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At that time various collections were published as well as dictionaries, lexicons of writers, synthesized and annotated anthologies, most of which were authored and edited by women. But, as Margarete Zimmermann has remarked, all these works were either encyclopedic publications that contributed to familiarization of readers with the French writers, or monographs about particular authors [4].

Ukrainian and Russian readers are familiar enough with the works of contemporary French writers. First translations of French women's literature into the Ukrainian language were made more than a century ago translations of Lesia Ukrainka and Ivan Franko.

Littérature et Cinéma 1945-1975

In Russia, even earlier translations are known. For example, in in Saint-Petersburg a translation of V. Filimonov the novel by Claire de Duras "Ourika" was published. The turning point for Ukraine and Russia was the early 90s of the last century. First in Russia in and then in Ukraine in , with the assistance of the French Foreign Ministry, the implementation of programs "Pushkin" and "Skovoroda" was initiated. The purpose of these programs was to encourage the translation, publication and dissemination of works of French fiction and socio-scientific literature in Russia and Ukraine.

Since , in the framework of "Skovoroda's" program in Ukraine more than books of French authors were published. The translations of French writers occupied a special place: in Kiev's publishing house "Fact" with the assistance of the Embassy of France in Ukraine started pub-. The French Embassy cooperates with more than half a dozen Ukrainian publishing houses on a continuous basis and it has already assessed the work of more than two dozen of Ukrainian translators, who have been named laureates of Grigory Skovoroda Prize.

Many Ukrainian translators of French writers are quite well-known writers both in Ukraine and abroad Eugenie Kononenko, Leonid Konono-vich, Dmitry Chistyak, Mila Ivantsova , philologists, specialists in the theory and practice of translation Maria Vengrenivska, Roman Osadchuk. Magazine "Vsesvit" was one of the first to publish the translations of French writers in Ukrainian. Chernienko , "The key in the door" , "In other words" Koptilov , as well as the short stories "The Night of the dog" translated by J.

Koval were published. Filipchuk For more than two decades, about a thousand of works were translated from French into Russian. Among Russian translators of French prose there were I.

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Radchenko, Yu. Yahnina, N. Hotinskaya, E. Kozhevnikova, M. Arhangelskaya, N. Dobrobabenko, I. Myagkova, A. Zverev, M. Anninskaya, E. Leonova, E.

Klokova, N. Popova, I. Popov, A. Taganov, O. Kustova and others. As we can see, the case of translated works of French writers into Russian and Ukrainian languages is significant. However, from the position of the development trends of modern criticism the question arose how to transfer the gender component of the original texts in the translations. Strategies used by these feminist translators while translating texts were investigated and classified over time.

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The most well-known concepts of feminist and, in fact, gender translation strategies are classification of Louise von Flotow "Feminist Translation: Context, Practices and Theories" [5] and Francoise Masarde-Kenney "Towards a Redefinition of Feminist Translation Practice" [6].

Most modern scholars have focused only on certain aspects of the general problem on gender translation. Shred creates a new "metramorphic" model of translation, using the idea. Vuilmar concludes that the gender component of the translation process is primarily based on the general phenomenon of empathy empathy , and on the level of style, but not on the level of the author's intentions. Vuilmar sees masculinity or femininity not in the content of the text, but in its tone "la voix du texte" [8]. Vuilmar's ideas become especially important, in our opinion, during post feminist deconstruction, when the works of French writers have no strong leaning of feminist orientation, and writers themselves seek to find ways to express individuality through a variety of literary and linguistic forms and techniques.

Therefore, it seems, in the first place in gender translation appears the accuracy and translation fidelity of gender oriented texts. The extent of such markedness in different writers may be different from antifeminist or neutral to very feminist. Problems of feminism and gender translation acquired special topicality in Ukraine and Russia in the early 90s in the context of feminist translation of literary works, as well as the scientific literature on gender issues. Gender translation problems in these two countries, in the first place, were connected mostly with the lack of appropriate scientific vocabulary and terminology, with the difficulties of translation into Ukrainian and Russian languages obscene, taboo vocabulary, often used in the original works by women and in transmission of gender oriented works.

Exploring the influence of the gender component on the process of translation, Russian theorists noted that focus on gender differences in the manifestation of language began long before the Canadian interpreters. Mitrohina, A. Bessarabenko, E. Gritsenko and others point to the works of I. Herder, G.

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Grimm, V. Humboldt, R. Lakoff and F. Mauthner and O. In particular, E. Gritsenko emphasizes the merit of. Mautnera, who in the early 20th century, studying male and female verbal behavior in different social groups, correlated gender variability in the language with social causes [9].

Fundamental Russian research in order to analyze the gender dimensions of the translation process can be found in the preface written by Elena Zdravomyslova and Anna Temkina in "the anthology of feminist texts", published in by the publishing house of "Dmitry Bulanin" [10]. Later, the issues of theoretical gender in translation were investigated. Burukina, O. Moysova, Yu. Kulikova, N. Korableva, I. Denisova, M. Eliferova, A. Popova, A. Polyakova, O. Osi-novskaya, Z. Kokoeva etc. Russian experts in translation focused on two major aspects of gender translation - on the peculiarity of the gender component transfer in the translation of works of art O.

Burukina, I. Eliferova and on the peculiarities of translation of literary works, taking into account the gender of translators O. Kulikova, L. At the root of translation gender studies in Ukraine was Solomia Pavlychko - Doctor of Philology, Professor of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, member of the National Union of Writers in Ukraine since and the Association of Ukrainian Writers , winner of the Academician Sergey Efremov's prize posthumously , an outstanding Ukrainian literary critic, historian of literature and feminism, a talented translator.

Solomia Pavlychko was one of the first Ukrainian translators in practice who came across the gender issues while translating from English into Ukrainian David Lawrence's novel "Lady Chatterley's Lover" [11].

The Publishing house of S. It was one of the rare cases when the Ukrainian translation of the classical philosophical book was published much earlier than Russian Russian translation came out in However, this translation was not free from certain problems in the approaches to the translation of such texts. It had problems with terminology, and it displayed misunderstanding of many cultural contexts that were very important to the French writer.

If we compare with the original, the Ukrainian translation has gaps, omissions - translators seemed, in such a way, to simplify their task. In consequence, such Ukrainian researchers as A. Sizova, A.

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Rogatyuk, L. Kramorova, N. Evtushenko, E. Timchenko, K. Bondarenko, A. Bondarenko and others dealt with analysis of gender transmission in translation. Gender aspects of literary translation in the first place, suggest an accurate representation of the original gender-marked units in the translated text. Thus, it is extremely important for translators to determine which translation strategies would allow us to prevent the minimization, neutralization or hyperbolisation of gender marked original. However, there is a problem, which in our opinion greatly affects the adequacy of the translation of texts written by women.

One can not ignore that modern French women's prose has presented a large number of names and works, and it is not considered from a gender position as something homogeneous. Writers differ primarily in the degree of their level of engagement with respect to ideas of feminism.

Some of them openly declare their commitment to feminism Simone de Beauvoir. Usually the answer "Yes, but I post it first". However, I let him post it first cause I'm a good friend. Praise me. It's a fairly new book box but they are doing a great job. I'm using the rice eye mask almost every single night and I loved the tea. I love when the boxes contain useful stuff. If you don't know what I'm talking about, if you use this hashtag when you're portraying a powerful woman, I might shoutout you in my stories.

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