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A good translation is like a pane of glass. The translation might have disastrous results and the reader may not understand the text. In fact, apart from the diversity of form existing between different languages, it often happens to stumble upon untranslatable terms which have no equivalent in the target language. Theatre translation into Italian dialect raises important theoretical problems, and it shows the oral character of a dialect even when the dialect is employed as written language. Translation from the national languages into Italian dialects are usually described as imitations or at least re-writing of the 23 24 E.

The concept of literal translation — i. In many of the cases in which Italian offers two options- literal and idiomatic translation — dialect offers only one, that is the idiomatic translation, which normally shift the original tone towards a lower stylistic register. The translation, therefore, goes beyond the technical and structural aspects of the passage from one language to another, and the translator must be clear about the purpose of the new text. The translator will tend to modify the original text by presenting it to an audience culturally different from that for which it was intended.

By so doing, the play also gets positioned within the tradition of Italian regional and popular theatre and more specifically that of Neapolitan comedy. The play was translated by De Filippo in and was published the following year. Beside consulting the English source text itself, he acknowledged the cooperation of his wife who translated literally, every line of The Tempest, explaining to her husband the meaning of Elizabethan words, the several possible connotations and collocations, researching archaisms and difficulties, unfamiliar expressions. In this way De Filippo felt as if he himself had been translating directly from the English.

His Tempesta is placed within the Neapolitan linguistic-cultural system. To highlight the originality of the Neapolitan translation it was set side by side with the Italian one: Shakespeare Italian Eduardo E. De Filippo,cit. Cheerly, cheerly, my hearts! Yare yare! Take in the topsail. This would seem to be more then a mere product of paraphrasing. We should also point out that with Eduardo, as with his great English predecessor, dramatic sensitivity combines with an irrepressible poetic strength that the translator brings to the Shakespearean text.

Sea-nymphs hourly ring his knell. Tutto di lui destinato a svanire subisce ora dal mare un mutamento in qualche cosa di ricco e strano. A ogni ora le ninfe del mare a morto scampanano per lui. Shakespeare in his play often employed imagery, rhetoric and elaborate language. De Filippo, instead, chooses not to translate the rhetorical use of language changing the rhetoric for gestural language.

In the Shakespearean opening storm scene, the captain is losing control of the vessel. The sailors and the nobles are scared and in their cries of fear there is a reference to Elizabethan sailors getting drunk in times of danger; Eduardo, instead, over-explains this reference, which takes up to 4 lines: 56 Shakespeare Bootswain: slowly pulling out a bottle What must our mouths be cold? As a true artist, Eduardo can think beyond distances, and in the Neapolitan language he finds the tool that also gives depth and insight to the original characters and jokes, which are sometimes flat in the original text.

The revitalization is simple and natural, sometimes with the intensive use of expressions that are typical of the dialect. Shakespeare By this good light, this is a very shallow monster! I afeard of him! A very weak monster! A most poor credulous monster! Well drawn , monster, in good sooth! E avevo paura di lui! Un mostro molto fiacco! To give just one example, in the second act, Gonzalo urges his fellow sufferers to be happy since they have survived the terrible shipwreck. The first one is taken from the second scene of Act II in which Caliban curses Prospero for the abuse he is subjected to: Shakespeare All the infections that the sun sucks up From bogs, fens, flats, on Prosper fall, and make him By inch-meal a disease!

His spirits hear me, And yet I needs must curse. Italian Ogni umore infetto che il sole succhia da paludi, pantani e di maremme cada coprendo Prospero di piaghe a poco a poco. Mi odono i suoi spiriti, ma pure devo maledirlo. Ma per un nulla me li scatena contro; ora, come scimmie che ghignano, ringhiano o mordono,o come istrici a palla lungo i viottoli e pronti a scattare gli aculei sotto i miei piedi nudi; ora come vipere che mi stringono, o con lingue a due punte,fischiano da farmi impazzire.

I prossimi eventi

Eduardo Oje sole mio! Piezzo de carugnone! Next there is the tendency to make explicit what in the original text is dense and compact. Then, finally, there is the different other way in which Caliban curses Prospero. This is a direct invocation to the sun, which certainly has more effect on the Neapolitan imagination, as it is also evident from the first verse. Con la mia arte potente, al mio comando, le tombe svegliarono i morti, si aprirono a liberarli. E vuje? De magico che voglio? The result is a text that sheds light on the state of mind with which he was perhaps preparing to translate this and not another play by Shakespeare.

If, on the one hand , he remains faithful to the Shakespearean source, on the other hand, by the introduction of sentences, words, hints, he recalls Naples and its traditions. Translation Studies, Routledge, London, N. De Filippo E. La tempesta di William Shakespeare nella traduzione in napoletano. Torino, Einaudi, Di Franco F. Il teatro di Eduardo, Laterza, Bari. Leopardi A. Tempeste: Eduardo incontra Shakespeare, Napoli, Colonnese. Loffredo E. Lombardo A. Eduardo e Shakespeare: parole di voce e non di inchiostro, Roma, Bulzoni.

Shakespeare W. La tempesta. The tempest, London, N. Hall, N. Venuti L. She is also involved in many University research projects. Si tratta di un'opera teatrale scritta nel dallo scrittore Mohammed Fellag, umorista francofono di origine magrebina, capace di mescolare all'interno delle sue opere tre lingue: francese, algerino e dialetto berbero e soprattutto due culture.

L'articolo presenta i principali problemi incontrati durante il processo traduttivo, come la traduzione delle continue allusioni alla storia e alla cultura algerina, che hanno richiesto un approfondimento storico-culturale. Spesso sono giunta ad un'equivalenza attraverso compromessi linguistici o mediante il ricorso a note esplicative sia in ambito culturale che lessicale, volte a colmare la distanza presente tra le due culture.

It is a drama written in by the Algerian writer, Mohammed Fellag, a francophone humorist born in Maghreb. A writer who blends three languages French, Algerian and Arabian dialect and two cultures in his work. The integration is the main theme of this drama. Fellag starts his monologue talking about the couscous, considered the typical dish of his country, then he analyses the relationship between French and Algerian people and the difficulties that the Algerian people had to face in order to come out of its condition of subordination.

The monologue becomes a deep analysis, rich of bitterness, hidden under the irony and the sarcasm of the author. The book is full of historical and political references and allusions to the French settlement in Algeria and to the difficulties Algeria had to overcome to obtain its independence and its cultural identity. The article is about the main problems of translation like the allusions to Maghreb history and culture.

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Before translating the text it was necessary to investigate the historical and cultural events that took place in Algeria, in order to convey the purpose of the author. Only through a contrastive approach, the linguistic mediation has become, first of all, cultural mediation. Moreover, the difficulties concerned the translation of the puns, the new words and the popular expressions.

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I found a solution by making use of notes, both in cultural and lexical field. My aim was to blend linguistic ability and historical knowledge and to do a translation which respected the tradition of the source text. Keywords: translation studies, Mohammed Fellag, extralinguistic aspects, colonization, tradition, Algeria. Una traduzione non si risolve nella semplice trasposizione linguistica ma si delinea come un processo che investe l'intero sistema culturale e che, pertanto, richiede un approfondimento delle componenti extralinguistiche sottese al testo di partenza.

Durante l'atto traduttivo bisogna tener conto degli elementi extra-testuali, del contesto in cui il testo originale viene prodotto e del background socio-culturale dell'autore. In breve, non sono sufficienti conoscenza e competenza linguistica, ma occorre possedere il quadro di riferimento storico, politico e sociale utile ad interpretare determinate espressioni, al fine di fornire al testo di arrivo il bagaglio di cultura e di significati che caratterizzano il testo originale.

L'autore porta nella sua opera tutto il dramma, le angosce e le speranze della triste esperienza della colonizzazione francese e, seppure in chiave ironica, egli racconta il complicato rapporto tra Francesi ed Algerini dopo di "convivenza forzata". Una guerra che avrebbe fatto circa mezzo milione di morti e si sarebbe conclusa soltanto otto anni dopo. Dopo anni di colonizzazione lo stato magrebino riusciva a guadagnare la propria autonomia politica e culturale. Le divisioni tra i due popoli restano grandi. Pour ma part J'ai choisi de prendre la valise.

Adesso potete vestirvi come volete. Cominceranno le denunce e le accuse in un Paese dove parlare troppo potrebbe avere dei risvolti negativi. Nascosta nel bagno delle donne. Dal Fellag vive in Francia, ma rimane profondamente legato al Paese che lo ha visto nascere, soffrire ed infine esiliare. Il suo umorismo appartiene al mondo da cui viene, un mondo che contiene la speranza nella disperazione, un mondo che spesso sceglie di sdrammatizzare, di non prendersi troppo sul serio ridendo anche di se stesso.

Durante un'intervista, con l'ironia che lo contraddistingue, l'autore, in un passaggio di una vivace e al contempo amara descrizione del suo popolo afferma: "Partout dans le monde, quand un pays touche le fond, il finit par remonter Incredulo ma felice cerca di capire il messaggio che si nasconde dietro questa dichiarazione ….

Gli islamisti ci invitavano a scegliere tra la valigia e la bara. Io ho scelto la valigia. La scelta era tra l'esilio e la morte. Dovunque al mondo, quando un popolo tocca il fondo finisce per rialzarsi … noi Algerini, invece, scaviamo! Gli Algerini sono definiti analfabeti trilingue. Scrivere in francese appare l'unico modo per far sentire la propria voce e per rivelare una cultura che la colonizzazione aveva tendenza a cancellare.

