He sent an investigator to Prague, who learned that the man who had signed the affidavit was Liebel's brother-in-law. In , Wiesenthal learned that Eichmann had gone to Rome and hidden in a monastery. In , he was told that the Nazi had been seen near Buenos Aires.
From the Archives: Simon Wiesenthal dies at 96; Nazi hunter loyal to the dead
Wiesenthal had no resources to search in South America. The year-old Wiesenthal became extremely depressed and collapsed physically. His doctor ordered him to rest, according to biographer Pick. For six years, he supported his family by writing articles about neo-Nazis and doing vocational rehabilitation training for a Jewish organization. In , a German prosecutor told the Israelis he had learned that Eichmann was indeed in Argentina.
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Wiesenthal said he had passed along information that Eichmann's mother-in-law was telling friends that her daughter had remarried and was living in Argentina with a man named "Klemt. Yad Vashem officials flew Wiesenthal to Jerusalem. It was vindication for all of the delays, disappointments and slights he had suffered in pursuing his cause. At a news conference, Wiesenthal said, "Eichmann's seizure was in no way a single person's achievement. It was a collaboration in the best sense of the word. I can only talk about my own contribution, and I do not even know if it was particularly valuable.
But Wiesenthal, who initially resisted the idea, eventually wrote a book called "I Hunted Eichmann," which made him famous overnight. The book accurately described what he had done, Pick said, but it left him open to attack because of the title, which suggested, some believed, that he had played the primary role in capturing Eichmann. Harel, the Mossad chief, grew angry. Ben-Gurion's government had been condemned by the U. Security Council for violating Argentine sovereignty.
Ben-Gurion ordered the Mossad to say nothing about Eichmann for 15 years. When the gag order expired, Harel wrote his own memoir and did not even mention Wiesenthal. Years later, Harel was still bitter. He told the Jerusalem Post that Wiesenthal had contributed nothing of value to Eichmann's capture. Wiesenthal responded that Harel had done an "absolutely perfect" job, but that he too deserved some credit.
Others said Harel had been remiss. Wiesenthal had to be given credit, Zvi Aharoni, a senior Mossad operative, told Pick, "for having been the only person to persist with the search for Eichmann, even when others had given up. On April 11, , the opening day of Eichmann's trial, Wiesenthal saw his quarry for the first time. He was stunned. A Yad Vashem archivist said prosecutors had put Wiesenthal's files to good use. Eichmann begged for mercy; he said that the deaths of the Jews had not been his fault, that he had acted "under orders. The Israelis cremated Eichmann.
His ashes were scattered in the Mediterranean, so his burial place could never become a shrine. It "destroyed the fairy tale that Auschwitz was just a lie," Wiesenthal said, referring to the infamous death camp where historians say the Nazis murdered 1. Eichmann's capture inspired Wiesenthal to reopen his Jewish Documentation Center in , this time in Vienna, where the couple moved that year. Over the next four decades, he operated out of two nondescript three-room offices cluttered with files.
One success came in a case prompted by "The Diary of Anne Frank," which recounted the experiences of Dutch Jews who had hidden in an attic in Amsterdam but eventually were captured by the Nazis. Anne, her sister and their mother died later at the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in north-central Germany.
When a stage version of the book opened in Linz, young Austrians picketed the play. Wiesenthal confronted a boy who claimed that there was no evidence the Franks had ever lived. So Wiesenthal embarked on a five-year search, starting with a scrap of information he had found in the diary appendix. It said a family employee, trying to intercede with the Nazis, had spoken to an Austrian SS man identified only as "Silver. Tracing the name, Wiesenthal found Karl Silberbauer, a Vienna police inspector, who admitted having arrested the Franks.
Austrian officials refused to prosecute him, saying that there was no evidence he had been responsible for Anne Frank's deportation to a concentration camp. Wiesenthal took comfort, however, in his having authenticated the Franks' arrest and blunted challenges to the diary. Pick said he called it "the most important book written about the Third Reich" because it went "straight to the heart of young people.
