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(8-1) Introduction

Whatever the case, the hand of the Lord certainly preserved Joseph from what would otherwise have been almost certain death. The spiritual greatness of Joseph is a remarkable thing. How many people have become bitter over some real or imagined slight, or blamed the Lord for some personal tragedy? In the very midst of being faithful and holding true to that which is right, Joseph was falsely accused and thrown into prison.

All He does is punish me. Joseph just continued being righteous and faithful. Unselfishly he offered to interpret the dreams of his two fellow prisoners, telling them that the knowledge came from God see Genesis He still trusted in the Lord, although he must have felt doomed to spend his life in prison. If any person had cause for discouragement and bitterness, it was Joseph, but he never faltered in his faith. Truly, Joseph is a model to be emulated. Joseph was in prison for two years after he interpreted the dreams of the chief butler and baker see Genesis He was sold into slavery when he was about seventeen see Genesis , and he was thirty years of age when he became vice-regent to the pharaoh see Genesis Altogether he served thirteen years with Potiphar and in prison.

The record does not tell how long he served Potiphar before his imprisonment, but that he worked his way up to be the overseer of the prison implies some period of time before the butler and baker joined him. So it is likely that Joseph was in prison at least three years and possibly much longer. But not one of these could interpret it, although the clue to the interpretation was to be found in the religious symbols of Egypt.

For the cow was the symbol of Isis, the goddess of the all-sustaining earth, and in the hieroglyphics it represented the earth, agriculture, and food; and the Nile, by its overflowing, was the source of the fertility of the land. For it belongs to the government of God to close the lips of the eloquent, and take away the understanding of the aged Job xii. Joseph was a teenager when his family had last seen him. Now he was a mature, middle-aged man. And, even if Joseph still looked very much as he did when he was younger, who would believe that a brother who was sold as a slave to a caravan of Arabians would have become the second most powerful man in Egypt?

Over twenty years had passed since his brothers had sold Joseph into slavery, and yet they still felt tremendously guilty about what they had done. By demanding that Benjamin be brought back to Egypt see Genesis , Joseph allowed his brothers to show whether or not they truly were sorry for what they had done to him so many years before.

Would they now show the same lack of concern for Benjamin? The phraseology in this verse is the same as that used in Genesis , 9.

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Several Egyptian deities were represented by cattle, especially female cattle. Since the Hebrews were herdsmen who slaughtered and ate cattle, regardless of sex, this practice would have been viewed by the Egyptians as a terrible abomination. Whatever the reason, Joseph seemed to respect the custom of Egyptians and Hebrews eating separately. Genesis This touching scene, in which Joseph finally revealed himself to his brothers, demonstrates the Christlike nature of his character.


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But his similarities to Christ go much deeper. It has already been shown how Abraham was a type of the Father and Isaac a type of Jesus when Abraham was commanded to offer Isaac in sacrifice. In addition to this divine knowledge, many of them lived in special situations or did particular things that singled them out as types and patterns and shadows of that which was to be in the life of him who is our Lord.

Likewise, the life and mission of Joseph typifies the life and mission of Jesus. Consider the following:. Joseph was the favored son of his father; so was Jesus see Genesis ; Matthew Joseph was sold by his brothers into the hands of the Gentiles, just as Jesus was see Genesis —27 ; Matthew Judah, the head of the tribe of Judah, proposed the sale of Joseph. Judas the Greek spelling of Judah was the one who actually sold Jesus. See Genesis ; Matthew Joseph was sold for twenty pieces of silver, the price of a slave his age. Christ was sold for thirty pieces of silver, the price of a slave His age.

See Genesis ; Matthew ; Exodus ; Leviticus Jesus, by His being given into the hands of the Gentiles, was crucified and completed the atoning sacrifice, becoming the Deliverer for all mankind. Joseph began his mission of preparing salvation for Israel at age thirty, just as Jesus began His ministry of preparing salvation for the world at age thirty see Genesis ; Luke When Joseph was finally raised to his exalted position in Egypt, all bowed the knee to him. All will eventually bow the knee to Jesus. M3 In an eight-hour workday, people spend approximately one hour on social media sites.

This seems like a large percentage of the workday, but it is even larger for Millennials who spend about 1. The majority of Gen Yers use social media to connect with brands, though most firms still allocate a disproportionate percentage of marketing budgets to nondigital channels. M5 Gen Yers also connect to a brand through affiliation with a cause.

This is more important to Gen Y than to previous generations. A brand that shows it cares is attractive to this generation. To be effective, advertising should be placed around engaging content. On average, engagement is higher among Millennials than other generations for television and websites; on a percentage basis, it is greater on the Web than on TV. It appears that Millennials are highly engaged with content they chose to view online and on TV, which amplifies the effectiveness of ads for Millennials.