Tra gli intercalari o espressioni popolari in lingua araba incontrati nel testo sono molto frequenti i seguenti vocaboli di cui riporto anche la traduzione da me fornita in nota. Per rendere le sue intenzioni ho dovuto trovare una parola in italiano che avesse un significato equivalente e che potesse, quindi, esprimere lo stesso gioco di parole. Lope, al contrario, nella nostra lingua, non ha alcun significato. Ho scelto "Finocchio", che ho introdotto di mio arbitrio, ma che penso renda tutte le intenzioni dell'originale.

In questo caso ho tradotto con apparecchio e apparato e ho spiegato il calembour in nota. Mi riferisco, in particolare, alle allusioni ai processi di colonizzazione francese e di decolonizzazione algerina. Viene arrestato per aver partecipato ad una manifestazione conclusasi con un massacro.

Grande sostenitore della guerra per l'indipendenza del suo popolo. Considerava la questione linguistica di importanza cruciale e amava scrivere le sue opere teatrali in arabo dialettale. Il piatto viene denominato presidenziale in onore del presidente, per il suo contributo a favore dell'indipendenza algerina.

Cointet, M. Droz, B. Storia della decolonizzazione nel XX secolo, Milano: Mondadori. Eco, U. Dire quasi la stessa cosa. Esperienze di traduzione, Milano: Bompiani. Fellag, M. Glissant, E. Poetica del diverso, Meltemi. Jakobson, R. Lotman, J. La semiosfera, Marsilio. Laroussi, F. Merolla, D. Podeur, J. Jeux de traduction, Napoli: Liguori. Pontault, M. Stora, J. La guerra d'Algeria, Il Mulino. She has been teaching English and French at High Schools since Her main scientific activities concern translation studies and didactics of foreign languages to Italian students.

This texts, in fact, are written to be performed, hence the author has to choose a peculiar language able to reproduce the oral speech, emphasizing its relevance within the screenplay. Therefore, the final purpose of this research is to analyze two screenplays written by Pier Paolo Pasolini in order to detect and study the presence and the influence of the oral language in written texts especially in the case of dialects , as well as to demonstrate how language can be used as a strong vehicle of cultural identity.

E di dove viene il loro impatto? Naturalmente, nel summenzionato passo ci si riferisce al genere romanzesco - e nella fattispecie alla tecnica narrativa proustiana - ma appare piuttosto evidente quanto tali valutazioni siano perfettamente adattabili anche alla analisi di una scrittura, come quella cinematografica, che per sua natura ha come prerogativa la perfetta riproposizione del parlato. Pasolini Non mancano, poi, interi discorsi composti in italiano e poi registrati in D nella rispettiva traduzione in dialetto. Io conobbi suo padre in Sicilia, tanti e tanti anni fa!

Conoscevo pure il padre. Era paesano mio. Era un signorone. Voi siete la bentrovata. Volete dire il gabinetto? Sono Andreuccio, il fratello della Siciliana! Er fratello della bella siciliana. Va, va e lasciaci dormire in pace! Io sento la maggior puzza che abbia sentito in vita mia! Sto sentendo un fetore che non aggio mai sentito in tutta la vita mia.

In nome di Dio, se tu non entrerai, noi ti daremo tante di queste palate di ferro in testa che resterai qui morto. Come non entrerai? Non devi rompere il cazzo. Gattei Egli, tramite una sapiente ricostruzione delle abitudini linguistiche, ne scruta i pensieri, ne tradisce le intenzioni, ne manifesta le attitudini.

Pasolini, comunque, fa uso, anche in queste occorrenze, di un assai preciso vernacolo partenopeo di cui ricostruisce con accuratezza le strutture. Esemplari, per dare un saggio concreto delle scelte linguistiche e rilevare una serie di interessanti forme dialettali, sono la scena 38 in cui il suddetto protettore chiede a Nannina di poter conoscere Accattone e quella successiva in cui i due si incontrano. Viene, inoltre, utilizzato il tipico ci attualizzante in posizione proclitica rispetto al verbo di possesso in ciavete, dove si osserva anche una resa grafica scorretta per il napoletano ma regolare nella trascrizione del dialetto romanesco, che di norma prevede che il pronome atono si leghi al verbo successivo se questi comincia per vocale.

Sono degni di nota, tra gli altri, la pronuncia geminata della consonante intervocalica - riprodotta anche nella grafia - in parole come in cammera, robba o subbito e il ricorso alla vocale epitetica nel vocabolo chic, straniero e terminante per consonante, che diviene chicche. I napoletani sono speciali! Le scene cui ci si riferisce sono quelle contrassegnate dai numeri 7 e 8. Si riportano i verbi apocopati riproducendo la medesima grafia e i medesimi segni diacritici utilizzati nel testo. Pasolini, allora, riproduce con estrema esattezza questi esiti dialettali di cui nel testo si ritrovano numerosissime ricorrenze.

Nella morfologia, ancora, si rilevano tratti dialettali e regionali tipici. Va notato che questa prassi dialettale nasce inizialmente per i verbi che esprimono una reiterazione marcata dal prefisso ri- e si estende, poi, per analogia, anche ad altri che abbiano tale consonante iniziale per etimologia.

Si possono citare, al riguardo, le voci arisparambialo, areggi, arovinate, aricordete, arimedi, arisisti. Questo fenomeno riguarda la pronuncia, ma Pasolini lo rende anche nella grafia di parole come tera 42 Come per le voci verbali, anche per gli esempi di parole tronche, si riportano i medesimi segni diacritici apostrofo o accento utilizzati nel testo. Che ho fatto?

Non mancano, poi, appellativi piuttosto coloriti, ma propri di un linguaggio estremamente informale, come trucidone o il successivo bojone. Il grado zero della scrittura, Torino: Einaudi. Dizionario etimologico napoletano, Napoli: Edizioni del Delfino. Pasolini P. Empirismo eretico, Milano: Garzanti.

Trilogia della vita a cura di Giorgio Gattei , Bologna: Cappelli. Trilogia della vita. Vanoye F. La sceneggiatura. Forme, dispositivi e modelli, Torino: Lindau. The role is both a practical one — coping with any circumstance in any place just learning about a particular problem in few time — a psycho-social one — gathering information is not enough, there is the need to be deeply involved in order to understand the moods of the interlocutors — and, in particular, a linguistic one — learning specific words and expressions and using them in the right place with the right interpretation with the help of different devices.

In the working and legal sector, for example, the role of mediator consists in advising foreign nationals in facilitating bureaucratic practices, in fostering contacts with potential employers and obtaining job contracts, carrying out sworn translations. In the conference sector, the work of the mediator is to focus on particular subjects dealt with in a meeting creating a sectorial glossary, creating a communicative context in which persons of different cultures meet and understand each other.

Conclusions will start from these issues: is this role deeply understood and recognized? Are the efforts and professionality worth carrying on? What will the future bring? Key-words: social changes, translating modes, understanding each other, professional work. Introduction Mediation is a process in which two or more parties are assisted by a third, neutral one the Mediator in solving a conflict and reaching an agreement. The Cultural Mediator is a professional able of establishing adequate patterns of communication between the parties.

A cultural mediator may be called upon to create a dialogue between different cultures when integration of people coming from another country and speaking another language may give raise to misunderstandings and conflicts. Very often, sharing the same language is not enough to establish a satisfactory interaction. People often communicate through non—verbal messages too.

Gestures, for example, form part of our cultural heritage and they are constantly used to convey messages. An effective communication is often difficult to perform; our everyday interactions are filled with misunderstanding and frustrating situations even when we share the same linguistic and cultural background with our counterpart. These differences often result in conflicting relationships and breakdowns in communication.

This is the reason why it is always a difficult task for the Cultural Mediator, who has to take into account many responsibilities, such as, for instance during a formal meeting, constantly inform and translate everything to both parties, pause and underline the need of reformulating sentences when it seems they have not been thoroughly understood by one of the parties, and always ask clarifications when the content is not completely clear, though translation has been correct, not to be afraid of acknowledging self lack of knowledge with respect to specific information or particular sides of the subject matter or cultures of any of the parties.

Any effort is used to find an efficient and viable solution. The only concern is conveying the right message and finding the most viable solution for both parties. A Mediator cannot focus on feelings, he The mediator can only play the role of a messenger between the parties. Otherwise, there would be a sort of complicity with the speaker. Should the interpreter be a mere echo of what is said and heard, or an advisor and double ally? During a formal meeting Generally, the task of the Mediator is performed following some important steps: 1. Both parties have to be put at ease, making them understand that there is no threat anywhere.

The mediator now is a true facilitator in order to find the right criteria to evaluate each option. The goal is now to identify and to agree on a resolution. Everybody knows that agreement is the opposite of disagreement. The task of the Cultural Mediator is now at its core. Reaching a mutually satisfying resolution constitutes the successful conclusion of the meeting.

This final step brings closure to the issues, sets a path to resolution and, ideally, should include options to avoid future cultural conflicts. An agreement reflects upon future expectations by delicately recognizing past behaviors and actions. This is one more opportunity for the mediator to clarify expectations and generate a clear, specific roadmap that is likely to be followed when one goes astray. Identifying options that allow parties to continue working on the unresolved issues also helps address the unaddressable.

