Dworkin, Andrea. New York: The Free Press, Finney, Gail. Ithaca: Cornell UP, Freud, Sigmund. Philip Rieff. New York: Collier Macmillan, Guthke, Karl S. Stuttgart: Metzler, Bern: Francke, Hart, Gail K. Columbia: Camden House, Hauptmann, Gerhart. Das dramatische Werk.
Hanneles Himmelfahrt: Traumdichtung. Das dramatische Werk I, — Nachgelassene Werke: Fragmente. Rose Bernd: Schauspiel. Das dramatische Werk II, — Centenar Ausgabe. Hans Egon Hass et al. Hildebrandt, Klaus. Thematik — Entstehung — Gestaltungsprinzipien — Struktur. Munich: Oldenbourg, Mayer, Hans. Gerhart Hauptmann. Velber: Friedrich, Minden, Pamela Brede. Ann Wolbert Burgess. New York: Garland, Neubauer, John. New Haven: Yale UP, Pilz, Georg.
Sprengel, Peter. Gerhart Hauptmann: Epoche — Werk — Wirkung. Munich: Beck, Staudte, Wilhelm, dir. The Sins of Rose Bernd. Written by Walter Ulbrich and Gerhart Hauptmann. Schorcht Filmverleih, Weber, Beat. Bonn: Bouvier, Die unter den Pseudonymen El Hor und El Ha schreibende Autorin schildert darin ein grotesk-surreal anmutendes Aufeinandertreffen eines Mannes und einer Frau in einem Theater und bietet dadurch fesselnde Einblicke in die expressionistische Dichtung aus weiblicher Perspektive. Statt dessen werden Schriftstellerinnen des Expressionismus vor allem auf ihren biographischen Hintergrund untersucht.
Literaturhistorisch ist das Interesse an diesen Themen durch den Kolonialismus und den durch Reiselust entstandenen Exotismus Ende des Jahrhunderts bestimmt Reif Jahrhunderts verwiesen. Addiert die Dichterin durch die Wahl der Namen nicht auch noch eine geschlechtneutrale wenn nicht gar hermaphroditische Dimension zu ihren sprachlichen Kunstwerken?
McCormick; Nipperdey; Petro; Ward. Seine Begierden steigerten sich. Mai in der Wiener Wochenzeitschrift Der Friede erschienen ist: Als der Mann tot war, spielte die Frau den ganzen Tag mit seiner Taschenuhr, sprach mit ihr und horchte auf ihren metallenen Pulsschlag. Und des Nachts legte sie die Uhr in sein Bett. Der mit grandioser Vermessenheit Menschen- schicksale formte wie bunte Geschichten!
Nach seiner Dichterlaune! The second network, that of the signified, is the diachronic set of concretely pronounced discourses, which react historically on the first, just as the structure of the first governs the pathways of the second. The dominant fact here is the unity of signification, which proves never to be resolved into a pure indication of the real, but always refers back to another signification. Auf den zweiten Blick jedoch fallen Besonderheiten auf. Es bleibt zudem offen, welches Theater an welchem Ort gemeint ist.
Seine Schultern waren etwas verwachsen, und er hatte gar keinen Hals. Gezerrte Augen deuten eine Mimik an, die sich einer Kontrolle entzieht. Dadurch wirkt die hundeartige Gestalt wie von den eigenen Instinkten getrieben, so dass die animalische Charakterisierung des Mannes weiter vertieft wird. Nicht nur die abgesonderte Stellung im Raum, auch die geistige Haltung des Mannes deutet damit eine tiefe Kluft zu der Gesellschaft an.
Mann , vom Handlungsantrieb spontan vs. Zudem setzen sich beide durch diese detaillierte Beschreibung von der sie um- gebenden Menschenmenge ab. Ihre Reaktion auf diese erschreckende Vorstellung ist ein Lachen. Ist es das Begehren des Mannes, das sie ersehnt hat, und nun, da es ihrer Meinung nach offensichtlich geworden ist, erfreut? Noch befindet sie sich trotz dieser Vorstellung in sicherer Distanz zum Mann. Ultimately what she values is his desire for her.