With brands and services, what used to be a one-way conversation is now a multifaceted, hour-a-day, seven-day-a-week dialogue between brands and their customers and among their customers. They have the confidence to stand up for what they believe and the confidence, technology, and network to voice their opinions. With Millennials, brands know where they stand, sometimes even minute to minute.

Millennials are 2. They are more likely to use the Internet, broadcast thoughts, and contribute content. Tapping into the Millennial generation as they begin their adult lives, as with previous generations, is important for brands hoping to establish lifelong relationships with their customers. This is also important with Millennials because they help set trends through social media. It all comes down to trust for brands. The trust is deeper and more intense with this group, but the greater availability of information can also destroy it faster.

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Keeping positive relationships are critical. Much of the research shows that Millennials are open to new experiences and new brands. They are eager to interact with brands and interested in building relationships with them. They have the self-assurance to stand up for what they believe. It is critical to determine how to get hurried Millennial consumers to spend time developing a relationship with a brand. With the Internet and social media, the number of sources for information has increased dramatically. When gathering information and making buying decisions, Millennials rely on recommendations from peers and friends more than from experts.

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They use mobile devices to read user reviews and explore information on social networks. Having grown up with mobile and digital technology as part of their everyday lives, they switch their attention between media platforms 27 times per hour. M9 This tells advertisers that they need to engage Millennials quickly before they lose their attention.

Millennials also seek peer affirmation. All along, Gen Yers have been told that they can do anything they want to do and be anything they want to be. This is proving to be true across genders. For example, the number of stay-at-home fathers in the United States has tripled in the past 10 years up to ,, M10 according to the most recent Census although not all by choice with the recession.

Some experts argue that the real figure could actually be in the millions, if the definition is broadened to include dads who work part time while remaining the primary caregivers. Women can control their reproductive health as they advance in their careers, providing more work and family options—with or without a male partner. Meanwhile, the working Millennial male does not have the same experience of having a woman at home to support his career as did the husband of previous eras. What this means for marketers is that gender distinctions are no longer set in stone. M11 Some estimates are even higher.

M11 Marketers should take advantage of a broader market across genders with Millennials and create appropriate content. A study shows that the biggest objective for young adults today, both male and female, is happiness. It will be noteworthy to see how this evolution affects this and future generations.

There has been a recent uptick in professional association membership, reversing an overall downward trend. Associations have been exploring ways to become more relevant, particularly to the Millennial generation that considers traditional association services not as necessary with the advent of the Internet and social media. Economic reasons due to the recession also influence their membership decisions.

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As in other areas of their lives, Millennials expect timely, meaningful, and relevant communications and programs from the organizations they chose to join. Many professional membership organizations and associations had been experiencing overall declining membership, but recently have seen an uptick in membership. Key to maintaining and increasing membership in associations is to both renew existing members and attract new members. Specifically, two of the largest associations in the United States have shown overall declining memberships and are considering ways to reverse this trend.

The American Bar Association ABA has seen a decline in membership between 2, and 4, members per year since , when membership stood at , This is still lower than the membership of ,, which includes 8, free memberships given to first-year residents who had been student members the previous year. Percentages are based on the number of associations that provide this service. With the advent of the Internet and social media, people and organizations have the means for doing their own research and sharing information and have vehicles for organizing around social and political issues.

Millennials and increasingly other generations use Facebook, Twitter, and other tools to self-organize and participate in causes they care about. They simply are not as interested in joining established member-based organizations. This is evidenced by the continued downward trend since in networking and access to specialized and current information regarding the reasons people join associations.

This contrasts with the upward trend in advocacy and continuing education as the reasons individuals join associations. Associations with more than 5, members report what their greatest challenges are attracting and keeping young members. P1 Going forward, associations may need to retool their offerings to attract members. It hosts six events per year and monthly round tables for younger members with content of interest to this group and leadership opportunities.

It has also enhanced its online presence in response to what this generation knows best. For member-based organizations as well as for companies and other organizations , the complexity of managing communications and the speed in which information is available are increasing. With the addition of social media e. P6 Millennials have little patience for the speed to which things get done and may not see the value in becoming a member of what they see as inefficient organizations.

In the area of fundraising, Millennial donors seem to blend their preference for technology with a desire for personal, traditional giving requests. Millennials tend to give smaller donations to a number of organizations versus fewer larger donations and tend to give one time for a specific cause or event versus annually. P9 One study found that somethings donated on average to 3. This generation experiences a paradoxical world that is both expanded and shrunk. Technology has blurred borders all within an accessible connected generation. The workday is no longer 9 to 5. Intergenerational conflicts can be most noticeable in the workplace.

It is helpful to know that Millennials work best with clear guidelines, frequent and immediate feedback, context, clarity and independence. They prefer to work in teams and make group decisions.


