and officiates of pagan , occult religious practices.
See Halloween. A similar doctrine called the Plural Covenant theory emphasizes other covenants in addition to these two major systems. Dualism: An understanding of reality as existing in two opposite extremes. Ethical dualism posits a conflict between universal good and an equal and opposite force of universal evil e.
Dungeons and Dragons: Occult , fantasy role playing game , allegedly uses demonic names and spells found in occult literature. Some parents have charged that children committed suicide under the influence of the game. Dyer, Wayne: Prominent New Age writer and spokesman focusing on business applications, personal transformation and motivational speaking. Also promotes holistic health , and Buddhism.
Dynamic Monarchianism: A late second-century heresy denying the Trinity, put forth by Theodotue of Byzantium and later adoped in modified forms by Paul of Samosata, Noetus and Prazeas.
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An active member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , Eadie claims to have died, gone to heaven, and returned to her body see near-death experiences. Her books contain a combination of New Age and Mormon beliefs. Earth Church of Amargi, St. Louis, MO: Paganism , ritual magic , witchcraft see Wicca , moon festivals, Kabbalah , goddess worship. Earthmother Therapy Center: Astrology , aura reading, chakra balancing, channeling , homeopathy , iridology , numerology , palmistry , past life regression , reflexology.
Eckankar, Paul Twitchell: Mixture of pantheism and eastern mysticism , astral projection , reincarnation. Emmanuel, J. Publishes The Gap newsletter. Emerald Circle: Paganism , know the Divine within, be part of Gaia. Enneagram: Occult symbol. Erhard, Warner: See est. Esoteric: Hidden or deeper knowledge held by an elite few. See Gnosticism , Occult. ESPress, Inc. See National Spiritual Science Center. Essene Light Center, Mary L. Teaches the world has no objective meaning, enlightenment, and to live moment to moment with no regard for the future. New Age themes. In the midst of mounting troubles, Erhard decided to leave the United States.
Est was discontinued and replaced by The Forum. Evangelical Christianity: Evangelical from the Greek euangelion, good news or gospel generally means a focus on the essentials of Christianity. The term can be used to describe all Christians or churches that hold to or give heavy emphasis to specific conservative Protestant beliefs. More specifically the term has come to be closely identified with a widespread trans-denominational shift towards more conservative Christian doctrine that developed after World War II. See Fundamental Christianity. Exit Counseling: Thought Reform Consulting A non-coercive technique in contrast to deprogramming designed to help rescue members of religions or cults that are considered false, harmful, or dangerous.
The approach stresses true personal and religious freedom in the context of providing additional information and full disclosure, which facilitates more informed decision-making. Family counseling and intervention techniques may also be incorporated. Extrasensory Perception ESP : Alleged knowledge of an experience or a response to an external event apart from the five senses. This experience can take place either in a wakeful or dream state. Publishes The Contender newspaper.
Publishes The Faith Word magazine. False Prophecy: Generally, any teaching by a prophet that is not true. Familiar Spirit: A spirit that can allegedly communicate with humans, often through possessing the body of a medium , channeler , or psychic. Also, a special type of demon that can impersonate a deceased person during attempts to communicate with the dead see necromancy.
Not related to the following entry. Not related to previous entry. Critics have expressed concern over the tremendous amount of time often invested in the games. More disturbing are reports that the games often emphasize rape, violence, spells, magic and other occult themes. Some parents have also charged that their children committed suicide while under the influence of FRP. Farrakhan, Louis: Leader in the Nation of Islam. New Age , automatic writing , ascended beings. Fellowship of Isis: Paganism.
Egyptian gods and goddess worship. Feminism: See Radical Feminism. Feng Shui teaches that there is an energy called Qi or, Chi flowing throughout the universe, and in this world through lines, sometimes called channels or meridians, to which one must be properly aligned for optimal health, fortune, and quality of life. Practitioners therefore arrange household and office furniture, design rooms and even whole buildings, their grounds and gardens, etc.
They thus hope to improve the balance of nature around them, not only for their own benefit, but for the benefit everyone in the area. First Temple of the Craft of W. See also Unarius Education Foundation. Publishes the Zen Notes newsletter. Flirty Fishing, Ffing : Allegedly discontinued practice of using sex to entice converts into The Family. Publishes the Update newsletter. Followers of Christ Church, Walter T. White, Oregon City, OR: Practices shunning , exhibits legalism , and holds to a strict faith-healing doctrine.