It enables her to maintain her apparent independence. She can feel confident in so far as she is wanted. Zugleich scheint sich die Frau ohne Begleitung im Theater zu befinden. Ihre Bitte? Anders als im Theater, wo sich die Frau eine abrupte Durchbrechung in ihrer passiven Rolle inmitten eines Publikums vorstellt, erfolgt die Tat erst, nachdem ein gut gelegener Ort gefunden worden ist. Ebenso weckt das direkte Ansprechen des Mannes durch die Frau, der schweigende gemeinsame Weg und die Suche nach einem geeigneten Platz Assoziationen an eine Prostituierte, die einen Freier angesprochen hat, was in einer Vielzahl von Texten und Filmen des Expressionismus eine bedeutende Rolle einnimmt vgl.
Den Mann verbindet nichts mit der Frau, mit der er doch einen Weg zusammen gegangen ist und die er kurzfristig leidenschaftlich begehrte. Dies und die Tatsache, dass er nicht den Versuch macht, die Leiche zu verbergen, impliziert zudem, dass er will, dass sie entdeckt wird. Auch Barbara D. Suhrbier — Ein ganz kurzes Erkennen zuckte zwischen ihnen auf, und dann wurde es wieder dunkel. Literaturverzeichnis Ankum, Katharina von. Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity. Berkeley: U of California P, Anz, Thomas. Literatur des Expressionismus.
Bergstrom, Randolph E. John C. London: Holmes und Meier, Best, Otto. Theorie des Expressionismus. Stuttgart: Reclam, Mainz: Ventil, Die Schaukel. Hartwig Suhrbier. Eykman, Christoph.
Denk- und Stilformen des Expressionismus. Foucault, Michel. Richard Howard. New York: Random House, Frevert, Ute. Gleber, Anke. Princeton: Princeton UP, Grosz, Elizabeth. Jacques Lacan: A Feminist Introduction. London: Routledge Hoffmann-Curtius, Kathrin. Ilsebill Barta et al. Berlin: Reimer, Huber, Ottmar. Meisenheim: Anton Hain, Grambin: AvivA, Bielefeld: Aisthesis, Cambridge: Cambridge UP, London: Tavistock, Lewis, Beth Irwin.
Lloyd, Jill. German Expressionism: Primitivism and Modernity. Stuttgart: Francke UTB, Martens, Gunther. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, Martini, Fritz, Hrsg. Prosa des Expressionismus. McCormick, Richard. Nipperdey, Thomas. Macht- staat vor der Demokratie. Petro, Patrice. Raabe, Paul, und Ingrid Hannich-Bode. Reif, Wolfgang. Peter Brenner. Rothe, Wolfgang. Der Expressionismus: Theologische, soziologische und anthropologische Aspekte einer Literatur. Rochester: Camden House, Suhrbier, Hartwig. Tatar, Maria.
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Sexual Murder in Weimar Germany. Theweleit, Klaus. Male Fantasies. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, Vollmer, Hartmut, Hrsg. Pader- born: Igel, Ward, Janet. Wright, Barbara D. Neil H. The existence of the intangible realm, as well as its accessibility, occupied his thoughts, his writings, and his own esoteric pursuits throughout his adult life. A prominent trope in this project is the somnambulist: a wanderer in the region between waking and deep sleep who can unite disparate parts of the self and thus secure salvation by overcoming the fears and limitations of the material world.
His are views shared by a great many writers during the latter half of the nineteenth through the first third of the twentieth centuries. During this period much of Europe experienced a profound series of crises: The debates and disagreements surrounding epistemo- logical issues in particular offers intriguing insight into this time of crisis. These discussions were a response to questions as to how to deal with the duality of mind and body, of material and spirit. For Benjamin, each aesthetic product bears a spiritual component that becomes detached when that product is mass-produced in the modern age.
Others felt that the answers to their questions were to be found by melding the material and the spiritual. This approach was crystallized in occultist and esoteric movements, most prominently in theosophy, whose practitioners included Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Henry Steel Olcott, Annie Besant, and Rudolph Steiner. Founded in New York City in , theosophy was open to all people irrespective of race, colour, or creed, and it fostered the study of comparative religions and philosophy to unearth common ground among spiritual and intellectual traditions across the world in order to unite the material and the mystical Cranston — Throughout his adult life, Meyrink believed that fundamental truths of existence are found in the shadows of the spiritual realm, and his pursuit of these truths resulted in decades of occultist practices.