Another success came in his pursuit of Stangl, commandant at the Treblinka and Sobibor killing camps in Poland. Stangl had also run Hartheim, a facility for euthanasia experiments near Mauthausen. Stangl was arrested after the war. He spent two years in prison, then escaped. Fourteen years later, in , a woman who had read Wiesenthal's scathing statements about Stangl in the press went to see him in Vienna. The next day, also prompted, perhaps, by Wiesenthal's public statements, a former Gestapo man arrived at his office and said he knew where Stangl was.
The man said Stangl was in Sao Paulo working at a Volkswagen factory. Wiesenthal could not afford to go to Brazil, so he asked German and Austrian officials for help.
He also asked U. Robert F. Kennedy D-N. Almost immediately, the former Gestapo man demanded his money. Wiesenthal paid him. During Stangl's trial in Dusseldorf, witnesses spoke of a foot-wide path at Treblinka called the "Road to Heaven," where guards forced women and children to run naked meters to the "baths" -- gas chambers -- where they were killed with carbon monoxide. Stangl was sentenced to life in prison. The court said he shared responsibility for , deaths at Treblinka alone.
Wiesenthal told reporters that Stangl's conviction by a German court was at least as important as Eichmann's by an Israeli court. Another success was Wiesenthal's search for Hermine Braunsteiner, an Austrian guard at Majdanek, a killing center in Poland where more than , prisoners died. Braunsteiner was known as Kobyla, "the mare," because she kicked women prisoners at Majdanek with her steel-studded leather boots. Witnesses said she also had shot children and whipped women to death.
She had been convicted of kicking and whipping women at Ravensbruck, another concentration camp, and had served three years. But she had gotten away with her savagery at Majdanek. Wiesenthal learned that she had married an American named Russell Ryan and was living in Nova Scotia. Wiesenthal contacted a friend in Toronto, an Auschwitz survivor, who reported back that the former guard had moved to Queens, N. He provided Wiesenthal with an address. Wiesenthal gave his information to a New York Times reporter in Vienna, who said the paper would check it out. Hermine Ryan had become a U.
She was the first accused war criminal extradited from the United States. After a trial in Germany that lasted five years, a judge sentenced her to life in prison. She died there in Her case called attention to the fact that the United States had no system for investigating war criminals and prompted the Justice Department to create its Office of Special Investigations. Many Nazis died before Wiesenthal could bring them to justice. Chief among them was Mengele, a specialist in genetics, who became known as "the exterminating angel.
At Auschwitz, Wiesenthal said, Mengele was responsible for at least , deaths, including many in horrifying human experiments. In fact, they all made inaccurate statements at various times about his supposed whereabouts. In , Mengele drowned accidentally in Brazil after a stroke, a fact that German officials uncovered in Movies and television burnished Wiesenthal's image.
It was created in by Hier, an Orthodox rabbi who moved to Los Angeles from Canada with the goal of opening a center named for the Nazi hunter. We had Wiesel, but he is a hero of suffering. And we had Wiesenthal. He is more like the John Wayne of the Jews. The Wiesenthal Center became known for investigating neo-Nazis and other extremists, challenging Holocaust deniers and seeking compensation for survivors. Membership grew to nearly , The Los Angeles center also houses the Museum of Tolerance, which has drawn 4 million visitors. Wiesenthal insisted that the center be dedicated to all of the 11 million people of different nationalities, races and creeds who he said had died at the hands of the Nazis -- not just the 6 million who were Jews.
On this point, he clashed with Wiesel, who said: "My position is that the Holocaust is a Jewish tragedy with universal implications. Any attempt to dilute or extrapolate it can only distort its meaning. As a Jew, my duty is to evoke the Jewish tragedy. But in so doing, I incite other groups to commemorate their own. Wiesenthal told biographer Levy why his view was different: "I was over four years in different camps with people from 15 nations: Jews, Gentiles, Gypsies, communists.
Through this experience, my view on the Holocaust and the whole problem of Nazism is a lot different from Elie Wiesel, who was only six months in camps and only with Jews. The dispute peaked when President Carter took initial steps to create the U. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington. In the end, the museum reflected Wiesel's position, although all victims of the Nazis were treated with respect. Some historians questioned Wiesenthal's overall figure of 11 million killed in the Holocaust.