Doctors and hospitals are not allowed. State medical examiner claims as many as 25 children have died in the last two decades from complications from otherwise common medical problems. Form Criticism: A method of literary criticism used by many scholars in the interpretation of the Bible. It identifies the literary forms of specific parts of the biblical writings, such as the different types of psalms thanksgiving, lament, etc. By noting common features in passages of the same form, various conclusions are drawn about how to interpret those passages. In liberal Christianity , which pioneered this method, many of the forms are assumed to be legendary or mythical especially those involving the supernatural.
Some evangelical scholars think form criticism can be useful if such liberal assumptions are avoided, while other evangelicals reject form criticism outright. See also Redaction criticism. Fortunetelling: A form of divination in which a person attempts to predict the future using alleged paranormal powers. The Forum: New Age , personal transformation seminar; see est. See also Process Church of the Final Judgement.
Publishes the Divine Truth Commentary newsletter. All religious leaders, including Jesus, Mohammad and Buddha were sent by God. Publishes A Call To Wisdom newsletter. Fox, Kate and Margarett: See Spiritualism. Free Bible Students: A small Bible Students splinter group currently consisting of only four congregations and approximately 27 home groups. Most modern adherents maintain that the organization is not a religion but a club or fraternity promoting high moral values and good works. They believe, therefore, that Freemasonry is compatible with and supplements Christianity and other religions.
Critics counter that Freemasonry involves secret blood oaths or curses, and that the writings of respected early leaders Albert Mackey, Albert Pike, etc. More specifically, the term is identified with the conservative reaction, especially in America, to liberal Christianity in the early 20th century. Core beliefs of the movement are virtually identical with evangelical Christianity.
2001 Index of Cults and Religions
Some fundamentalists, however, later distinguished themselves from evangelicals or neo-evangelicals whom they saw as too compromising and ecumenical. See More on Christian Fundamentalists. Publishes The Appointed Time newsletter. Gaia: Originally the Greek goddess of earth. Many see the earth as one large living organism made of numerous parts, much as the human body is one living organism with various parts.
Publishes The Gandhi Message quarterly. Pyramid powers. Turgeon once claimed to be the prophet Elijah. He and another member, Blaine Alan Applin, were charged with first-degree murder in following the shooting death of former member Daniel Jess. Earlier that year a SWAT team served a warrant on the group's five-acre compound located 60 miles north of San Diego and recovered weapons and other stolen property.
Gateway To Light, Lloyd G. Gawain, Shakti: New Age author who popularized Buddhism through creative visualization meditation techniques. Ghosts: Non-physical entities or spirit beings, often believed to be the spirits of the dead. See Spiritualism , Demon , Necromancy , Occult. Teaches a form of Armstrongism. Globalism: When used in a religious sense, this term most often means to lose all national identity.
Mankind must see itself as one world family, without the need for distinctions between religions. All religions become true or the distinctive doctrines of the various religions must be disregarded in an attempt to achieve the new Global Family idea. Publishes the Sunspot magazine. Gnosticism: From the Greek word gnosis knowledge.
Salvation comes through secret knowledge. A diverse belief influenced by Greek philosophy and similar to forms of pantheism , Gnosticism generally taught that matter was evil and spirit was good. Forms of gnosticism affected early Christianity. One Gnostic heresy taught that because matter was evil, Jesus could not have come in the flesh. See Baphomet. Goddess: New Age , occult , neo-paganism. A term used in various though related senses to affirm a feminine nature or aspect of the divine.
Publishes Sacred Cycles newsletter. Golden Wheel, W. Good, Joseph: See Hatikva Ministries. Most false gospels teach a form of either salvation by works or universalism. Great Invocation: A New Age prayer written in by Alice Bailey see Arcane School and circulated by various New Age groups that believe widespread recitiation may help initiate a new utopia on earth.
Publishes The Covenstead newsletter. Great White Brotherhood: New Age belief in a group of spirit beings or reincarnated teachers, also called Ascended Masters , existing on a non-physical higher plane. Stevens, Jr. Allegedly practices mind control and shepherding.
Guided Imagery: Another term for Visualization. Guideposts: Magazine founded by Norman Vincent Peale. Gurdjieff, George I. Considered by some to have been the greatest mystical teacher of all times. However, in its modern American form it is a holiday based on pagan , occult , Celtic beliefs and Druid rituals. Believed to be a religious high or holy day by those involved in witchcraft see Wicca and Satanism. Celebrated on October 31st, children are encouraged to wear costumes and solicit candy door-to-door Trick-or-Treat. Halpern, Steve: Prominent New Age music composer and lecturer.