In the social context, the Cultural Linguistic Mediator is a professional having the task of facilitating communication and understanding, both from linguistic and cultural points of view, between people belonging to different countries and cultures and public service officers. Consideration is given to all 81 kinds of clients seeking public service, belonging to any ethnic or social origin, seeking mediator services because they find themselves in disadvantaged conditions. This function, however, is far beyond the category of social worker, or that of other cultural jobs such as teachers, event planners, etc.

It is therefore important to better understand the scope of such a role and its impact on the cultural field as well as its extension into other social fields - reintegration, conflict resolution, sharing of points of reference, sense of belonging, building a common identity, etc. The Cultural Mediator in the Private Sector In the conference sector, the work of the Cultural Mediator is to focus on particular subjects dealt with in a meeting, creating a sectorial glossary, creating a communicative context in which persons of different cultures meet and understand each other.

The role is both a practical one — coping with any circumstance in any place just learning about a particular problem in a short time time — a psycho-social one — gathering information is not enough, there is the need to be deeply involved in order to understand the moods of the interlocutors, while remaining neutral — and, in particular, a linguistic one — learning specific words and expressions and using them in the right place with the right interpretation with the help of different devices, like microphones, headsets, cameras, computers, etc..

Similarly, applied linguists such as Halliday have suggested that learners should acquire knowledge about how to use the language in order to function successfully in socio-cultural contexts. Thus, a Cultural Mediator is inevitably supposed to have learnt target language communicative competence. Cultural Mediator or Interpreter? This distinction is neither marginal nor terminological, but in reality there is conflict between their role. Katan proposes a new role for the interpreter, one which is more active and more empowering: that of the Cultural Mediator.

The interpreter is silently authorized to take the initiative independently of others, to introduce subjects and new points, to give explanations, to interrupt a conference in case of misunderstanding which could hamper communication and do anything else which requires mediation. The interpreter, in short, sits at the high table. As it can be easily deduced, the most important quality of an interpreter is not so much the knowledge of two or more languages, but deeply enter the issues at stake.

That is why the name Interpreter takes on a wider meaning related to new and varied aspects, that of Cultural Mediator. Towards a full understanding and acknowledgment of the role Starting from these issues, the question is of course: is this role deeply understood and recognized? We risk being left with a convenient cover term, a magic word meaning everything and nothing. The interpreter does, though, take on many roles including his or her own. It is a difficult job implying many communication risks.

The speaker may also suggest a particular translation, thus creating a role conflict, or even demand a particular register to be used. Rather than transmitting the text the speaker could comment on it, which means a change in the footing, where footing is the speaker's position with regard to himself and other speakers in a communicative situation. The problem or difficulty is that there are no pre-established roles to play nor prepacked instruction books. It has nevertheless changed and is continuously changing our conception of culture, of communication, of role playing and sharing.

Over the past years, it has helped spreading culture, not only in developed countries but throughout an impressive number of communities that had not previously been exposed to differing worlds, fostering the emergence of new cultural venues and 83 establishments that are decentralized and open to the public, making it possible to go far and yet close places and have an impact where culture and understanding sharing have traditionally not gone before.

Cultural mediation helps to boost interaction, creation, cultural dialogue and community vitality using minimal resources in the many different locations where people live. In this sense, it opens the doors to emerging new social spaces and offers communities new ways of living better and co-existing in harmony No matter where the meeting is, no matter what the subject is, the Cultural Mediator can work with no means at all or assisted by all the technological means. The area covered by cultural mediation is wide and multifunctional. It seems clear that these culture mediators and intermediaries will henceforth be called upon to play a predominant role in our communities and in a general economy that is increasingly focused on innovation and creation.

It is a role that has no end and cannot be disregarded anymore. Societies are changing. Cultures are melting. The world is going on too fast, more than language can. People need sharing a common point of view and need understanding each other. The Cultural Mediator can pave the way to new borders and overcome high walls, today and tomorrow. Bertone L. Castiglioni M. La mediazione linguistico culturale. Principi, strategie, esperienze, Milano: Franco Angeli. Duccio D. Goffman E. P soc. Learning how to mean: Explorations in the development of language, New York: Elsevier.

Hjermov B. Cultural mediation at the workplace - an introduction. Katan D. Marrone S. Nigris E. Uvarov V. Luisa Salzano, owner of In. Native Italian certified freelance interpreter and translator for English and French. Main fields of expertise: technical manuals, communication, electronics, architecture.

Collaborator for translations and proofreading at the Second University of Naples, Departments of Information Technology and Civil Engineering and teacher of English and French at secondary schools. They make linguistic and cultural choices each time they transfer meanings from one language to another. This paper analyses a corpus of English translations of Portuguese tourism brochures, so as to show the way translators omit data and add extra information in their translations.

Keywords: translation; parallel corpus; tourism brochures; omission; addition 1. Introduction According to the World Tourism Organization, tourism has become one of the fastest growing sectors in the world, with a business volume that equals, or even surpasses, that of oil exports, food products or automobiles. This is also true of Portugal, where tourism generates significant income.

Its regulation has undergone significant change, with Portuguese public administration undertaking internal reforms to reorganize public organizations. Thus, the Portuguese Tourism Board Instituto de Turismo de Portugal has become the national public service for the tourism sector and is now in charge of promoting national tourism. In the recently implemented Strategic National Plan of Tourism, multilingual websites have been considered the most important means to promote the product Portugal as a tourism destination. It is worth mentioning that promotion obviously entails communication, the transmission of information to potential buyers in order to persuade them to buy or consume products or services Serra Cantallops As Kotler points out, tourism destinations are products which need to be positioned and promoted like any other product.

Still according to the aforementioned Plan of Tourism, tourism brochures are mainly available at websites. Thus, institutional advertising has become a key factor in marketing Portugal beyond the national market, namely through the creation of multilingual promotional resources. Despite the context of sustained growth of the national tourism industry, little attention has been paid to the promotional texts responsible for such an important cross-cultural and linguistic contact. This paper analyses Turigal, a corpus of institutional tourism brochures in Portuguese and their translations into English, so as to show the way translators omit data and add extra information in their translations.

Both qualitative and quantitative approaches have been used to analyse the sampled brochures. Theoretical and methodological framework Recent developments in linguistic technologies have contributed to the growing importance of crosslingual information retrieval. On the one hand, computers permit the electronic storage of large collections of texts with increasingly versatile software tools; on the other hand, those collections of texts supply empirical data for practical applications, that is, they can be used to test linguistic and computational models.

Thus, there has been an increase both in the compilation of large quantities of multilingual texts and in the development of techniques for processing multilingual databases. The present study is an example of such a research, since a parallel corpus is compiled and used as a starting point for uncovering linguistic patterns. This research belongs to the area of linguistic studies with an empirical basis, i.

Thus, the methodology that is followed is the one of Corpus Linguistics. When talking about parallel corpora, we are referring to original texts in a language and their respective translations into one or more languages. Bilingual parallel corpora are also known as bi-texts and Barlow goes on to define a parallel corpus as a bilingual contextualized dictionary, a definition that makes much sense since this corpus provides context-specific information. Our study started out with the compilation of the Turigal corpus, which for the moment contains a total of 1,, words , words from brochures and , words from webpages.

Table 1 below shows the total number of brochures which have been collected from each Tourism Region, as well as the total number of words in Portuguese and in English. Next, we will briefly describe the process of collecting, aligning and encoding texts. Printed brochures had different formatting types size, font, text layout and page configuration , different colours and quite often texts in Portuguese, English and other languages were kept side by side on the same page. All brochures had to be scanned and the texts were then submitted to an Optical Character Recognition OCR programme and then to a spelling correction programme, in order to check the text generated by the OCR.

Texts which remained practically illegible after the OCR was applied to them were manually typed. The format chosen for storing the aligned parallel texts is an adaptation of the TMX format Translation Memory eXchange , as this is the XML encoding standard for translation memories and parallel corpora Savourel Each text has a header with information about text type, its title in Portuguese and English, author, translator, publisher, year and date of access to the brochure, whenever this had no indication of publishing date.

As for the alignment itself, although a source sentence usually corresponds to a sentence in the translation, on some occasions one source sentence corresponds to two or more translated sentences or vice-versa, i. The alignment always starts with the source sentence, which means that the translation sentences were split or joined together to match the source sentence.

Thus, aligning a parallel corpus also entails its manual tagging, since translating is not a linear task. Translators can omit words, phrases or sentences from the source text, insert new ones as well as reorder segments or whole sentences in the translation. Here are some examples of the tagged Turigal parallel corpus. This is an example of an omission in the translation table 2 , which means that a source segment or sentence has no correspondence in the translated text. Table 2: Example of an omission in corpus Turigal. This second example is an addition table 3 , which means that the translator decides to add segments that do not exist in the source text.

Table 3: Example of an addition in corpus Turigal. Finally, a reordering table 4 , i. Since the alignment is always from source text to translation, the reordered segment always has to match the source sentence. Table 4: Example of a reordering in corpus Turigal. Table 5 exhibits the total number of omissions, additions and reorderings per Tourism Region.

It discusses the linguistic choices made by translators across the different texts. Do all translators use these strategies when translating these brochures? If so, in which cases and what conclusions can be withdrawn from it? Translators decide upon cultural meanings of words each time they transfer meanings from one language to another. As a result, translations constitute their reading of the way cultural meaning changes; their choice of equivalents always depends on their value judgments.