He not only corresponded and met with Besant and Steiner respectively, but also founded a theosophical lodge in Prague in Eventually, he moved beyond the empty promises of the Theo- sophical Society and developed his own epistemology. Through his attempts to acquire esoteric knowledge, he believed he had discovered the underlying structure of the human psyche — that there is a schism between the daily or waking consciousness and the realms of spiritual experience, but that this bifurcation can be healed through esoteric training, which aids in achieving spiritual salvation.
This theme dominated his fiction and as a result expresses seminal characteristics of modernism — a movement from around to the s that constitutes the aesthetic articulation of modernity. Modernity resists an all-encompassing definition and continues to generate attempts to circumscribe its complex structure. Broadly viewed as a series of social and intellectual upheavals beginning in the Renaissance, several critics and cultural theorists argue that modernity describes experiences and relationships permeated by ambivalence: the clash of concomitant yet mutually exclusive paradigms Bauman 5; Berman 16; Habermas 3; Kniesche and Brockmann 7—12; Treitel 17— As such, his sleepwalkers are caught in the massive flux of historical and epistemological shifts as they manifested themselves at the turn of the twentieth century.
This incarnation of the somnambulist inhabits a dark corner of modernity — the danger that lurks among the intangible and hidden powers of the mind. Meyrink, as another voice in this choir, recognizes neither uneasiness nor perniciousness in somnambulism. Instead, he views the somnambulistic condition as integral to mending the inherent rift within each human being. A colourful and controversial figure, Meyrink was often in the centre of conflict because of his brazen and iconoclastic character Frank; Karle; Lube; Marzin; Mitchell; Smit.
One of the reasons why he was so controversial was his caustic derision of those who favoured empirical science at the expense of the occult. In addition to his satires, he also chronicled his own attempts to harness occultist forces, and his novels arguably could be read as fictionalized accounts of individuals on journeys of salvation, journeys that overcome dualism and lead to freedom and felicity. Salvation is realized only at the end of a process of awakening to higher knowledge, and this awakening is contingent upon escaping daily consciousness and entering a state of awareness akin to a somnambulistic state.
Meyrink often writes about varying degrees of awareness that hinge on the underlying dualistic structure of human experience. In Der Golem , somnambulism is the trope most closely associated with the condition in which the unnamed narrator, Pernath, crosses the planes of consciousness. Der Golem is a framed narrative and begins with an unnamed protagonist drifting off to sleep after having read a biography of the Buddha. He begins to dream, and this dream is the bridge between the framed and embedded nar- ratives. The reader then follows Pernath as he encounters the tempestuous personalities and negotiates the perilous day-to-day workings of the Prague ghetto.
Pernath stands entangled in both threads, as an unscrupulous member of the ghetto has him falsely charged with the murder of a local watchmaker. As a result, he is arrested and subsequently, after months of incarceration, released. This kind of interaction is not unique. During this process of self-discovery, Pernath comes into contact with gurus, ghoulish apparitions, and mystical texts.
All of this culminates in his release from prison and return to the ghetto only to find it abandoned. On Christmas Eve, fire breaks out in his building, and he escapes by climbing out of his window and falls to the pavement below, but not before witnessing visions on the way down that bear great import to his destiny. This signals the end of the embedded narrative and brings the reader back to the slumbering unnamed protagonist of the frame.
Upon waking, the protagonist realizes that he had taken the wrong hat at High Mass earlier in the day — the hat belonging to Athanasius Pernath. Wishing to return the hat to its owner, he seeks out and eventually finds Pernath in the Alchimistengasse on the Hradschin, a place of great spiritual energy that the narrator encountered in his dream. Two further aspects of the ending of the novel are worth noting. Although he lived decades prior to this discovery, he has not aged a day, he exists in a place beyond time.