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They do not deal well with ambiguity and slow processes. They value trust and transparency. The corporate ladder has become more of a career lattice, with Millennials often preferring job rotation to a more time-demanding job promotion. The most creative programs use the best talents of each generation, with an end benefit of improved understanding and communication. Improved working relationships also increase productivity and allow mutual knowledge transfer.

Welcoming this generation into the workforce will take effort from managers. The benefits will be plentiful, as the delivered needs of this generation will bring out the best talents in each employee. With positivity and optimism, 80 million Millennials have begun entering the world of work, and other generations are taking notice. The recession and globalization influence this workplace as do changes in the composition and size of the population, mostly due to slower population growth, an aging workforce, and immigration. The United States is also experiencing an increase in minorities, particularly Asian and Hispanic populations.

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Cyclical factors are also affecting youth labor force participation. In weak job markets, the young adult workforce is usually the last to be hired and first to be fired. In down markets, when jobs are harder to find, many Millennials make the choice to stay in school, lowering the participation rate.

The recent trend of companies to outsource some of traditional entry-level jobs may also be shifting the types of jobs offered, affecting employment rates for younger, less experienced candidates. W2 As well, there is more competition from more experienced workers for those companies that are hiring. More than half of baby boomers nearing retirement have delayed doing so, making it harder to find space for new workers.

W3 Once Millennials understand and experience firsthand the severely restricted job market, they are forced to compromise their anticipation of landing that perfect job. A weakened job market can lead to entrants taking jobs that are not a good match, usually ones offering lower average wages, especially at smaller firms. W4 Research suggests that even after recovery, college graduates who enter the workforce during a weak economy will continue to experience a relative wage loss for at least 15 more years. The defining moment of the recession hit during a vulnerable life stage.

More than a third of young adults admit to being distracted on the job or having taken time off because of personal financial issues. W6 Many are taking any job to pay their bills. They are postponing marriage and family. Higher education is appearing essential for economic security, as more and more jobs are requiring postsecondary education. Millennial women fare better than their mothers did at the beginning of their careers, though their salaries still lag behind those of their male counterparts.

Also, the erosion of the union movement makes it is more difficult for those with blue collar jobs to rise to middle class. His fawning attachment to Stephen so aggravates Cranly that Cranly tells Stephen, ". Don't talk to him at all. Soon, Cranly and Stephen are joined by two other students, Lynch and Davin, who provide Stephen with another opportunity to enunciate his developing aesthetic philosophy. Later, during a hurling match, Davin shows concern for Stephen's growing isolation and his self-exalting pride; Davin urges him to embrace his Irish heritage: "Try to be one of us," he says.

Stephen immediately rejects the suggestion and denounces Davin's dauntless patriotism and vows to "fly by those nets" of "nationality, language, and religion" which threaten to confine him. Eventually, Stephen and Lynch separate from the group gathered to observe the hurling match, and Stephen further explains his theory of aesthetics to Lynch. He points out that although Aristotle did not provide definitions for pity and terror, he himself has defined both terms. He defines "pity" as the emotion that results when suffering is presented to — -and shared by — a human sufferer.

Lynch doesn't understand these definitions, so Stephen repeats them, explaining the difference between "static" art an appreciation of beauty for its own sake and "kinetic" art that which brings about an emotional response. Stephen then provides a step-by-step explanation of his aesthetic theory.

He proposes that "since the good is what is desirable, and since the true and the beautiful are most persistently desired, then the true and the beautiful must be good" Ellman. Although Stephen does admit that what is beautiful to one person may not be beautiful to another, he emphasizes that the universal beauty of an object can be appreciated in terms of its "integras" wholeness , its "consonantia" harmony , and its "claritas" radiance.

Ultimately, he explains, the moment an individual comprehends and appreciates these qualities of an object of art, its beauty provides the observer with a spiritual experience which has been referred to as "the enchantment of the heart. Lynch is confused but entertained by Stephen's definition of art, and so Stephen continues to explain how an individual can tell the difference between inferior and superior art.

The "lyrical form," he states, "is the simplest verbal gesture of an instant of emotion," related directly to the experience of the artist himself. Finally, the "dramatic form" is the most superior of the three forms of art because the artist's personality becomes submerged completely — leaving the work standing alone, interacting with others who observe it. This form of art fills "every person with. Stephen concludes that the duty of the true artist is to stand back from his completed creation and remain "indifferent" to it, allowing it to live a life of its own.

Following this lengthy explanation, rain begins to fall, and Stephen and Lynch return to the library. Lynch continues to talk, but Stephen is oblivious to his friend because he Stephen has observed Emma Clery, the girl to whom he has been attracted for a long time. He makes no attempt to speak to her, but his mind is filled with wonder: How does she spend her days? What is she thinking? Does she have a "simple and wilful heart"?