Harmonic Convergence: A New Age , social, environmental and personal transformational event formulated by Jose Arguelles, based on alleged Mayan prophecies and astrological conjecture.
unity in the community one god one lord one church Manual
Other significant dates were 31 December and a culmination in Publishes The Pathfinder magazine. Hay, Louise: New Age , metaphysical counselor and author. Practices Kundalini Yoga , vegetarianism, and overcoming painful thoughts to move toward enlightenment. Publishes the Harbin magazine. Publishes the Heart Dance magazine.
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Applewhite a. Do and 38 other members committed suicide in March of , believing that by leaving their bodies behind they could join Nettles a. Ti and other "older members" from "the next level above human" on a UFO supposedly hidden behind the Hale-Bopp comet. Heresy: Literally, a theological dissension or division arising from diversity of opinions and aims.
The term is usually reserved to refer to false teachings considered so serious that belief in them excludes the followers from the true faith and salvation; in other words, a belief viewed as fatal to the gospel. Religious groups founded on the basis of heresy are known as cults. Heretic: A person who causes a division by teaching heresy. Publishes Windwatch newspaper. Publishes Himalayan Institute Quarterly. Hinduism: The major world religion that originated from the ancient religions of India, which originally embraced polytheism.
As a more unified world religion, Hinduism teaches pantheism ; the ancient gods especially the triad of Brahma , Vishnu , and Shiva are commonly interpreted as representations of the various aspects of the divine Brahman. Human beings progress to the ultimate realization of their oneness with Brahman often called Nirvana through reincarnation according to the law of karma. Some of the concepts of Hinduism are incorporated, modified, and expanded upon in the New Age Movement.
Twelve followers or close associates have committed suicide or died under unusual circumstances. Many left large sums of money to Hoffman. Some holistic health remedies and assumptions i. Much within this movement, however, is based on pantheistic concepts, New Age visualization , and eastern religious beliefs such as Chinese Taoism Yin and Yang. Most questionable are holistic practices that have no valid physiological explanation or scientific proof such as applied kinesiology , reflexology and iridology.
Blighton: Monastic New Age group that practiced esoteric , mystical religion blending biblical themes with reincarnation and other concepts from Eastern religions and the occult. Blighton, an ex-engineer who was once fined for practicing medicine without a license, began the order in After advancing through the order, men reached the status of Brown Brother of the Holy Light, while women might become an Immaculate Sister of Mary for Missionary Training. After the death of Blighton, the group underwent radical changes.
The majority of followers converted to Eastern Orthodoxy and the order eventually was transformed into Christ the Savior Brotherhood, a sect of Eastern Orthodoxy. Several competing groups later formed claiming to preserve Blighton's original purpose and message. Publishes Purarnave periodical. Homeopathy: Pseudo-medical holistic health techniques developed by Samuel Hahneman whereby minute doses of natural elements are said to cure diseases. Publishes the Homeword newspaper.
Horoscope: See Astrology. House of Divine Bread, J. House of Yahweh, Yisrayl a. Sabbatarianism , Sacred Name , British Israelism , only true church. Houston, Jean: Prominent New Age spokesperson and author of many books on education in the American school system. Hubbard, L. Ron: Late founder of the Church of Scientology. Hunger Project: Claims to help poverty-stricken people using visualization to rid the world of hunger. See est. Hypnosis: Technique inducing an altered state of consciousness or trance by verbal or non-verbal stimuli. Participants experience reduced ability for critical thinking and are generally open to external suggestion.
See Mesmerism. Founded ; directs praise and adoration on the 18th century French occultist, St. Publishes Voice of the I AM magazine. I Ching: Yi King or The Book of Changes Ancient Chinese method of divination , predicting the future using random casting of the stalks of the yarrow plant or three-lined diagrams Trigams representing, among other things, Yin and Yang.
Identity Movement: See Christian Identity movement. Iglesia Ni Cristo, Felix Manalo: Rejects the Trinity ; teaches salvation by works , salvation found only in this group. Originally promoted free thought and democratic political theories. Now believed by many to be an anti-democratic, elitist, conspiracy for one-world-government. Imagery: Alternative term for Visualization. Publishes Subconsciously Speaking newsletter. Inner Space Center: See Prosperos. Inner Technologies, Richard Daab, Fairfax, CA: New Age , yoga , astral projection , meditation , reaching Samadhi state of enlightenment , channeling , crystals , visualization.