Also, he and the unnamed narrator are physically identical. This interpretation, which combines fiction and autobiography, comes into focus through the lens of allegory. Allegory is an exegetical matrix, a text that creates a space in which different interpretations can arise. The key to multiple interpretations resides in the narrative structure. A coupling of the primary and proof texts extrapolates a reading distinct from — yet coeval to — the original narrative.
She identifies two species of allegory that have developed over time: allegory as metaphor fabulistic and allegory as metonymy figurative. This species of allegory links signs in a text — for example a fox and a crow — to a general moral code, for example, that flattery from certain quarters should be accepted with a grain of salt. Madsen quotes A. An example of this kind of allegory is the Christian exegesis of the Bible. When reading the Bible, one identifies an interpretive relation between the Old Testament figure and its spiritual, New Testament referent Essential to this latter species of allegory, as Madsen frames it, are shared figures or themes that link both texts.
In this text, Meyrink interweaves personal experiences, philosophical reflections, and polemical exclamations to illustrate the schism of the psyche as well as to help the reader to overcome this intrinsic ailment. At the nexus of this textual confluence stands, or wanders, the sleepwalker. The sleepwalker is the lynchpin for an allegorical reading. The contiguity between the two texts resides not in a precise mirroring of biography and fiction, but in shared signposts along paths to salvation.
First, one must become receptive to the turbulence of the supernatural realm. This is achieved by entering a trance represented by somnambulism. Contact with the apparitions of the spiritual realm is the next phase. Finally, one deciphers the language of the intuition with the help of guides and gurus. For example, his novels explore a variety of esoteric traditions, and therefore one cannot ascribe a one-to-one connection between his own views and the views and deeds portrayed in his novels. Instead, the current study argues that throughout his fiction and nonfiction there are common processes that allow for the identification of patterns in his texts that invite comparisons.
The first common trait of these processes that heal the duality in each human being is entering the realm of the supernatural through a somnambulistic trance. Andrew J. The method for healing the spiritual divide is the practice of proper yoga. Yoga, which Meyrink notes is largely absent in modern society, is an instrument for mediating between the spiritual and material realities because it marries spiritual energy to worldly activity.
This is the crux of his text and indeed much of his ourevre. He outlines how this unification is conducted, and uses a seminal metaphor in illustrating this process: the somnambulist. He explains: Ich beobachtete mich selbst dabei so scharf ich nur konnte. Dabei wurde mir bald klar: all das geschieht nur zu dem Zweck, damit du die Augachsen parallel stellst. Sleepwalkers exist in a state of intermediate consciousness — or as a character in Der Golem describes it: the sleepwalker wanders in a region between waking and deep sleep.
Meyrink tells of meditating outside and wondering to himself how late it had become. The ability of inner sight becomes possible after entering a heightened state of spiritual awareness The protagonist in Der Golem, Athanasius Pernath, finds himself in similar situations. At one point in the embedded narrative, Pernath falls into a deep trance and is unresponsive to any external stimulus. This stupor embodies the first phase in the process of spiritual awakening. During this episode Pernath witnesses a series of opaque and eerie visions. Significant among these is the book Ibbur, which, according to Hillel, makes the soul fertile with the spirit of life The apparitions encountered here and elsewhere remain with Pernath as he attempts to decode their meaning.
Eventually, Meyrink did begin to listen and to follow the leadership of this figure and came to recognize it as central to his well-being. Er ist das, was wir im Leben Vorsehung nennen. Pernath also encounters a mysterious character that leads him down the path of happiness and to salvation. The role of the disguised one in the novel is taken on by the golem and further illustrates metonymic allegory. After the unnamed narrator drifts off to sleep and launches the embedded narrative, Athanasius Pernath enters the story finding himself in curious circum- stances.
He is suddenly overcome with tremendous feelings of anxiety. He falls into a curious stupor and is confronted with the visage of a strange figure. The golem, as Hillel makes clear, represents the awakening of the dead. It transmits cryptic images and symbols that Pernath must learn to decipher, just as the disguised one did for Meyrink. Instead, one must act on knowledge procured in that realm. As Meyrink details the events surrounding this progression, life allowed him to overcome setbacks caused by charlatans posing as sages and to glean true wisdom from his encounters, albeit not without struggle and hardship.