However, it should be noted that texts from ATA add up to a mere words in Portuguese. On the whole, one can observe a higher number of additions 1, than omissions As for omission, RDL has the impressive number of omissions, while PLA only shows 2 examples of omitted information. On the whole, one may conclude that both translation strategies are used in the four samples, but to a different extent in each.

First, we are going to analyse the use of omissions in the four samples and then focus on the additions. According to Baker translators use the omission strategy when there is no close match in the target language. Thus, faced with no direct equivalents, they choose not to translate. Translators can also omit lengthy explanations which distract the reader, as well as redundant information, i. The omission of food items can be explained by the absence of equivalent terms in the target language.

While the latter poses no problem to the reader, omitting directions can signify a loss of meaningful data for the visitor who is trying to find his way in a different country. Finally, we encountered a case of testimony — i. In this particular case, we can say that the testimony would have little significance for an international reader, thus, it would be irrelevant to maintain it in the translation. Overall, it became obvious that translators were sending the brochure readers information on how they see the world. As for the first type of addition, the four sampled brochures have culture-specific items such as names of products, festivities, traditions, buildings, food and other cultural references whose translation or explanation is given in brackets.

For illustration purposes, the additions have been isolated from their context and listed, however, the process of translation analysis has been done with the full sentences in 91 context. Table 6 shows a few examples of this strategy per Tourism Region. Table 6: Translation of culture-specific items given in brackets. Still, translators prefer to give these equivalents in brackets and leave the Portuguese word or expression, sometimes in inverted commas. This procedure occurs mainly with names of local traditions and objects, monuments palaces, churches, chapels, etc , locations, traditional clothing, saints and food specialities.

The automatic retrieval of the tagged additions, followed by a comparative content analysis, has shown that having an English translation in brackets is the most used addition strategy in the sampled brochures. Translators seem unaware of the fact that this strategy can become quite tedious for the reader, whose reading is constantly interrupted by added information in brackets.

However, further investigation is needed to find out if this strategy is also undertaken in the remaining brochures. Table 7 exhibits the total amount of occurrences of the opposite strategy: placing Portuguese culturespecific items in brackets. This strategy is used in all sampled brochures. It could be argued that it is done to give local colour or produce a sensation of exoticism in the reader.

Table 7: Portuguese culture-specific items in brackets. Without this additional piece of information, readers would most likely not fully grasp important cultural or historical references. Table 8: Additional cultural and historical information. The warehouses disappeared, but the memories of the activities of the past remained. Table 9: Direct address. CEN The stone tower overlooks the village and is a must for the visitor.

Table Use of persuasive language. These examples definitely create a more vivid picture of the places to see. Conclusions This study aimed at contributing to a better understanding of the use of two translation strategies — omission and addition — in translated tourism brochures. On the subject of omissions, one can conclude that translators sometimes decide not to translate redundant information, testimony and lengthy explanations with little significance for the reader.

Similarly, omitting significant rhetorical language, and descriptions of scenery and architectural details can result in a weakening of the visualizing effect which characterizes the very nature of promotional tourism texts. However, this study was confined to a relatively small sample of brochures and, moreover, it only focused on brochures translated into English, so further research is required to compare these findings with the linguistic options adopted by translators of other languages as well, to find out, for instance, if Italian, French or Spanish translations exhibit the same strategies of omission and addition and the extent to which they are used.

London and New York: Routledge. Barlow, M. In Botley, S. Multilingual Corpora in Teaching and Research. Amsterdam: Rodopi, Oxon: Cab International. Vigo: Universidade de Vigo. In Lino, T. The Translator as Communicator. Johansson, S. Seeing through Multilingual Corpora: On the use of corpora in contrastive studies. Studies in Corpus Linguistics, Vol. Kotler, P. Marketing para Turismo.

McEnery, T. Corpus Linguistics: An Introduction. At Grotta della Monaca La teoria della conoscenza scientifica da Kant ai giorni nostri. Appartiene, dunque, alla fase produttiva dell'"ultimo Enriques"; e rientra in quel genere di scritti cui concordemente si riconosce il merito di avere introdotto fra i primi in Italia l'interesse per lo studio della storia del pensiero scientifico.

Immagini del mondo e forme della politica in Max Weber. Delicta reservata seu delicta graviora: la disciplina dei crimini rimessi alla competenza della Congregazione per la Dottrina della Fede. Introduzione alle fattispecie — 4. La procedura — 8. Qualche considerazione di sistema. Quam maximis potest itineribus: andata e ritorno della costruzione tra immagine e modello nello spazio grafico della geometria descrittiva.

Full Text Available Il contributo testimonia una strategia d'insegnamento congiunto del rilievo architettonico, della geometria descrittiva e del disegno digitale concepita come un viaggio di andata e ritorno tra immagine e modello. Il circolo didattico si chiude poi costruendo rappresentazioni tabulari tradizionali dei modelli. Per un dizionario della ricerca sul Technology Enhanced Learning. Dopo una presentazione delle motivazioni, vengono discussi gli attuali sviluppi del lavoro e presentati i criteri seguiti per le principali scelte effettuate in merito ai metodi e alle tecnologie utilizzate.

Strada facendo si discutono le famose verifiche sperimentali della Teorie del tutto la ricerca della spiegazione ultima. Questi interrogativi di carattere fondamentale sono stati fuori moda per secoli: gli scienziati ne diffidavano, teologi e filosofi se ne erano stancati. Linee guida per la gestione della Volpe in Italia.

Chi ha paura del relativismo? Nelle sezioni conclusive si discutono le implicazioni del costruttivismo realista. Gli effetti dell'attrito sulla stima della disuguaglianza in Italia. Movimenti della faglia del Iago di Cavazzo, in relazione con la locale caduta di pioggia. L a centrale si t r o v a sul bordo occidentale della grande faglia del lago. Il saggio affronta il tema della sicurezza e della salute dei lavoratori quale diritto fondamentale.

Le conclusioni cui giunge una parte della giurisprude High-resolution magneto stratigraphic of the Eocene-Oligocene boundary in the Umbria-Marche sequence; Stratigrafia magnetica ad alta risoluzione del limite Eocene-Oligocene nella successione Umbro-Marchigiana. High-resolution magneto stratigraphy across the Eocene-Olicene boundary has been employed in a detailed investigation of the nature of low-amplitude, short-wavelength oceanic magnetic anomalies.

Full Text Available La formazione rappresenta uno strumento basilare nella promozione della lingua e della cultura italiana. The role of training in the promotion of Italian language and culture. The topic is complex because it encompasses diverse issues. On the one hand appropriate means are needed, like telematic resources, which encourage and facilitate spreading abroad.

On the other, university and school courses need to be reorganized in light of the new training needs. The role of Italian universities could to be stronger if they met foreign standards, to promote the circulation of students towards and not just away from Italy. As far as regards the type of training to be undertaken, the humanistic. Nuovi scenari della psicopatologia. In questo modo, mentre si esplorano le forme del mondo esterno si disegnano le forme del mondo interno e, viceversa, con gli occhi del mondo interno si descrivono le forme del mondo esterno.

L'arte della vita: biotecnologie e bioetica. La strana storia della luce e del colore.

Immagini digitali degli atti di stato civile

Sino al la luce era oggetto di studio degli scienziati ed il colore dei filosofi. Il libro analizza le teorie che furono sviluppate dai greci, per evolversi successivamente nelle teorie degli scienziati arabi e approdare al medio evo. Linguet e i paradossi sociali della politica. Full Text Available Questo saggio affronta la dottrina politica di S.

La categoria di rapporto sociale non esprime la coordinazione tra soggetti indifferenti, ma la subordinazione di alcuni individui al potere sociale dei proprietari. Competitive Balance dopo la sentenza Bosman: il caso della pallavolo in Italia. Introduzione — 1. Economia dello Sport e Competitive Balance: alcuni principali contributi teorici — 2. Misurazioni del Competitive Balance — 3.

Di fronte a tale perdita, non sappiamo se temporanea o permanente, ci siamo posti alcuni interrogativi. This paper addresses the recent disappearance of the Pesaro codex of the Vita nuova, as lately ascertained by Donato Pirovano. Without knowing if this loss is temporary or permanent, some questions concerning its possible recovery through a copy of the original manuscript need to be asked. The object of his study is to answer these questions through the analysis of a potential descriptus.

Only the Pesaro edition, copied from the missing manuscript, seemed to be eligible for this role. To ascertain whether this edition was asuitable substitute for thr Pesaro codex, I collated it with passages copied directly from the manuscript by Michele Barbi in his edition of the Vita Nuova. Even though the great number of discordances suggests that the former cannot be considered a copy of the original, its value as testimony still holds true.

Full Text Available The hormones gibberellins GAs control a wide variety of processes in plants, including stress and developmental responses. This task largely relies on the activity of the DELLA proteins, nuclear-localized transcriptional regulators that do not seem to have DNA binding capacity. The identification of early target genes of DELLA action is key not only to understand how GAs regulate physiological responses, but also to get clues about the molecular mechanisms by which DELLAs regulate gene expression.

Our results show that the induction of GAI activity has an almost immediate effect on gene expression. Although this transcriptional regulation is largely mediated by the PIFs and HY5 transcription factors based on target meta-analysis, additional evidence points to other transcription factors that would be directly involved in DELLA regulation of gene expression. Finally, Gene Ontology analysis highlights the impact of DELLA regulation upon the homeostasis of the GA, auxin, and ethylene pathways, as well as upon pre-existing transcriptional networks. L'Ultimo capitolo della tradizionale produzione ceramica di Barrama Tunisia.