They did not dispute the figure of 6 million Jewish deaths but raised doubts about whether there had been 5 million non-Jewish deaths. Given Wiesenthal's personal history, however, and his "lifetime mission of ferreting out Nazi criminals and enlisting the help of European governments in that task," University of Chicago historian Novick wrote, it was not surprising that he would interpret Nazi crimes "in an 'ecumenical' way.
Over the years, Wiesenthal resisted his wife's efforts to move to Israel. Living in Austria may have aided Wiesenthal's credibility, but it wasn't always easy. He received death threats, he was assaulted by a neo-Nazi, and his home was bombed. Bruno Kreisky, the popular Austrian chancellor, battled with Wiesenthal politically for 20 years.
Their differences began when Kreisky, a Jew, appointed ex-Nazis to key positions in his government. Wiesenthal objected loudly and persistently. Kreisky called him a "Jewish fascist. Their dispute was over Waldheim, the former secretary-general of the United Nations who ran for the presidency of Austria. The newspaper quoted a historian as saying that witnesses had described trains leaving Salonika, Greece, daily, carrying the Jews to their deaths. Waldheim conceded that he had served under Lohr, but said he had played a minor role and knew of no war crimes for which his units had been blamed.
This, he said, was the first he had heard of any mass deportations from Salonika. Wiesenthal was skeptical of Waldheim's claims that "he knew nothing at all," but considered it "highly unlikely" that Waldheim had been in a top Nazi organization.
Wiesenthal doubted that Waldheim was a war criminal. Critics noted, however, that Wiesenthal had been amicable with Waldheim in the past. They also noted that Wiesenthal had not been on good terms with the World Jewish Congress, whose president had called Waldheim "a sleazeball. Finally, the critics said, it was embarrassingly possible that Wiesenthal had missed something when he had looked into Waldheim years before. Marty Rosen, a friend who joined them, recalled Wiesenthal saying, "Maybe he was a Nazi, but not a criminal.
Then, at Wiesenthal's urging, he asked a commission of military historians to review his war record. Two years later, the commission reported that it had been unable to determine whether Waldheim was a war criminal but that the Austrian had "repeatedly assisted in connection with illegal actions and thereby facilitated their execution. In , when Waldheim won the presidency, Wiesenthal was nominated a fourth time for the Nobel Peace Prize.
It was rumored that he would share it with Wiesel. The night before the announcement, Wiesenthal called Rosen. He thought that Wiesenthal had not been chosen because he had refused to brand Waldheim a war criminal. Biographers Levy and Pick said that was possible. The Nobel committee declined to comment on its selection process.
When Wiesenthal was asked about his reluctance to condemn Waldheim, he frequently said that he had to be very careful about his accusations. He said he had never had a case of mistaken identity. The accusation began a lengthy ordeal for Walus that ended only after a federal appeals court found his documentary evidence to the contrary to be "compelling. Years later, Allan A. Ryan Jr. During the s and '80s, he tried to determine whether Raoul Wallenberg, a Swedish diplomat who had saved more than , Jews in Hungary, was still alive. Wallenberg was arrested by the Soviets in Although they said he had died in , some people believed decades later that he was still alive in a Soviet prison.
Middle East Perspectives by Rick Francona: Chasing Demons - My Hunt for War Criminals in Bosnia
Believing this, Wiesenthal acknowledged, was to believe in a miracle. Directed by Arsen A. Five years later, as the Bosnian war draws to a close, Simon turns up and convinces Duck and rookie reporter Benjamin Jessie Eisenberg that he has the scoop of a lifetime: he knows the whereabouts of Bosnia's most wanted war criminal. Armed only with spurious information, the trio sets off to track down this most dangerous of men. But things get more than a little hairy when they are mistaken for a CIA hit squad and their quarry turns on them.
Directed by Richard Shepard. Their once promising connection has become ambiguous as their motives have changed and Ajla spots an opportunity to exploit Danijel in her efforts to unify the captive women in the camp. Directed by Angelina Jolie. In the Name of the Son A film that looks at human conflicts in the present, brought about during personal clashes in the Bosnian war in The psychosis of the conflicts that war inevitably brings, then coping with these in civilian life, are never easy.