Upon meeting O. These exercises did not, however, produce the desired result, instead Meyrink learned from people he trusted that O. This is not the only experience Meyrink had with so-called gurus. Through his contact with O. He needed to identify the needle of truth in the haystack of falsehoods in his journey, but Pernath has better luck with his spiritual mentors.
Several figures assist Pernath in his journey. One of them is his cellmate in prison, Amadeus Laponder. Pernath is appalled when he first meets Laponder, who is condemned to death on charges of rape and murder. Yet Laponder is not completely what he seems. Here again the unity of the soul is necessary for the ultimate goal of immortality to be achieved.
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Laponder then speaks more directly to the seminal figure in this enterprise. This in fact is precisely what happens after Pernath gains his freedom from prison. After his release, Pernath returns to the ghetto only to find it in shambles. The quarter has been torn down, and all that he had known is no more.
At that moment, fire breaks out and Pernath is forced out of the building and falls to the street below. Of importance here is the culmination of the journey toward sal- vation. Pernath becomes receptive to the supernatural through somnambulistic fugues. He learns and interprets the symbols of the language of intuition with the help of gurus and guides.
This knowledge liberates an individual from a fundamental fear — the fear of death. The current reality is merely one among many, and Meyrink claims that one can recall the memories of past lives through yoga. Once again, yoga, an exercise that induces a somnambulistic condition, is the key to accessing the beyond. In the same text, Meyrink attempts to shed more light on the nature of yoga by employing a metaphor of the divided self.
He writes that the human being is a Doppelwesen, das [ The unification of the self results in the knowledge of immortality, knowledge that Pernath also gains. After the fire scene in the embedded narrative, Pernath plummets to the street below, and the narrator of the framed narrative awakens with a start. He learns that he had slept for less than an hour and is still confused when he realizes that he had taken the wrong hat after High Mass.
Gerhart Hauptmann and the Naturalist Drama (German Theatre Archive) - PDF Free Download
The narrator then sets out to find the place where Pernath lived. Making his way to the Hradschin, he comes upon an idyllic vision in the Alchimistengasse, with which he became acquainted during his wanderings as Pernath. On the gate is the god Osiris in the form of a hermaphrodite — the symbol of unification. The servant of the house approaches, and the narrator hands him the hat. Once the gate is opened, the narrator spies the miraculously unaged Pernath. Pernath has achieved the unification of his soul and resides with Miriam in the shadow of the hermaphrodite. Intrinsic similitude — the defining mark of metonymic allegory — appears again and again through the analysis.
Figures from different philosophical and cultural traditions such as August Comte, Helena Blavatsky, and Walter Benjamin framed epistemological questions in terms of a duality between the material and the mystical. Some rejected one realm in favour of the other, some sought to meld the two together, and others lamented the separation of the two in art. Meyrink sought his own resolution in the occult; his solution to the epistemological crisis is outlined in both his autobiographical and his fictional texts. His best-selling novel, Der Golem, is an example of how his texts express his own epistemology.
This knowledge is attainable through occultist means and resides within the individual. At the core of this endeavour is the somnambulist, for in order to experience true awakening, one must wander the realm between waking and deep sleep. Amsterdam: Rodopi, Bauman, Zygmunt.
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Harry Zohn. New York: Schocken, Berman, Marshall. New York: Penguin, Die Schlafwandler. Broszeit-Rieger, Ute Ingrid. U of Virginia, Cersowsky, Peter. Phantastische Literatur im ersten Viertel des Munich: Fink, Cowan, Bainard. Cranston, Sylvia. Frank, Eduard. Meyrink, Das Haus zur letzten Latern 7— Gaede, Friedrich. Harmsen, Theodor. Amsterdam: Pelikaan, Jansen, Bella. Jennings, Lee B. William Coyle. In , he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature "primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art", after he had been nominated in that year by Erich Schmidt , member of the Prussian Academy of Science.
Kaiser Wilhelm II , however, did not care for the "social democratic" poet. He vetoed the awarding of the Schiller Preis for The Assumption of Hannele and at the instigation of his son, Crown Prince Wilhelm , in , a Breslau production of Hauptmann's play Commemoration Masque Festspiel in deutschen Reimen was canceled, because in it the hundredth anniversary of the Liberation of Germany from Napoleon was depicted with a pacifistic rather than patriotic or jingoistic tone. However, the very same Hauptmann who had criticized militarism in the Masque, the very next year was among those who supported the war.