Insight magazine, Washington, D. Institute for Advanced Perception, Harold S. Taught the world would end in Publishes the Lunar Letter. See Dual Covenant. Founded in with 55, members worldwide. Current president Willis Harman. Former members and critics allege mind control. Practices shepherding , teaches baptismal regeneration , and claims to be the only true church.
Publishes Upside Down magazine. Aggressively recruits on college and university campuses throughout America and internationally. Publishes Insight. International Society of Divine Love, H. International Society for Krishna Consciousness, A. Publishes Back to Godhead magazine. Investigative Judgment: One of the unique doctrines of the Seventh-day Adventist Church that make the place of that church within evangelical Christianity questionable. First taught in Adventism by Hiram Edson, F.
Hahn, and O. The doctrine teaches that in the Holy of Holies in the Heavenly Sanctuary Christ is now conducting an investigation into the lives of all who have ever professed belief in Christ. All those whose lives fail to measure up to the standard of the Law are rejected and condemned as not having true faith. It declares that those who have remained loyal to God shall receive the kingdom.
Some practitioners also claim ability to diagnose emotional or mental problems. Isis Unveiled: See Rosicrucianism. Islam is the second largest world religion, and has recently become the third largest religious body in America with over 6 million adherents. Islam rejects the Trinity doctrine, the deity of Christ and His Sonship, claiming that Jesus was only a great prophet. Muhammad is considered to be the greatest prophet, whose coming was allegedly predicted by Christ. Islam adheres fiercely to monotheism.
While many Muslims exhibit tolerance towards other faiths, even today Islamic fundamentalism promotes jihad holy war , against those of other religious and political views. J Jainism, Mahavira: A world religion begun as a reform movement of Hinduism. Mahavira b. Later followers deified Mahavira himself, calling him the 24th Tirthankara last great savior teacher who descended from heaven without sin and with all knowledge.
Jesus: The founder and central figure of Christianity. Even ancient, non-Christian sources corroborate some historical facts about His life and ministry. By far, the oldest and fullest historical information is found in the New Testament Gospels. The sources support the historic, traditional Christian belief that Jesus is the second Person of the Trinity , that he was and is fully God and fully man, that he was born of a virgin, died on the cross as a substitutionary atonement for our sins, and rose bodily from the dead.
Jesus Only: Nickname for Oneness Pentecostalism. See Modalism. Publishes an annual catalog. The Israelites returned to the promised land of Canaan and became a small but powerful nation there under the rule of King David and his son Solomon. The northern kingdom was conquered and decimated by the Assyrians in BC, after which the term Judeans, or Jews, gradually came into use to refer to all Israelites.
These themes dominate the rest of the Jewish Bible, which is identical with the Protestant canon of the Old Testament. In the first century AD, Christianity originated with the belief that Jesus was that promised Messiah. What is now known as the religion of Judaism originated after AD 70 as the rabbis, or teachers of the Torah, developed a system of laws and interpretations of the Torah that were eventually codified in the Talmud. Today Judaism can be identified as a cultural, ethnic, or religious concept.
There are three main branches of modern Judaism: Orthodox traditional, literal adherence to the Torah as interpreted by the Talmud , Conservative a middle position advocating traditional beliefs and practices up to a point , and Reform liberal, non-literal stance on the Torah and Talmud; often non-religious or secular with emphasis on Jewish culture.
Kabbalah: Various spellings Mystical Jewish teachings intermingled with teachings of gnosticism , Neoplatonism, magic and the occult. The word Kabbalah means secret oral tradition and was coined by an eleventh century Spanish philosopher, Ibn Gabirol. The philosophy developed in Babylon during the middle ages from earlier Hebrew speculation and numerology. Kairos Foundation: See Life Training. Karma: The Hindu principle of cause and effect. Representing neither good nor evil, all actions and events are balanced with corresponding actions and events in the past or future including past and future lives through reincarnation.
Karma Yoga: See Karma , Yoga. Katherine, Brooklyn, NY: Astrology , psychic development. Keen, Sam: Prominent New Age teacher and author. Publishes Utopian Eyes magazine. Klassen, Frank, Ft. Knight, J. Koresh, David: See Branch Davidians. Kosmon: See Universal Faithists of Kosmon. Krastman, Hank: See Metaphysical Union. Krieger, Dolores: See Therapeutic Touch. Publishes Yoga Quest magazine. Devotion to Krishna has been introduced in the West especially through the International Society for Krishna Consciousness.