Molti chiari segnali indiziano la fine della produzione della caratteristica ceramica di Barrama, presso Bargou, nel Governatorato tunisino di Siliana. La fine delle certezze il tempo, il caos e le leggi della natura. Strategie della conoscenza nella riflessione di Guglielmo di S. ThierryAmor incapibilem capit, incomprehensibilem comprehendit.

Il problema della visio Dei: si intende comprendere cosa Dio sia, non chi sia. La declinazio Valutazione e mappatura dei servizi culturali nei paesaggi terrazzati. Il caso studio della Costiera Amalfitana. Full Text Available I paesaggi culturali rappresentano una risorsa fondamentale per lo sviluppo sostenibile.

Attualmente molti paesaggi terrazzati sono considerati a rischio a causa delle mutate condizioni socio-economiche. Viene affrontato il tema della valutazione e mappatura dei servizi culturali, con riferimento al paesaggio terrazzato della Costiera Amalfitana in Campania. Questa seconda parte illustra un esempio di trasposizione didattica realizzata in Italia, in classi della scuola secondaria di II grado. Documenti per una storia dell'ospedale di Santa Maria della Scala di Siena. Dopo avere illustrato la struttura della documentazione, composta di 6.

Per una educazione linguistica trasversale: la sfida della competenza multilingue. Integrating different language learning experiences, however, involves integrating teaching experiences, i. A fronte di. Il Modello Standard MS , fino ad una scala di energie di circa GeV, e' attualmente la teoria che descrive con il migliore accordo sperimentale il mondo delle particelle elementari e le loro interazioni.

Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire. Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means.

One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person or people , and another to others.

I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino. Brasile Gli anni della svolta per Alberto Moravia. He had recently finished La noia, his eleventh novel, the one that most directly is connected to his first novel, Gli indifferenti , and it marks a decisive turning point in his artistic, intellectual, and human course.

The essay reconstructs the life and work of the year-old writer, in which a year research is summarized and concluded, opening a new phase. Rereading the articles written for Il Corriere della Sera and the review of the Quarto de despejo by Carolina de Jesus, we focused on the origin and acute reflection of Moravia about Brazil in those years Brasilia, Bahia, Rio, between past and future. The experience of Brazil, for the writer, who in those following years will attempt new paths in the intellectual and literary field, and new goals for his travels, always more oriented, in the company of Dacia Maraini and Pier Paolo Pasolini, toward the Third World.

Angiostrongylus vasorum in 20 cani della provincia di Chieti, Italia. Da gennaio a settembre sono stati esaminati cani, 56 carcasse e campioni di feci. I pionieri italiaNi della geofisiCa. Full Text Available Vengono rapidamente passati in rassenga, seguendo l'ordine cronologico, gli studiosi di geofisica — intesa in senso lato — clie, a partire dalla seconda meta del Settecento, ebbero ad interessarsi in Italia di elettricita atmosferica, magnetismo terrestre, idrografla, oceanografia fisica, sismologia e vulcanologia, con intenti pionieristici.

Sono ricordati i principali risultati raggiunti da una trentina di ricercatori fra i quali spiccano, per la vastita del lavoro compiuto e per la novita dei risultati, Leopoldo Nobili e Macedonio Melloni. Ma, ciascuno nei suo campo, scoperte di rilievo fecero pure G. Alcuni vantano priorita di rilievo: scoperta della doppia oscillazione diurna del barometro Chiminello, ; unicita sorgiva delle varie radiazioni dello spettro M.

Melloni; sismografo elettromagnetico a registrazione continua Palmieri, ; microsismi Bertelli, ; il paleomagnetismo Oddone e Sella, ; la radiazione cosmica Pacini, ;. The majority of the vascular flowering plants form symbiotic associations with fungi from the phylum Glomeromycota through which both partners gain access to nutrients, either mineral nutrients in the case of the plant, or carbon, in the case of the fungus. Previously, we showed that DELLA proteins, which are well known as repressors of gibberellic acid signaling, also regulate development of AM symbiosis and are necessary to enable arbuscule development.

Fisica per poeti lo scienziato come uomo e artista : storia della fisica da Galileo ai giorni nostri. Da Galileo ad oggi, intuizioni, errori, grandi scoperte dei massimi protagonisti della fisica classica e moderna: la scienza vissuta come un'appassionante avventura.

Principessa Rosetta - Storie Per Bambini - Fiabe Italiane

Politica come intrattenimento. Politici come Silvio Berlusconi, Beppe Grillo, ma anche Barack Obama pongono il proprio corpo al centro della rappresentazione mediatica, utilizzandolo non solo come canale di comunicazione, ma anche come fonte di intrattenimento. Sulle ipotesi che stanno alla base della geometria e altri scritti scientifici e filosofici.

Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza and multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation program. Birds received a photoperiod of 14LD and fed ad libitum.

Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every 2 weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Overall hatchability was only Embryo mortality occurred mainly between day 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatch. Great variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results are the basic knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

The recent restoration of the frescoes by Piero della Francesca in the Church of San Francesco in Arezzo has made to appear on the background of the scene of Constantine's dream a number of stars. They are clearly painted with the intention to illustrate a sort of "natural" sky. In Anna Maria Maetzke recognized in a group of stars the constellation of the Ursa Minor, but so far no further study has been carried on to find any relation between the painted and the true sky.

In this paper I show the existence of more constellations in the fresco, which are hardly detectable due to the mirror representation of the starry sky. Such a mirror image, as the Universe was seen from the outside, has a Greek origin and this kind of representation was introduced in Western Europe not only in celestial globes but also in star maps. This discovery leads to consider that Piero had at his disposal either a globe or a map which he reproduced on the fresco. My hypothesis is that a star map might be supplied to Piero by the astronomer Regiomontanus who was in Italy since following the Cardinal Bessarion in his journey from Wien to Rome.

In , Cardinal Bessarion was named papal legate to Venice and in July of the same year he leaved Rome together with Regiomontanus to reach Ferrara and Venice. The trip took more than two weeks due to a stop before crossing the Apennines because the plague in Ferrara. Bessarion and Regiomontanus might have met Piero who was painting the cycle of frescoes in Arezzo and supplied him with a star map.

Unfortunately, due to the lack of the horizon and any right line in the scene it is not possible to detect the latitude of the place corresponding to the painted sky. L'universo elegante superstringhe, dimensioni nascoste e la ricerca della teoria ultima. Reclutamento e formazione dei poliziotti: il caso degli ufficiali della gendarmeria francese. Full Text Available Partendo dal caso degli ufficiali della gendarmeria francese, questo articolo illustra il modo in cui il reclutamento e la formazione possono contribuire, informalmente, alla ripartizione del potere nelle organizzazioni di polizia.

D' Aquino, L. Innovazione; Cassano, G. Ambiente; Cirio, U. Maria di Galeria, RM Italy. A model for management of the vegetation complex in the ENEA National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment Trisaia research center in Rotondella Southern Italy , based on the restoration of wild potential vegetation and application of sustainable agriculture practices, is proposed. Benefits on environmental status and vegetation management are discussed.

Sono discussi i vantaggi ottenibili dall'applicazione del modello di intervento sull'ambiente locale e sulla gestione del verde. The DELLA family of transcription regulators functions as master growth repressors in plants by inhibiting phytohormone gibberellin GA signaling in response to developmental and environmental cues. DELLAs also play a central role in mediating cross-talk between GA and other signaling pathways via antagonistic direct interactions with key transcription factors.

However, how these crucial protein-protein interactions can be dynamically regulated during plant development remains unclear. La portata etica della tragedia tra Bernard Williams e Martha Nussbaum. Full Text Available Il saggio affronta il tema della sicurezza e della salute dei lavoratori quale diritto fondamentale. Le conclusioni cui giunge una parte della giurisprudenza in merito all'irrilevanza del concorso di colpa del lavoratore sono condivise dall'A. The foreword analyses of international and EU regulatory scene, the A.

The A. Roberto ARLT et al. Alle origini della fantascienza latinoamericana", In spite of D'Annunzio: Recoding femininity in Trionfo della morte Ad un'analisi critica, la figura di Ippolita Sanzio in Trionfo della morte sembra oscillare tra rappresentazioni ideali e spirituali. Trent'anni che sconvolsero la fisica la storia della teoria dei quanti.

Gli anni dal al hanno portato un profondo mutamento nella visione che l'uomo aveva dell'universo: tra la prima idea di Max Planck dei quanti di luce nel , e la previsione dell'esistenza delle antiparticelle formulata da P. Dirac nel , corre un periodo di emozionanti progressi nel campo della fisica teorica. Disturbi dello spettro autistico tra filosofia della medicina e delle neuroscienze.

Il genio di Newton ha quasi fatto dimenticare i contributi, spesso molto importanti, di altri fisici matematici suoi contemporanei. La Banca Centrale Europea : profili giuridici e istituzionali, un confronto con il modello americano della Federal Reserve. Il libro analizza il processo di creazione e l'evoluzione istituzionale della Banca Centrale Europea facendo una comparazione con l'esperienza storica del Federal Reserve System americano.

I ruminanti sono altamente specializzati nella digestione della fibra. Il sistema campano presenta punte di eccellenza di livello nazionale che possono incentivare il ruolo della Regione in questo settore, ma presenta anche fattori negativi che possono rallentare il decollo del settore. Il paper analizza la situazione della logistica territoriale in Campania e delle sue interrelazioni territoriali individuando punti di forza e di debolezza e potenziali fattori evolutivi. Una riflessione introduttiva — 2. Lo sbandamento della Chiesa cattolica — 4. Il contributo della dottrina ecclesiasticistica — 8.