Hauptmann signed the Manifesto of the Ninety-Three , a manifesto signed by 93 German scientists, scholars and artists, declaring their unequivocal support of German military actions at the beginning of World War I. He published supportive poems many of which read as unintentional satires and which he later crossed out in the manuscript. Several years later, he wrote Till Eulenspiegel, a poetic memorial to Hans Paasche , the pacifist and reformer who was assassinated by ultra-nationalists.
In , he joined a declaration, signed by a number of German intellectuals and published in the Berliner Tageblatt newspaper, showing solidarity with the Republic. In the following years, he was the first recipient of the Adlerschild des Deutschen Reiches The Eagle Shield of the German Reich an award for scholarly or artistic achievement. During this period, the demand for Hauptmann's work had declined, to the point where, in order to maintain his lifestyle, he had begun to do films and serializations.
Despite this, he continued to enjoy popularity. He was seen abroad as the representative of German Literature. In , in honor of the centenary of Goethe 's death, he went on a lecture tour of the United States and was awarded and honorary doctorate from Columbia University. On his 70th birthday, he was awarded several honorary citizenships. There were countless exhibitions and performances of his work, many with well-known performers. Max Reinhardt played the lead in the premiere of Hauptmann's new play Before Sunset.
From , Hauptmann summered with his family in Hiddensee. Hauptmann's copy of Mein Kampf , which can now be found in the Hauptmann collection at the Berlin State Library , was also heavily annotated. Because Hauptmann remained highly regarded by the German people, the Nazis did everything to keep him from leaving the country, despite the emigration of many of his colleagues. At times he suffered from official disapproval. The censors of the Propaganda Minister Goebbels kept an eye on Hauptmann's work and even banned a new edition of his novella The Shot in the Park because it featured a black character.
Hauptmann was told that reprinting was impossible because of a paper shortage. For Hauptmann's 80th birthday, in , representatives of the Nazi regime cooperated with honors, celebrations, and celebratory performances. Hauptmann was presented by his publisher with the first copy of his volume Complete Works. In , he published his Atreus Tetralogy, which he had been working on for four years. In , Hauptmann's name was included in the Gottbegnadeten list the "God-gifted list" , a list of artists considered crucial to the German culture, who were therefore exempt from mobilization in the war effort.
He was one of the six most important writers in the special list of the "irreplaceable artists. During the bombing of Dresden , Hauptmann was staying at a Dresden sanatorium due to severe pneumonia. I stand at the end of my life and envy my dead comrades, who were spared this experience. After the war, Silesia, where Hauptmann was living, became part of Poland, but Hauptmann was temporarily allowed to stay due to a letter of protection.
Then, on April 7, , he was informed by the Soviet military authorities that the Polish government was insisting on his resettlement. Before his expulsion, he became very ill. At the beginning of May , Hauptmann learned that the Polish government was insisting on the expulsion of all Germans without exception. His last words were reported to be, "Am I still in my house? An official letter from the Soviet Administration in favor of the writer, who was highly regarded in the Soviet Union , proved ineffective, though the family was permitted to take its belongings.
Only an hour after his death, the local militia had gathered outside the window directly under his deathbed and banging pots and pans and blowing whistles and trumpets. At a funeral service held in Stralsund , near Hauptmann's summer home on Hiddensee island, Wilhelm Pieck , then co-chairman of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany in the Soviet occupation zone of Germany spoke, along with poet Johannes R.
Becher , and Soviet official Sergei Ivanovich Tiulpanov all spoke. On the morning of 28 July, 52 days after his death, he was buried before sunrise at the cemetery in Hiddensee. In , a granite block was unveiled as the grave stone. It bore, as per Hauptmann's wish, only his name. In , his wife Margarete's remains were moved to lie beside her husband's, though she had died in Hauptmann first encountered the various representatives of the naturalist movement through the avant-garde society "Durch" in , which was an important influence.