He later renounced that role to be the head of the newly created Order of the Star. Teaches alternative mystical experiences. Also, the form of yoga that seeks to focus that force. Kunz, Dora: See Therapeutic Touch. Myers, FL: Bible Students group. Lao-tzu: See Taoism. Membership estimates range between and 1, members. The group is believed to own or control more than 24 companies and have holdings in Nevada, Idaho, and possibly Arizona and Mexico. Lazaris: Spirit supposedly channeled by Jach Pursel. Or, a system of religious rules must be kept to please God or religious leaders, sometimes resulting in a kind of spiritual abuse.
Liberal Christianity: A movement that seeks to retain religious and spiritual values of Christianity while discounting the infallible authority of the Bible. Its origins are in the German Enlightenment, notably in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant and the religious views of Friedrich Schleiermacher. Liberals reject the stated authorship and historical accuracy of many books of the Bible.
They are skeptical concerning many or all of the biblical miracles, preferring naturalistic explanations or viewing miracle accounts as legend or myth. They often deny or reinterpret in mythical terms such doctrines of orthodox Christianity as the virgin birth, atoning death, and even the resurrection of Jesus. Liberalism has been most influential in mainline Protestant denominations and is rejected in Evangelical and Fundamentalist Christianity. Liberation Theology: A movement that attempts to unite theology with social and religious concerns about oppression.
It finds expressions among blacks, feminists, Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans, but it is most closely identified with the shift toward Marxism among Roman Catholic theologians and priests in Latin America. Most traditional doctrines of Christianity are de-emphasized or reinterpreted. Jesus and the Bible are defined and interpreted in light of a class struggle, with the gospel seen as a radical call to activism or even revolution promoting political and social answers usually in the form of classic Communism.
Life Training, Dallas, TX: New Age seminars that seek to awaken people to a new level of awareness and belief systems; Eastern spiritual philosophy. Lifespring: New Age seminars promoting human transformation and altering belief systems. Similar to est. Lifton, Robert: Dr.
Lifton studied Mao Tse-Tung's programs of "Thought Reform" or Chinese brainwashing while doing research for military intelligence. His study focused on radical change in personality and belief systems of certain prisoners-of-war who were held and tortured in Chinese camps. This research was later expanded in his work, Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism, in which he theorized that subtle elements of these brainwashing techniques could also be found in other environments.
While some elements of these criteria could be found in virtually any group, Lifton warned that an environment of mind control or thought reform exists when all eight are found implemented in the extreme. Publishes the Let There Be Light magazine. Publishes The Lotus quarterly. Publishes The White Light newsletter. Publishes Yoga In America magazine.
Publishes the Light Speed magazine. Publishes the Lightworker newspaper. Lion and Lamb Ministries, Monte W. Holds that Jesus is the biblical Messiah. Legalistic tendencies, Sabbatarianism , practices Jewish holy days. Judah falsely predicted that the Abomination of Desolation prophesied in the Bible would occur by March of promising he would be "totally discredited" and would "shut down" the ministry if wrong.
On March 23, he apologized for the false prophecy but reneged on his vow to disband the movement. The application of literary criticism to the Bible can be constructive, although in liberal Christianity the method is typically applied on the basis of antisupernatural and humanistic assumptions. See further Form Criticism. John will live for eternity on a new paradise earth.
Published Shekinah newsletter. Now defunct. See Branch Davidians. Llewellyn Worldwide, Ltd. The current president is Carl Weschcke who in acquired the magazine Fate, which now has , subscribers. Their popular catalog, New Worlds, is sold in newsstands nationwide and has a circulation of nearly , Limiting or controlling the thought processes by regulating the language in such a way that communication constricts and limits rather than expands human understanding.
Growth and controversy developed during the administration of their second leader, the late Witness Lee, who moved to America in founding Living Stream Ministry. Some evangelicals have also charged that the church compromises the Trinity doctrine by confusing the Persons of the Holy Spirit and the Son in a way similar to modalism.
The organization's exclusivity has also comme under fire. According to Lee, each city can and should have only one church. Denominationalism is seen as of the Devil. According to critics, the effect is that Lee-led local churches, usually called by the name of their cities e. Thus, according to former members, all other churches or denominations are seen as being outside the will of God or not true churches at all. The Local Church has also gained a reputation for threatening legal action to prevent unfavorable public evaluation of its movement.