Next morning, Stephen awakens refreshed and impassioned by his dream about Emma. Her image created in him "an enchantment of the heart," which inspires him to write an elaborate villanelle in her honor, and as he does so, he recalls the first verse he wrote for her — ten years ago. Stephen is also reminded of the many times that he has thought about her since their first encounter on the tram steps. His completed, six-stanza villanelle contains a multi-dimensional view of her: she is an object of Stephen's worship, as well as a "temptress" of his desire.

In the next scene, Stephen is once again on the library steps. He gazes intently at the birds flying overhead. He counts them, traces their movements, and hears their cries as they beckon him to follow and "leave for ever the house of prayer and prudence into which he had been born.

They begin a quicksilver, random discussion of political and religious ideas, and the bickering eventually develops into a battle of insults between Temple and Cranly, revealing their dislike for one another — primarily because of their jealousy over Stephen's attentions. Suddenly, Emma — the girl of Stephen's dream — passes by; like the birds, she seems to invite Stephen to leave his life at the university. Urgently, Stephen asks Cranly to step away from the crowd for a private conversation; he desperately wants Cranly's opinion on a family matter: Stephen's mother is pressuring him to make his "Easter duty" confession and communion , but Stephen, having adopted his non serviam credo, refuses to do so.

Cranly advises Stephen to make his Easter duty — to please his mother, even though Stephen no longer believes in the sacredness of the Church rituals. Stephen counters with a series of logical retorts and makes Cranly wonder how a young man so "supersaturated with. Stephen confesses that he was once a fervent Roman Catholic — just as he was once a fervent disciple of his family and his country.

But, having been disappointed, betrayed, and restricted by all of them, he now prefers to leave them all behind. He feels a deep need to declare his artistic, spiritual, and national independence. Stephen is sad that he and Cranly no longer view such matters in the same way, and his remorse is further compounded when he senses Cranly's anguished fear of being left behind.

Nevertheless, claiming to fear nothing — not even an eternity in Hell — Stephen concludes his discussion by stating, "I will not serve that in which I no longer believe whether it call itself my home, my fatherland, or my church. The final section of the novel consists of Stephen's diary entries as he prepares to leave Ireland. His first entry on March 20 reflects his last conversation with Cranly.

The entries made during the following week reflect his feelings about leaving his friends, his family, his countryrmen, and his religion. As the entry dates approach the time of departure, Stephen's entries become more hopeful. They reveal an increasing fascination for language, and they contain references to mythical characters. In the entry recorded the day before he leaves Ireland, Stephen writes about his mother's prayer that he will "learn. Stephen's final entry in his diary, dated April 27, invokes his mythical namesake, Daedalus.

He asks his "old father, old artificer" to assist him in the pursuit of his artistic future. This chapter, the longest and most intricately analytical section of the novel, examines the influences family, country, and religion which have shaped Stephen's life thus far. It shows Stephen stripping himself, layer by layer, of each of the confining shackles which restrict his maturing artistic soul.

Unlike previous sections of the novel, this chapter is written in a lyrical and fragmented, discursive style. It reveals Stephen's metamorphosis into an artist as he rambles from subject to subject in an attempt to resolve his conflicts, and it summarizes Stephen's experiences thus far. Finally, we see Stephen putting them into perspective before he liberates himself in order to pursue his future as an artist living abroad — free from family country, and religion.

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When the chapter begins, we see a parallel between the pile of pawn tickets and Stephen's pawning his integrity for a blind, unexamined loyalty to family, country, and religion. Stephen feels that his life has a profound purpose — ironic, really, in view of the pile of pawn tickets before him and his seemingly hopeless, humble beginnings. As he leaves for the university, his soul is battered by the sound of "his father's whistle, his mother's mutterings, and the screech of an unseen maniac" a mad nun crying, "Jesus! O Jesus! In this brief scene, Joyce gives life to the three forces which Stephen wants to free himself from — his family, his country, and his religion.

We see Stephen's father's ever-demanding egotism a symbol of family ; we feel the oppression of Stephen's mother's continuous, submissive martyrdom a symbol of country ; and finally, we hear the irrational, lost call of a nun a symbol of religion. Desperate to escape these three restraints which chain his restless soul to a subservient, doomed future, Stephen commits himself irrevocably to freedom, vowing to escape beyond the "echoes" of the voices which "threaten to humble the pride of his youth.

The word "pride" refers here to Stephen's pride in the knowledge which he has gained while studying the world's greatest philosophers and writers. Other voices, however, also threaten Stephen's emerging artistic soul — in particular, the voices of his fellow students at the university who represent the newest generation of Ireland's blind, unimaginative, subservient citizens.