However, years later, the two main protagonists' feelings of guilt and torment are brought to bear with near devastating consequences. Directed by Harun Mehmedinovic. Life is a Miracle Luka Slavko Stimac is a mild-mannered railway clerk whose life is turned upside down, not just by the outbreak of the war, but when his wife runs off with a local musician. When Luka's son is conscripted and then captured in the fighting, Luka is commanded to guard a pretty young Muslim nurse who will be used in a hostage swapping operation to recover his son. Love prevails even in the middle of a war however, as Luka finds himself slowly falling in love with the woman he is supposed to be guarding.
Directed by Emir Kusturica. Two soldiers from opposing sides, Bosnian Chiki Branco Djuric and Serb Nino Rene Bitorajac , find themselves trapped together in a stalemate in no man's land. Both are similarly armed, and both are having equal difficulty in contacting their fellow troops for help; so what should they do now?
Directed by Danis Tanovic. During war time, the bonds forged by those struggling to survive the ravages of battle can be stronger than blood ties, something an emotionally-distant Bosnian poet discovers when he befriends a pair of war orphans and helps them search for their last surviving family member. The story begins in Sarajevo during the Bosnian war and centres on Hamza, who is first seen having a heated conversation with his wife, who accuses him of self-centeredness for not actively helping to get her and their adolescent daughter to safety.
Shortly thereafter, the wife and daughter leave the city. One day, Hamza encounters seven-year-old Adis and his mute nine-year-old brother Kerim. With no one left to care for them, they are seeking their aunt Aicha, who has disappeared. During their arduous journey, the three befriend a wounded dog and thus an unlikely family is formed amidst the death and devastation. Directed by Ademir Kenovic. Pretty Village, Pretty Flame Lepa sela lepo gore Milan and Halil are childhood friends who go on to set up a vehicle repair business together.
However, when war arrives in their native Bosnia in the early s the former friends find themselves fighting on opposite sides. Milan is injured and, while stranded in hospital, finds himself recalling his many dead comrades. When he learns that a Muslim soldier, an enemy, is in the next ward, he becomes determined to kill the man in an attempt to avenge the deaths of his fellow soldiers. Savior Joshua Dennis Quaid is a Foreign Legion soldier with a horrific past: after the fatal bombing of his family, he had gone on a murder spree in revenge, and joined the Legion to escape punishment.
Finding himself in war-torn Bosnia, fighting as a mercenary for the Serbs, his conscience is pricked by the plight of a Serb woman who has been raped by Muslim soldiers. Pregnant from the assault, she rejects the baby when it is born, leaving Joshua with the responsibility of caring for the child and a chance to rediscover his humanity.
- Chasing Demons My Hunt For War Criminals In Bosnia;
- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia!
- Bakuman。, Vol. 17: One-Shot and Standalone;
- Rainbow Magic: Lucy the Diamond Fairy: The Jewel Fairies Book 7.
- Slaying the demons – war trauma in the Balkans.
- Send In The Clowns (Short Story Book 105)!
- The Monsters Within!
The film is based on a true story and an article called Anti-Sniper by John Falk. Directed by David Attwood. Snow Snijeg The movie takes place in autumn , in the small Bosniak village of Slavno, in central Bosnia. Only the women and girls are left, along with an old grandfather and a little boy. RF: Short answer - no.
- Three Frame Adventures;
- Navigation menu.
- Forced Into Diapers (ABDL, age play, regression, humiliation, diaper erotica)!
- Horse Catcher.
- . . . And They Believed A Lie!.
If we were to get involved in the Russia-Ukraine conflict, that might lead to a proxy war. RF: At some point, we may not have a choice.
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Although we may not want to get involved in another conflict in the Middle East, the other guys - the bad guys, if you will - get a vote as well. Hometown Heroes are in every town and city. They are regular people who have made a positive difference in their community, impacting others for the better. To Taste the Oil Unbound. Hometown Heroes A news blog about ordinary people making extraordinary contributions to their communities. What would you like to see happen in Iraq?
How would you resolve the conflict? Can the conflict be resolved, even temporarily? What underlying problems are there which are not generally covered by the media? Should our troops continue to be sent to the Middle East? Today, Rick resides in Oregon.