The Lodge: See Freemasonry. Lotus: New Age periodical. Lucifer: Another name for Satan. Lucis Trust: See Arcane School. Publishes the Gnosis journal. Publishes Birth Into Light newsletter. M Mackey, Albert: See Freemasonry. MacLaine, Shirley: Former film actress turned New Age author; seminars, channeling , pantheism , reincarnation , chakras. Mafu: Spirit supposedly channeled by Penny Torres. Magi Center, Inc. Magic: Magick Occult ceremonial use of amulets and talismans. May involve necromancy or divination , invocation of infernal deities or use of natural elements to gain supernatural power or knowledge.
The word magic is also used to describe a type of stage performance involving legerdemain slight of hand or illusion with no alleged psychic or occult power. This type of stage magic is not inherently evil, although occultists have occasionally used stage magic in an attempt to claim supernatural abilities. Mahavira: See Jainism.
Malcolm X: See Nation of Islam. Mantra: Eastern mysticism or New Age term for a word or series of words that are repeated over and over either verbally or silently. The Mantra is said to help one achieve an altered state of consciousness. Often practiced during meditation or relaxation exercises. Marah, Madison, NJ: Occult , magic , goddess worship, Egyptian revival, Wicca , moon festivals, divination , runes , astral journeys. Taught Christ would return in Martindale resigned leadership April 20, , after a former member filed a lawsuit accusing him of forcing her into a sexual relationship.
Sometimes confused by the uninformed with biblical mandates to care for the poor, and the voluntary sharing of resources practiced by some primitive Christians. Marxism advocates establishment of a classless, stateless society by revolutionary force; it has always led, however, to totalitarian statism, and has never successfully eliminated any class but the bourgeoisie, the middle class, leaving the great majority of its subjects in poverty.
It is militantly atheistic. Millions of sins, filthy deeds, acts of violence and physical contagions Every defense or justification of the idea of God, even the most refined, the best intentioned, is a justification of reaction. See House of David. Masonry: See Freemasonry. Publishes the Winners newspaper.
Maya: The Hindu principle that all is an illusion and that ultimately the physical world, contacted through the conscious mind and the five senses, does not represent reality. This philosophy is also taught by many within the New Age Movement. Publishes Mayan Mysteries magazine. Meditation: Entering an altered state of consciousness by use of a mantra , yoga , deep relaxation techniques, controlled breathing or visualization. This is different from biblical Meditation where one is encouraged to meditate on God, His attributes or His word, employing the whole mind Joshua ; Luke Medium: A psychic or channeler who claims to be able to contact and communicate with the dead, as in a seance.
Such occult communication with the dead, known as necromancy , is forbidden in the Bible. Megiddo Mission Church, L. Mesmer, Franz: Founder of Mesmerism. Mesmerism: An 18th century movement begun in France by the Austrian doctor Franz Anton Mesmer, who believed that astrological influence on humans was conveyed through a force or substance similar to magnetism. The term Mesmerism eventually became analogous with hypnosis and was linked with both Spiritualism and Mind Science religions. See Altered States of Consciousness. Originally any study or discussion of non-physical, spiritual, or non-material realities.
Later, in modern usage, it usually means experimentation with, belief in, or practice of magic , psychic powers, or the occult. Publishes The Unexplained magazine. Michael, Sandra: Channeler , astral projection , rebirthing. Milieu control is the systematic, strict regulation of human communication, relationships, and access to outside information and alternative viewpoints. Although Miller repented after his prediction failed and opposed further speculations, his teachings gave rise to Adventism.
Herbert Benson, the Chief of Behavioral Medicine at Harvard, to research and train practitioners in holistic health. The Mind Control or Thought Reform model, as for instance developed by Robert Lifton , suggests that there are specific methods of deception that can be employed by abusive spiritual leaders that may result in a diminished capacity for critical thinking and suppression of autonomy in their followers. These methods are believed to involve an intense social influence conditioning program which may include a closed system of authoritarian control, manipulative, group dynamics, a system of punishment and rewards, induced dissociation or trance induction, information control, fraud, coercion, and double binds.
Depending on the number and intensity of undue influence elements, and a person's own unique susceptibilities, one may experience a pseudo personality change and marked debilitation, compliance, and servitude. The Mind Control model should not be interpreted to mean that the subject is not responsible for the consequences of his or her decisions and actions. The Mind Control theory is not justification for holding individuals against their will or for conducting forcible, involuntary deprogramming.