At their meetings, aesthetic questions about idealism , Realism and the naturalist movement were discussed. With that, he also established his naturalistic orientation. At the end of the s, he was confronted with the incipient anti-socialist movement. The first of the Anti-Socialist Laws was passed in and strengthened in Hauptmann was in as called before the court in Breslau, because he had been a follower of the "Icharians," whose ideas hearkened back to the ideas of French communist Etienne Cabet.
He sought refuge in his brother's house in Zurich in order to avoid prosecution. While there he encountered psychiatrist August Forel and the preacher Johannes Guttzeit, whose ideas influenced Before Sunrise. Hauptmann began producing naturalistic works in Zurich. Hauptmann's play "Before Sunrise" caused one of the largest scandals in German theater history. The bourgeois audience was shocked by the frank depictions of alcoholism and sexuality. According to Franz-Josef Payrhuber, "Before Sunrise" was an epoch-making work, but it is not the representative example of naturalistic drama, that label would go to Die Familie Selicke by Arno Holz and Johannes Schlaf.
Theaters under Brahm's leadership premiered 17 of Hauptmann's plays. With his most important play, The Weavers, which he had already been contemplating during his stay in Zurich, Hauptmann achieved world renown and reached the high point of his Naturalistic phase.
Gerhart Hauptmann Bürgerlichkeit Und Großer Traum 9783406640452
Hauptmann's early work received differing reviews. Conservative circles and also the government were not excited about his socially critical dramas, which made itself felt through censorship. His position in the opposition raised his profile in progressive, intellectual circles, which appreciated these aspects of his work.
After many naturalistic-influenced works, Hauptmann's style changed and he grew increasingly well-received among the educated and upper classes. Nevertheless, he was still in demand as a writer and was regarded abroad as the representative poet of Germany. The Hungarian philosopher and literature critic, Georg Lukacs later called Hauptmann the "representative poet of bourgeois Germany," by which he did not mean to underscore Hauptmann's prominent position. Rather, he expressed displeasure with Hauptmann's fickleness and lack of attachment to his "revolutionary beginnings.
Hauptmann had taken up a lavish lifestyle, lived in expensive hotels, often received guests, and took trips to Italy. When Hauptmann continued to live in Germany after the Nazis came to power, they attempted to use Hauptmann for their own purposes. Various works that displeased the party leaders were banned but others continued to be performed. At his 80th birthday, in he was honored by the government with a festival and tributes, which he accepted.
Hauptmann's ebb-and-flow character was highlighted in William L. Shirer offered in a first-person account, " Because he had been an ardent Socialist his plays had been banned from the imperial theaters during Kaiser Wilhelm II's time. During the Republic he had been the most popular playwright in Germany, and indeed he retained that position in the Third Reich.
His plays continued to be produced. I shall never forget the scene at the close of the first night of his last play, 'The Daughter of the Cathedral', when Hauptmann, a venerable figure with his flowing white hair tumbling down over his black cape, strode out of the theater arm in arm with Dr. Goebbels and Hans Johst. He, like so many other eminent Germans, had made his peace with Hitler, and Goebbels, a shrewd man, had made much effective propaganda out of it, tirelessly reminding the German people and the outside world that Germany's greatest living playwright, a former Socialist and the champion of the common man, had not only remained in the Third Reich but had continued to write and have his plays produced.
The American authorities, believing that Hauptmann had served the Nazis too well, banned his plays from the theaters in their sector in West Berlin. Whereupon the Russians invited him to Berlin, welcomed him as a hero and staged a gala cycle of his plays in East Berlin. On 6 October , Hauptmann sent a message to the Communist-dominated 'Kulturbund for the Democratic Revival of Germany' wishing it well and expressing the hope that it would succeed in bringing about a 'spiritual rebirth' of the German people.
After his death, the fame he had enjoyed in life began to fade. His reputation was further diminished by his uncritical attitude toward the Nazis. Nevertheless, centenary celebrations were held in many German cities in , and his works continued to be performed on West German stages into the s, especially Der Biberpelz and Die Ratten. He is counted among the most important promoters of literary naturalism, though he integrated other styles into his work as well. He ran into problems with the Prussian-in. Pauli after construction of Hamburg city walls. The square was renamed after dramatist and novelist Gerhart Hauptmann after his death in Thalia Theater is located at the square since Major re.