Per un diverso regolamento della normativa relativa al fenomeno religioso. A method for optimization of patient dose estimation in conventional radiology; Un metodo per l'ottimizzazione della stima della dose al paziente nella radiologia tradizionale. Tofani, A. Unita' Ospedaliera di Fisica Sanitaria. Thus, determining the normalization factor for each projection and each view allows to estimate the absorbed dose under different geometrical conditions. In the very next future the method will be extended to all the projections and views of ICRP Report no.

Nel caso del calcolo della dose per un paziente adulto, le limitazioni principali di questo metodo sono due: in primo luogo i parametri geometrici dell'esame - e in particolare la distanza fuoco-pellicola e il formato della pellicola- sono fissi, e questo rende problematico l'utilizzo dei dati dosimetrici nelle condizioni effettive in cui si e' svolto l'esame, che in genere non coincideranno con quelle standard ICRP. Inoltre quando le dimensioni e la massa del paziente differiscono sensibilmente da quelle del fantoccio utilizzato nelle simulazioni il cosidetto uomo di riferimento, di altezza pari a cm e massa di 70,9 Kg il metodo ICRP puo' portare a errori considerevoli nella stima della dose.

Lo scopo del presente lavoro e' quello di indicare una possibile via di uscita per superare queste limitazioni. L'algoritmo proposto in questo lavoro si basa sull'applicazione del metodo suggerito da Huda e. Torino - Metodologia della ricerca con tecnologie informatiche. Sistema storico-territoriale di informazione multimediale. In che Geometrie del senso. Come tale ha una valenza formativa molto forte in diversi campi delle scienze naturali fisica della materia, scienza dei materiali , ingegneristiche scienza delle costruzioni, ingegneria strutturale e meccanica e matematiche matematica applicata.

Agricoltura, paesaggio e territorio tra conservazione e innovazione: il ruolo della ricerca. Le analisi condotte sono state sia di tipo quantitativo mediante questionari e successive elaborazioni statistiche sia qualitative analisi del contenuto dei messaggi su forum di discussione. Vengono discussi limiti e alcuni spunti per le future ricerche. Trasmissione del sapere musicale e storia della cultura europea nei primi decenni del secolo XV.

Esso deve piuttosto essere assunto come un evento paradigmatico per la storia della cultura del Quattrocento. The first part of the paper deals with the Italian tradition of medical history in the s, when Adalberto Pazzini became the most successful medical historian in Italy. Its second part deals with the founding and renovation and respectively of the Istituto di Storia della Medicina at Rome University, with a description of the innovative--and largely utopian--planning of the Library and of the Museum and didactic collections by Pazzini.

Il poslanie K Vladimiru monomachu del vescovo Daniil. Ancora a propositio della letteratura di direzione spirituale. Attraverso un'analisi incentrata sulla funzione letteraria e pragmatica delle citazioni bibliche presenti nel testo, l'autrice ne dimostra l'appartenenza alla forma letteraria degli insegnamenti spirituali. Esamina quindi la motivazione liturgica e le circostanze storiche della sua genesi nel confronto con il Poslanie Vladimiru Monomachu o poste Epistola a Vladimir Monomah sul d L'equazione, applicata al mantello della.

Ricerche sperimentali e cliniche hanno individuato i momenti eziopatogenetici delle diverse problematiche che si riscontrano a carico del cavo orale, con una frequenza superiore nei paz L'esperienza della Grande Guerra nell'autobiografia femminile in Gran Bretagna. Legami 2.

Multidisciplinary projects and investigations on the solid earth geophysics; Metodi e prospettive per una maggiore conoscenza della crosta terrestre. Slejko, D.

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  4. Physical phenomena that occur in the solid part of the Earth are investigated by Solid Earth Geophysics together with problems related to the shape, location, and characteristics of the different parts that constitute the Earth. Repeated measurements lead the scientists to model the past evolution of the various processes as well as to forecast the future ones. A special citation is due to Applied Geophysics, which are devoted to the identification of minerals, energetic and natural resources. The limited annual financial budget has conditioned the realisation of relevant multi-disciplinary projects.

    Nevertheless, important results were obtained in all different fields of Geophysics and were disseminated during the annual conference of the Group. A summary review of the main topics treated during the last conference is given here and some ideas for future research projects are presented. La complessita' della costituzione della Terra e della sua evoluzione nel tempo implica che vengano prese in considerazione tutte le fenomenologie che si riescono a misurare e che costituiscono branche diverse della Geofisica: la Sismologia, la Gravimetria, la Magnetometria, la Geotermia, la Geodesia, il Geoelettromagnetismo, la Geofisica applicata.

    Ognuna di queste branche della Geofisica ha avuto in passato uno sviluppo quasi del tutto indipendente con collaborazioni o integrazioni dirtte ad obiettivi specifici, limitati anche nel tempo. This article highlights the difference between street crime and road crime from a criminological point of view. Afterwards it examines a series of road accidents based on an operational experience. Subsequently, the author analyses some circumstances which lead to road piracy crimes, paying particular attention to victims. Finally, it emphasizes examples of successful elements in fighting road piracy.

    Full Text Available La musica del contrabbassista inglese Dave Holland ha radici nel jazz ma dialoga con i linguaggi della tradizione colta. Questo studio affronta un'analisi di incisioni significative che mettono in luce i risultati musicali di tale pensiero.

    First snow si caratterizza per la correlazione tra il trattamento armonico e la natura modale delle proposte melodiche. Homecoming presenta una peculiare sequenza di episodi musicali e un significativo rapporto fra soluzioni melodiche e armoniche di carattere tonale e modale. L'analisi solleva interrogativi di rilievo: quali strategie compositive e performative vengono adottate nella musica di Dave Holland?

    Che legame esse intrattengono con il linguaggio del jazz o della musica 'd'arte'? Che tipo di equilibrio si crea fra la dimensione compositiva e l'improvvisazione? Tentando di fornire risposte a tali domande questo studio mette in luce gli elementi rilevanti della musica di uno maggiori compositori e musicisti del jazz strumentale. Una prospettiva tedesca. Gibberellins are a class of tetracyclic plant hormones that are well known to promote plant growth by inducing the degradation of a class of nuclear growth-repressing proteins, called DELLAs.

    In recent years, GA and DELLAs are also increasingly implicated in plant responses to pathogen attack, although our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still limited, especially in monocotyledonous crop plants. Aiming to further decipher the molecular underpinnings of GA- and DELLA -modulated plant immunity, we studied the dynamics and impact of GA and DELLA during infection of the model crop rice Oryza sativa with four different pathogens exhibiting distinct lifestyles and infection strategies.

    Opposite to previous findings in Arabidopsis Arabidopsis thaliana , our findings reveal a prominent role of the DELLA protein Slender Rice1 SLR1 in the resistance toward hemi biotrophic but not necrotrophic rice pathogens. Together, these findings favor a model whereby SLR1 acts as a positive regulator of hemibiotroph resistance in rice by integrating and amplifying SA- and JA-dependent defense signaling. Our results highlight the differences in hormone defense networking between rice and Arabidopsis and underscore the importance of GA and DELLA in molding disease outcomes.

    All Rights Reserved. Recurrent back pain after diskectomy: MRI findings MR of the postoperative lumbar spine; Recurrencia del dolor lumbar en la columna operada: Hallazgos en Resonancia Magnetica. Purpose: To show the morphological changes in postoperative lumbar spine. All patients complained of low back pain and had a previous lumbar surgery 1 month to 8 years.

    All the examinations include axial and sagittal Gadopentate-dimeglumine enhanced T1 weighted imaging. Other findings included arachnoiditis, pseudomeningoceles and seromas. Conclusions: MRI is a useful method to study the postoperative lumbar spine, specially when enhanced with gadopentate-dimeglumine. Enhanced images can differentiate two of the major complication like epidural fibrosis, and recurrent disc herniation. Spondylodiscitis are important and frequent too. Therefore, the interrelation is important with the surgeon to determine which abnormalities are clinically significant.

    Material y metodos: Se evaluaron retrospectivamente estudios de RM de columna lumbar. Todos los pacientes consultaron por dolor lumbar y tenian antecedentes quirurgicos de un tiempo de evolucion que variaba entre 1 mes y 8 anos. En todos los casos el protocolo de estudio incluyo secuencias axiales y sagitales T1 con gadolinio, ademas del protocolo habitual. Writing and speaking, speech in writing. The strong discrepancy between daily practices and the models frequently proposed by schools, together with insufficient training in project writing, often results in texts that are deficient in terms of communicative function and internal consistency.

    Students are not able to assess the appropriateness of what they write with. Conservazione e gestione della Lepre italica Lepus corsicanus. Full Text Available Il recente riconoscimento dello status specifico della Lepre italica Lepus corsicanus e l? Dati genetici hanno permesso di confermare la presenza in Corsica. Al contrario, nell? Isola d'Elba, a seguito di estese ricerche, sono stati identificati solo esemplari di L. Italia peninsulare L. La distribuzione ecologica di L.