Mind Power Technique: New Age process to read auras and balance chakras. Publishes The Holy Encounter newsletter. Modalism: Patripassianism, Modalistic Monarchianism , Sabellianism, Jesus Only, Oneness Pentecostalism Originally, a second and third century heresy that denies the doctrine of the Trinity , teaching there is only one Person in the Godhead. Originally taught in various forms by Noetus, Praxeas and Sabellius. Modified forms of this doctrine can be found in the teachings of William Branham , some Apostolic churches and the United Pentecostal Church.
Mother Ruth: See Science of Man. Mohammed: Founder of the world religion of Islam. The two most popular forms of monarchianism were dynamic monarchianism and modalism. Germain , Ascended Masters , crystals , Rosicrucian teachings , psychic readings. Moonies: Nickname for followers of Rev. Considered a derogatory term by members. Expressions of Mormon fundamentalism may include polygamy forbidden by the LDS Church in the s , communal living, and the blood atonement doctrine. Moses de Leon : See Kabbalah.
Moyers, Bill: Former Baptist who is known for his exploration of New Age themes on public television. Muhammad: See Mohammed. Muhammad, Elijah: See Nation of Islam. Muscle Testing: See Applied Kinesiology. Muslim: Follower of the religion of Islam. Mysticism: The theory or belief that man can know God or religious truth through the inward perception of the mind, internal illumination, or special revelation, and that such knowledge is more immediate, direct, and reliable than that obtained by ordinary understanding or sense perception.
Followers, sometimes called Black Muslims, believe that Allah God appeared in to the last great prophet Elijah Muhammad, in the person of Wallace D. Elijah Muhammad borrowed many beliefs from traditional Islam but introduced important differences. Most notable was the focus on black oppression and equating Satan and evil with the white race.
Malcolm X became a notable leader of the movement in the s and the focus on black supremacy and militancy escalated. Malcolm X later converted to traditional Islam and rejected radical black supremacy and was subsequently murdered. The current leader of the Nation is Islam is Louis Farrakhan. Nation of Yahweh, Yahweh ben Yahweh a. Publishes the Tree of Life newsletter. Native American Spirituality: The religious beliefs, practices, and rituals associated Native Americans.
Early Native American beliefs, though diverse, often shared common religious ideas. Seasons and moons often were viewed as marking times of evocation for spirits and prosperity. Some New Age believers promote revival of Native American spirituality, seeing obvious parallels with their own views. Publishes the Natures Field newsletter. Near-death experience NDE : Any paranormal or supernatural experience had when a person is near death, including experiences when a person thinks he or she has died and returned from death. Reports of NDEs have become numerous in recent decades due to advances in medical technology that make it possible to revive people from comas and other critical conditions.
Many patients report having out-of-body experiences OBEs while they were unconscious or comatose. Necromancy: A form of divination in which a person attempts to discover the future or obtain other information through communication with the dead, typically using occult methods. Publishes The Illustrated Cosmic Machine newsletter. Neo-Orthodox Christianity: Development associated with the strong reaction of Swiss theologians Karl Barth and Emil Brunner against the barrenness of liberal Christianity. They felt that Scripture, although a flawed, fallible, human product, could still be used by God to accomplish His purposes.
Thus the Bible becomes inspired in its proclamation when the Holy Spirit quickens faith and obedience in its hearers. Thus, like liberalism, this view results in a subjective, existential encounter, which denies absolute propositional truth in revelation.
Neo-Paganism: The modern revival of paganism , emphasizing witchcraft see Wicca , goddess worship, and nature worship. Techniques developed by Richard Bandler and Dr. The co-founders have been heavily involved with other New Age practices. NLP failed scientific tests conducted by the U. New Age: See the Definitions section in the introduction. Publishes Mega magazine. New Church: See Swedenborg Foundation. Headquartered at Mount Washington Methodist Church.
See Holistic Health , Acupuncture , Accupressure. New Realities, Washington, D. New Thought: One of the branches of the mind sciences ; unlike Christian Science , New Thought usually maintains the reality of matter and is more liberal and pluralistic in its views. Teaches that the Christ is only a principle that was embodied in Jesus as in other religious figures.