The play sympathetically portrays a group of Silesian weavers who staged an uprising during the s due to their concerns about the Industrial Revolution. The play was translated into Yiddish by Pinchas Goldhar in the s, after which it became a favorite of the Yiddish stage. A Broadway version of The Weavers was staged in — Unlike most plays of any period, as pointed out many times in literary criticism and introductions, the play has no true central character, providing ample opportunities for ensemble acting. Criticism Barrett H. Photograph of the first production in Stockholm of August Strindberg's naturalistic play Miss Julie in November , at The People's Theatre Naturalism is a movement in European drama and theatre that developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
It refers to theatre that attempts to create an illusion of reality through a range of dramatic and theatrical strategies. The three primary principles of naturalism faire vrai, faire grand and faire simple are first, that the play should be realistic, and the result of a careful study of human behaviour and psychology. The characters should be flesh and blood. Hauptmann was awarded the Grillparzer Prize in for the play.
The production was directed by Max Grube, with music by Max Marschalk. The cast included Adalbert Matkowsky. Plot It is a fairy drama, the chief human character of which is Heinrich, a master bellfounder who has completed his crowning work, a bell which is to be hung in a church on a mountain inhabited by sprites. Through the hostility of the sprites, the wagon bearing the bell is overthrown and the latter is sunk in a mountain lake. Heinrich is injured and is nursed by the chief personage of the drama, Rautendelein, half child, half fairy, whose love changes Heinrich's standards and brings about the death of his wife.
New International Encyclopedia 1st ed. New York: Dodd, Mead. The word apparently first appeared in English as a borrowing from German, in discussions of August Bungert's Wagnerian opera cycle entitled Homerische Welt based on the Iliad and the Odyssey. Jensen's The Long Journey. One of Kafka's best-known works, The Metamorphosis tells the story of salesman Gregor Samsa who wakes one morning to find himself inexplicably transformed into a huge insect German ungeheures Ungeziefer, literally "monstrous vermin" , subsequently struggling to adjust to this new condition.
The novella has been widely discussed among literary critics, with differing interpretations being offered. Plot Part I One day, Gregor Samsa, a traveling salesman, wakes up to find himself transformed into an ungeheures Ungeziefer. He reflects on how dreary life as a traveling salesman is. As he looks at the wall clock, he notices that he has overslept and missed his train for work. He ponders the consequences of this delay. Gregor becomes annoyed at how his boss never accepts excuses or explanations from any of his employees no matter how hard-working they are, displaying an apparent lack of trusting abil.
Theodor Fontane German: ; 30 December — 20 September was a German novelist and poet, regarded by many as the most important 19th-century German-language realist author. Youth Fontane was born in Neuruppin, a town 30 miles northwest of Berlin, into a Huguenot family. At the age of sixteen he was apprenticed to an apothecary, his father's profession. He became an apothecary himself, and during , at the age of 20, wrote his first work Heinrichs IV. Fontane's first published work, the novella Geschwisterliebe Sibling Love , was published in the Berlin Figaro during December His biographer Gordon A.
Craig claims that this gave few indications of being a gifted writer: "Although the theme of incest, which was to occupy Fontane on later occasions, is touched upon here, the mawkishness of the tale Gerhart , U. Air Force general Klaus Gerhart born , U. The Rats is a stage drama in five acts by Gerhart Hauptmann, which premiered in , one year before the author received the Nobel Prize for Literature.
Kegel, pupils of Hassenreuter John, foreman mason Mrs. Sidonie Knobbe Selma, her daughter Quaquaro, house-steward Mrs. Mrs Jette John, housekeeper to Harro Hassenreuter, an ex-theatre manager, scolds the pregnant but unmarried. He falls in love with a secretary in the office Marianne Hoppe , and his children conspire against him in order to protect their inheritance. Clausen disowns them and bestows the firm on the state, confident that one of his workers capable of carrying on his work will arise. Sources The movie was based on the play Before Sunset by Nobel Prize recipient Gerhart Hauptmann, but the themes have been utterly altered.
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