    Dati preliminari di abbondanza relativa hanno evidenziato una situazione diversificata tra la penisola e la Sicilia e tra aree a diverso regime di gestione; un confronto tra le aree protette ha evidenziato rispettivamente valori di 5,54 e 11,73 ind. La riduzione quali-quantitativa e la frammentazione dell? Risultati: nel periodo A sono stati individuati n. Nel periodo B invece sono stati individuati n. Brevi note sullo status dei docenti. Full Text Available Testo ampliato e corredato di note della comunicazione presentata al XIV Congresso internazionale di diritto canonico Varsavia, settembre , destinato alla pubblicazione degli Atti.

    Il Codice del e la recente prassi concordataria della Santa Sede in Europa - 3. La vicenda italiana - 4. Osservazioni conclusive. Prato, S. The study was carried out comparing zoo benthic communities of two sampling sites, chosen upstream and downstream the sewage of the Research Centre. Macro invertebrates were sampled using artificial substrates and standard hand net.

    Taxa number and distribution along along the watercourse were compared. Moreover, biotic index values I. Artificial substrates were also useful in establishing colonization patterns at each sampling site, and bio masses of individuals belonging to different trophic groups. The results show the greater sampling effectiveness of artificial substrates, confirming their usefulness for establishing the environmental quality.

    Inoltre sono stati calcolati i valori degli indici biotici I. Indice Biotico Esteso utilizzando i dati ottenuti con le due metodologie di campionamento. I nostri. These components were analysed in order to value their chemical nutritive. The following parameters were determined: proximate analysis crude protein Nx6. Juniperus berries are characterized by a low crude protein and ash content 1. By contrast, Orthoptera and Coleoptera show high crude protein content The ash level is Juniperus berries are a feed component of moderate energy level, while Arthropods seem to be an important mineral and protein source.

    Allo scopo di fornire una valutazione delle caratteristiche chimico-nutritive di questi componenti alimentari, sono stati analizzati diversi campioni della dieta. Sono stati determinati i parametri riguardanti le analisi standard per gli alimenti di uso zootecnico, il contenuto in aminoacidi e in elementi minerali. Only a specimens of Sciurus vulgaris coming from Tuscany is not comprised in the "Catalogo manoscritto della fauna dell'Abruzzo e del Molise" of the Author.

    Solo un esemplare di Sciurus vulgaris proveniente dalla Toscana non fa parte del "Catalogo manoscritto della fauna dell'Abruzzo e del Molise" dell'Autore. Verranno dunque messe a confronto in primo luogo le scelte — radicalmente diverse — adottate per trasporre il complesso e rigoroso meccanismo metrico della Rime, i suoi versi brevi e fortemente cadenzati e il fitto sistema delle rime e delle rispondenze foniche. Sulla base di una ricerca etnografica svolta nella provincia di Alessandria, l'articolo mette in luce alcuni degli effetti culturali e sociali della sostanziale precarizzazione del mercato del lavoro.

    The rise of unemployment and an increasingly difficult access to the job market for young and young-adults are two of the most evident effects of the economic crisis. The ethnographic research conducted in Alessandria province in shows the cultural and social effects of this substantial precarization of the job market. The life-stories of the informants outline the crisis in the eyes of a pool of young-adults. The research shows the decline of formal education as a social ladder and means of emancipation. It also points out the precarious conditions of the young adults that embody and endure the economic uncertainty as a source of social indetermination, being the potential economic basis for an independent life turned to be precarious or unreachable.

    Key word: Italy, work, young, crisis, job. La mimesis al servizio della giustizia nel film di Angelopoulos Anaparastassi. Full Text Available Vengono descritte e illustrate due nuove specie sintopiche di Typhloreicheia della Sardegna sud-orientale: la prima, T. Lamella copulatrice costituita da una lamina allungata con apice arrotondato, con la porzione dorsale nettamente sclerificata in forma di artiglio.

    La spettacolare radiazione adattativa del genere Typhloreicheia in Sardegna, recentemente proposta e discussa da uno degli autori del presente contributo A. As a result, this work may seem to be a strange collection of only marginally related philosophical and biological topics given our modern sensibilities. Nonetheless it is united by Aristotle's basic concern for the nature and functioning of life in all its diverse forms. This inquiry offers modern readers significant insight into contemporary debates in the philosophy of mind.

    Nei tre libri del De Anima Aristotele presenta differenti argomenti di interesse filosofico e scientifico in relazione alla natura della vita, al movimento, ai sensi, alla percezione e immaginazione, al pensiero e alla relazione fra mente e corpo. De Anima sembra, pertanto, una accozzaglia di teorie filosofiche e biologiche che solo marginalmente potrebbero impressionare un ricercatore contemporaneo.

    Analisi della dipendenza spaziale dei prezzi delle abitazioni e dei sottomercati abitativi nella Tainan Metropolis, Taiwan. Le tecniche spaziali possono essere considerate metodi appropriati per classificare sottomercati spaziali dei prezzi delle abitazioni soprattutto nelle aree metropolitane. Modelli di previsione della domanda merci in area urbana e metropolitana. Il sottosistema logistico permette di stimare i flussi OD di veicoli congruentemente ai flussi di consegne determinate precedentemente, mediante una sequenza di due modelli che forniscono la distribuzione dei tour per numero di consegne e la scelta della zona successiva di consegna.

    Mercenario della ricerca evoluzione dello studioso di fisica tra il e il In meno di un secolo la percezione della ricerca da parte del grande pubblico e il modo di praticarla sono profondamente cambiati. Questa impostazione, particolamente evidente in Fisica e Astrofisica, ha prodotto grandi progressi scientifici. Per un giovane dotato vale ancora la pena di puntare a fare ricerca?

    The altarpieces of Della Robbia atelier in Marche region: investigations on technology and provenance. Dissemination of Della Robbia glazed terracotta in the Marche Italy region started from the third decade of the 16th century. Numerous altarpieces, some of which no longer exist, document this artistic production.

    This paper shows the results of the scientific investigations carried out on constitutive materials of different altarpieces located in South Marche belonging to the Fra Mattia's production: the Coronation of Virgin between Saints Rocco, Sebastian, Peter martyr and Antonio abbot, dated back to , located in the collegiate church of S.

    Maria Assunta in Montecassiano; the Annunciation, dated back to , placed in the church of S. Maria del Soccorso in Arcevia; the fragmentary Crowned Madonna and saints altarpiece, probably realized after , today preserved in Civic Museum of Ripatransone. The first altarpiece was made in Montecassiano using two different assembling or production techniques: the external part of the lunette and the pillar strips are made of glazed polychrome terracotta, while the altar step and the internal part are an interesting and uncommon example of polychrome painted terracotta.

    The provenance of the glazed Arcevia altarpiece is not clear yet: some historians hypothesize a local manufacture of Fra Mattia and some others a Roman or Florentine production. The remaining parts of Ripatransone altarpiece are partially glazed and partially not coated perhaps because they were unfinished and not yet painted. Clay body samples collected from the above mentioned altarpieces were investigated using different analytical techniques OM, XRD, XRF, PIXE to point out differences in chemical and mineralogical composition and to determine if the altarpieces were made by using local raw clay materials or other clays from Tuscany or Campania as in the Della Robbia previous production.

    A comparison has also been. All the medical knowledge of all time in one book, the universal and perfect manual for the Renaissance surgeon, and the man who wrote it. This paper depicts the life and works of Giovanni Andrea della Croce, a 16th Century physician and surgeon, who, endowed with true spirit of Renaissance humanism, wanted to teach and share all his medical knowledge through his opus magnum, titled "Universal Surgery Complete with All the Relevant Parts for the Optimum Surgeon".

    An extraordinary book which truly represents a defining moment and a founding stone for traumatology, written by a lesser known historical personality, but nonetheless the Renaissance Master of Traumatology. Analysis of the organic horticultural market in Lazio; Analisi della filiera ortofrutticola biologica del Lazio. Field research was carried out, starting at the end to , on horticultural production, mainly by means a fellowship in agriculture factors that regulate marketing of fresh biological products. Results and conclusion of the study focuses critical steps regulating productions, transformation and distribution of biological agriculture and could be associated to general situation of this sector in Italy.

    Moreover attention should be put on the rapid evolution of this sector in the last months, with respect to research time duration, i. Grazie a tale borsa e' stata realizzata, tra la fine del e il , una indagine sulla filiera agroalimentare biologica del Lazio, finalizzata all'analisi dei punti critici che limitavano i segmenti della commercializzazione e della distribuzione del prodotto fresco. Nella discussione su principali problemi per lo sviluppo dell'agricoltura biologica in Italia, ed in particolare nel Lazio, tra i ricercatori delle strutture sopra menzionate era emersa infatti una carenza di dati sperimentali certi che potessero supportare una serie di considerazioni gia' da noi.

    Dal ricordo al racconto. Origine e alterazione della memoria in Tristano muore. Il concetto di storia della lingua nell'opera grammaticale di Benedetto Buommattei. A questo dato di fatto si deve senz'altro l'opinione altrettanto estesa che prima dell' non esistesse il concetto di linguistica diacronica o cambiamento linguistico in senso scientifico, come pure quella non meno erronea che la linguistica, come scienza, sia stata fondata solo nell' Il volgare e il principe. Politica culturale e questione della lingua alla corte di Cosimo.