New Worlds, St. Key verses have been inaccurately rendered especially to obscure the deity of Christ. This translation has been universally rejected as inaccurate by competent Bible scholars. Nightingale-Conant, Chicago, IL: Publishes books and audio tapes on personal growth, business, positive mental attitude, and self help. A significant portion of their material contains New Age themes. Nirvana: Hindu state of enlightenment or bliss. Publishes the Living Love newsletter. Numerology: The occult use of numbers in divination to discover hidden knowledge. Often associated with the Kabbalah, magic , psychics and witchcraft see Wicca.
Newbrough, a psychic and spiritualist who was allegedly gifted in ESP. Occult: From the Latin word, hidden. See under the Definitions section in the introduction. Odinism: A return to the gods of Norse mythology, Odin being the chief or supreme god, also known as Woden or Wotan. Originally worshipped as the god or warriors or leaders, it is his responsibility to delay, as long as possible, Ragnarok , the day of doom. He gained use of the Runes and passed these on to men.
Publishes the Omega Press newspaper. See Salvation by Works , Modalism. Order of the Cross, J. Todd Ferrier: States of realization, Christhood see Christ-consciousness , meditation. Publishes The Seventh Ray journal. Ordo Templi Orientis: Occult , Satanism. See Crowley, Aleister. Orr, Leonard: See Rebirthing International. In this sense orthodox Christianity includes conservative Roman Catholics, and Protestant, evangelical Christianity , and is opposed both to liberal Christianity within Christian denominations and to the teachings of the cults.
More specifically, the term Orthodox with a capital O; or, Eastern Orthodox refers to the state churches of Eastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean who split with Roman Catholicism of the West largely over the issue of papal authority. Many such messages are derived from the subconscious of the operators; however, there is always potential for demonic influence. Out-of-Body Experience OBE : Any experience in which a person believes that his or her spirit has temporarily left the physical body and then returned to that same body.
Some OBEs are associated with near-death experiences ; others are induced through occult or mystical practices, especially in Astral Projection. Publishes Circle magazine. Paganism: Historically, paganism has been used as a generic term to describe primitive non-Christian religions and superstitions, including religions centered on the occult. Palm Reading: Chiromancy The occult practice of divination , i. Cleage, Jr. Jaramogi Abebe Agyeman. Part of the Black Christian Nationalist Movement. Teaches Jesus is the Black Messiah sent to rebuild the Black Nation Israel and liberate the Black People from oppression, brutality, and exploitation of the white gentile world from the Black Nationalist Creed.
Panentheism: View of God taught in Process Theology. This God is an all-encompassing, impersonal principle or force. A central doctrine for most eastern religions and New Age groups. Publishes the Papa Jim quarterly catalog. See Cesar. Parapsychology: The study of ESP and other supernatural phenomena dating to the foundation of the English Society of Physical Research in and continued through laboratory research at Duke University Parapsychology Laboratory, Stanford Research Institute and elsewhere. Patrick, Ted: Controversial practitioner of deprogramming. Patripassianism: Name for a kind of modalism or monarchianism ; the word means that the Father patri- suffered and died -passian on the cross.
Peace Community Church, Washington, D. Peace Mission Movement: Based on the teaching of founder Father Divine , which contains elements of New Thought , asceticism, perfectionism, utopian communalism, and denies existence of race and strictly prohibits discrimination among members. Requires all members to turn over all property and income, severing all ties to everything but the Peace Mission.
Room, board, and a small allowance for incidentals are provided in exchange for otherwise unpaid labor in Peace Mission owned businesses or projects. Father Divine did not actually claim to be God, but he fostered the belief in his followers, and required loyalty and obedience from them due only to God. Peck, M.
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Scott: New Age author and lecturer influenced by Buddhism and Eastern metaphysics. His best known book is The Road Less Traveled. Pelley, William D. Pentagram : An important occult symbol consisting of a five-pointed star with a single point at the top that is used in ceremonial magic , often representing the Microcosm. Called a Pentacle when depicted with a circle around it. Oneness Pentecostal. Publishes Christian Outlook.
He later claimed at various times to be God, Buddha , and Lenin. The group is now defunct. Peyote: Hallucinogenic used by some Native American and New Age groups as a sacrament in order to produce altered states of consciousness. Publishes The Sacred Record newsletter. Publishes The Philadelphia Trumpet magazine. Philosophical Publishing Co. Philosophical Research Society, Manly P. Pike, Albert: See Freemasonry. Plural Covenant: See Dual Covenant. Usually associated with the visible movement of physical objects by an unseen spiritual that is, occult force.
See Demon , Spiritualism , Necromancy.