    Full Text Available Il principato di Cosimo I rappresenta un periodo di snodo fondamentale per la questione della lingua italiana. La chiesa che si fa presepe: visita al Presepe della Chiesa del Rosario di Mottola. Sacramento e Rosario. I teorici di riferimento sono: Dewey ; Lewin ; Bernstein ; Bronfenbrenner ; Bruner Una prospettiva ermeneutica sulla genesi e destino del grafismo nell'epoca della tecnica. Aurora Bosna, Scautismo femminile e Guidismo. Esperienze educative in prospettiva di Genere: i casi dell'Italia e della Spagna.

    Esperienze educative in prospettiva di Genere: i casi dell'Italia e della Spagna di Aurora Bosna, che analizza i fenomeni dello Scautismo femminile e del Guidismo in una prospettiva comparatstica e in un'ottica pedagogica e di genere, evidenziando il valore che tali esperienze hanno avuto nel percorso di emancipazione femminile all'interno dei contesti socio-culturali dell'Italia e della Spagna tra il XIX e il XX secolo.

    Arte, media e la dissoluzione della democrazia. Full Text Available Indispositione generale della monarchia di Spagna is a short political treatise written in Italian at the end of that would surely have gone unnoticed if had not been attributed to the writer and diplomat Diego de Saavedra Fajardo in the mid-twentieth century. This article aims to review the arguments that were used to validate this thesis and present new documents and some considerations that point out the low possibility that the text was written by Diego de Saavedra.

    La bellezza aurea. Risposta cerebrale alle sculture classiche e rinascimentali. Gli stimoli sono stati presentati in tre condizioni: osservazione, giudizio estetico e giudizio di proporzione. Nella condizione di osservazione, i volontari dovevano osservare le immagini con lo stesso stato mentale che avrebbero avuto se fossero stati in un museo. Nelle altre due condizioni, i volontari dovevano dare un giudizio estetico e di proporzione delle stesse immagini.

    Bioetica giudiziaria in Italia: note critiche su una sentenza recente in tema di protezione della vita prenatale. Il punto di vista della pedagogia interculturale. Le testimonianze di alcuni scrittori del Novecento. Pene canoniche, sanzioni islamiche e modelli economico-speculativi: i diritti religiosi a sostegno della finanza etica. Elementi distorsivi caratterizzanti ed effetti collaterali dei modelli economico-speculativi — 2. Pene canoniche e sanzioni islamiche: i diritti religiosi a sostegno della finanza etica.

    Plant viral infections disturb defense regulatory networks during tissue invasion. Emerging evidence demonstrates that a significant proportion of these alterations are mediated by hormone imbalances. Although the DELLA proteins have been reported to be central players in hormone cross-talk, their role in the modulation of hormone signaling during virus infections remains unknown. Furthermore, it was observed that the expression of CgCP reduces plant growth and delays the timing of floral transition. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CgCP negatively regulates the salicylic acid-mediated defense pathway by stabilizing the DELLA proteins during Arabidopsis thaliana viral infection, suggesting that CgCP alters the stability of DELLAs as a mechanism of negative modulation of antiviral defense responses.

    Le caratteristiche morfologiche esternee i genitali maschili delle tre specie sono raffigurati. Second order statistical analysis of US image texture; Analisi della tessitura delle immagini ecografiche con metodi statistici del secondo ordine. Tanzi, F. Servizio di fisica sanitaria; Conte, L. Cattedra di biofisica e tecnologie biomediche; Tosetto, C. Istituti clinici di perfezionamento; Goddi, A. The study reports the sonographic image texture of the neonatal heart in different stages of development by calculating numerical parameters extracted from the gray scale co-occurrence matrix.

    To show pixel values differences and enhance texture structure, images were equalized and then the gray level range was reduced to 16 to allow sufficiently high occupancy frequency of the co-occurrence matrix. Differences are so little significant that they may be due to different factors affecting image texture and the variability introduced by manual ROI positioning; therefore no definitive conclusions can be drawn as to considering this kind of analysis capable of discriminating different stages of myocardial development.

    Per evidenziare le differenze tra i pixel e quindi esaltare la tessitura, le immagini sono state elaborate mediante equalizzazione, successivamente sono state ridotte a 16 livelli di grigio al fine di avere alta frequenza di occupazione della matrice delle co-occorrenze.

    Indoor randon concentration. Temperature and wind effects; Concentrazione di radon indoor. Effetto del vento e della temperatura. The present study analyses and discusses the behaviour of the indoor radon concentration in a research house. Hourly measurements were carried out in the basement of the house from November up to June In many sequences of days radon concentration in the room under analysis shows strong variation all day long with accumulation in the evening and overnight and decrease in the morning and in the afternoon.

    Measurements of wind velocity, indoor and outdoor temperatures and outdoor-indoor pressure difference were performed and their trend is compared with the observed radon concentration. The exhalation of radon from walls, floor and ceiling and the pressure difference driven exhalation from the soil are discussed, particularly the relation with the temperature differences. The air exchange rates between the house and the outdoor air are studied. Misure orarie sono state effettuate da novembre a giugno In molte sequenze di giorni la concentrazione del radon nel locale in analisi presenta forti variazioni nel corso della giornata con un accumulo notturno e decrescita nelle ore diurne.

    Sono state eseguite misure della velocita' del vento, delle temperature outdoor e indoor e della differenza di pressione outdoor-indoor e il loro andamento e' stato confrontato con quello della concentrazione del radon. Vengono discusse l'esalazione del radon dalle pareti, dal pavimento e dal soffitto e l'esalazione pressure difference driven dal suolo. Il rateo dei ricambi d'aria tra il locale e l'aria outdoor e' studiato.

    Premessa — 2. Considerazioni conclusive. EnLibrarians and managers of a library system have to face with relevant problems when service quality measurement in libraries is concerned. The usage of ICT based solutions for measurement campaign, data assessment and analysis, seems to be an efficient way to cope with those issues.

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    In order to offer a reliable service based on SimonLib software for. This method, based on firm visits and audits, has proved successful as it is possible to contact firms which find it difficult to approach research centres. These firms are left on their own towards innovation and they cannot evaluate the energetic and environmental implications of introducing a new process or carrying out a new product. The results obtained have highlighted that it is possible to realise a very interesting action of technological transfer starting from the requests for innovation and by means of direct contacts and relationships between firms and research centres.

    When the SMEs are directly involved they become aware of energetic and environmental problems and, in general, of the engagement that Italy undertook during the conference held in Kyoto. This method is particularly useful to the research centres to which firms can point out and transfer their needs. Multidetector CT: a new gold standard in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism? State of the art and diagnostic algorithms; La TC multitettore: il nuovo gold standard nella diagnosi di embolia polmonare? Stato dell'arte e algoritmi diagnostici. Orsola, Bologna Italy. Scopo del nostro studio e' valutare questa evoluzione attraverso una meta-analisi della letteratura rilevante dal al Conclusioni: La TC e' una delle metodiche piu' affidabili ed efficaci nella diagnosi di EP, con il vantaggio di essere estremamente rapida e fornire diagnosi alternative.

    I recenti miglioramenti nella tecnologia MDCT conferiscono alla TC valori diagnostici tra i piu' alti se paragonati a quelli di scintigrafia, angiografia, risonanza magnetica , test per D-dimeri ed Eco-Doppler. Salvini di Garbagnate Milanese. Il caso della letteratura ucronica italiana. Ucronia e propaganda nella narrativa italiana. Full Text Available Oggetto dello studio sono le narrazioni ucroniche italiane del secondo dopoguerra, in comparazione con le principali opere anglosassoni del genere e in relazione con i movimenti di estrema destra.

    La problematica viene inquadrata con un approccio storico e le opere sono confrontate con i modelli stranieri in un'ottica comparativa. La teoria della letteratura di Nicolas Calas. Geometry and project: the example of Piazza della Vittoria in Genoa. The square, created by architect Marcello Piacentini between and , stands opposite the railway station Genoa Brignole, pursuing a very logical representation: a new, very wide square surrounded by arcades Full Text Available Ormai in auge dagli anni?

    Tale tecnica di rilevamento prevede l? Non solo i romantici ma anche i filologi dell'Ottocento hanno contribuito in maniera decisiva a questa intensa ricezione. Lungo le vie di pellegrinaggio: la lezione astronomica di Gerberto a San Michele della Chiusa. A pilgrim on the trails of the Earth: that's how Gerbertus appears to us in the years preceding his pontificate as well in those, brief and intense, in which he was Pope.

    An ardent pilgrim of faith moved at the same time by vast intellectual interests that allowed him to come into contact with the most important schools of the time, of any cultural tradition; a pilgrim full of love, willing to transmit the enormous heritage of faith and knowledge of which he was custodian. The presence of the illustrious Benedictine is not explicitly documented in the Abbey of San Michele della Chiusa, but the signs of its cultural and ideological influence are evident both in historical memory as in the artistical vestiges of the Sacra: we investigate here, this presence, authoritative, original and versatile, to outline another aspect, still little investigated, of the lesson of Gerbert, monk, scientist, teacher and pastor.

    Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Angelo Poliziano were two of the most important humanists of the Italian Renaissance. They died suddenly in and their deaths have been for centuries a subject of debate. The exhumation of their remains offered the opportunity to study the cause of their death through a multidisciplinary research project.

    Anthropological analyses, together with documentary evidences, radiocarbon dating and ancient DNA analysis supported the identification of the remains attributed to Pico. Macroscopic examination did not reveal paleopathological lesions or signs related to syphilis. Heavy metals analysis, carried out on bones and mummified tissues, showed that in Pico's remains there were potentially lethal levels of arsenic, supporting the philosopher's poisoning theory reported by documentary sources.