The latter, such as justice, Downloaded from gh. White ed. Generally see Clemens Albrecht et al. Generally see Dirk A. My understanding of Humean moral philosophy and its uses for an analysis of the place of moral sentiments and political passions in postwar Germany is indebted to Annette C. Clumsy Democrats: Moral Passions in the Federal Republic fidelity, modesty and good manners, were artificial in the sense that they grow out of the quotidian encounters among citizens, be they impersonal, harmonious or contentious.
Downloaded from gh. For the following two decades, the same index lists German-language essays on ethics, out of which refer to Kant and only 9 to Hume. A look at essays published in English also suggests a preponderance of Kant; the ratio, however, is far less striking: to for the period between and , and to since The ratio for books published in English in the same period is 63 on Hume and on Kant.
Geoffrey Hawthorn Princeton, NJ, , pp. Levy and George Kateb. Instead, I am particularly interested in what happens when we call into question the distinction between morality, often associated with restrictive if not repressive regimes of bourgeois or petty bourgeois morality, on the one hand, and the allegedly more respectable and dignified realm of ethics, on the other. What I encourage is therefore not an analysis of abstract ethical ideals but an exploration of the entanglement of, and the shady areas between, on the one hand, manners and civility, and on the other, sociability and the political.
Historians, in other words, need not turn into philosophers; instead they have something to offer to the minority Downloaded from gh. This is known as normative reasoning. Another attempts to describe the morals, ethics and evaluative procedures that individuals and occasionally communities in fact adhere to, putting aside the question of whether those values are really worth having. This line of reasoning is descriptive rather than normative.
Although this distinction between normative and descriptive ways of reasoning appears to be self-evident, the boundaries are often blurred. Close to three centuries of reflections on not just the inevitability, but the necessity of inherently subjective viewpoints and vantage points for any form of historical knowledge suggests that this is impossible.
Andrews and Carl A. Marsden eds , Tomorrow in the Making New York, , pp. Peter Ley Stuttgart , pp. Clumsy Democrats: Moral Passions in the Federal Republic fantasies and fears, desires and demons that emerge out of the moral dramas and moral incommensurabilities of our present rather than putting them aside when we write the history of moral passions in postwar Germany. To study the entanglement of democracy and intimacy in postwar Germany from the vantage point of moral history seems particularly compelling in the light of the fact that historians have begun to reject interpretations of Nazism and of fascism and Stalinism as amoral and barbaric.
Unless we acknowledge the moral foundation of Nazism we cannot begin to understand the twisted paths Germans took as they came to embrace democracy as a way of life. The essay first appeared in Heinz Haller et al. Frankfurt, , vol. True, by , a general disenchantment with the idea of liberal democracy could be found all over Western Europe as well as in the United States.
Both countries voluntarily dismantled representative government, the rule of law and liberal institutions generally Downloaded from gh. Jean Hytier Paris, , pp. Italien und Deutschland — Berlin, , pp. Clumsy Democrats: Moral Passions in the Federal Republic If some of the following arguments are relevant for a more general understanding of liberal democracy, there are also elements to the story that are peculiar to postwar Germany. Unlike other postwar Europeans, West Germans could not invoke a rich memory of popular resistance against Nazism in order to salvage national traditions.
As a result, their sense of moral catastrophe and rupture was more pressing. Take the Polish writer Tadeusz Borowski, who survived more than two years in Auschwitz and other camps. They had come like the crusaders to conquer and convert the European continent, and after they had finally set- tled in the occupation zones, they proceeded with dead seriousness to teach the distrustful, obstinate German bourgeoisie the democratic game of baseball and to instil in them the principles of profit-making by exchanging cigarettes, chewing gum, contraceptives and chocolate bars for cameras, gold teeth, watches and women.
Adorno, Problems of Moral Philosophy, ed. Thomas Schroder, trans. Rodney Livingstone Stanford, , p. At the time, Borowski was at work on his book, This Way for the Gas, Ladies and Gentlemen, short stories about daily life in Auschwitz. We said that there is no crime that a man will not commit in order to save himself.
And, having saved himself, he will commit crimes for increasingly trivial reasons; he will commit them first out of duty, then from habit, and finally—for pleasure. We told them with much relish all about our difficult, patient, concentration-camp existence which had taught us that the whole world is really like the concentration camp; the weak work for the strong, and if they have no strength or will to work—then let them steal, or let them die. The world is ruled by neither justice nor morality; crime is not punished nor virtue rewarded, one is for- Downloaded from gh.
The world is ruled by power and power is obtained with money. To work is senseless, because money cannot be obtained through work but through exploitation of others. And if we cannot exploit as much as we wish, at least let us work as little as we can. Moral duty? Ethik in der Ausbildung zu Gesundheitsberufen. Pflegerecht, 04 Wenk, Philipp. Generative models for clinical applications in computational psychiatry. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 9 3 :e Geoengineering als ethische Herausforderung.
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Translated from the German and Annotated by W. New York: Appleton Meyer, Adolph E. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall In: Barnard, Henry ed. Hartford: American Journal of Education Wiggin, Kate D. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin Cope, Henry F. New York: Revell Williams, A. Survey of Tendencies. Glasgow: Maclehose Dangler, Edward: From Quincy to Chicago. The American Comenius. Fraley, Angela E.
The Rhetoric and the Reality. New York: Tyler, Gibson Ein Jahr zuvor hatte Byron A. That is the way, he [the director of the school] says, to learn every thing; by being pushed in, as the little birds are pushed out of their nests to learn to fly. You can't learn to swim without going into the water. New York: Putnam Pen Photographs from the Quincy Schools. Swift ein umfassendes theoretisch-praktisches Werk. Lockwood Editorial, Ohio Educational Monthly 34 , S. Swift, Edgar J. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Dort meldeten sich auch die ersten, gewichtigen, Kritiker zu Wort.
Amory D. Payne, William H. New York: Harper We may acquire a mechanical facility by repeating doings of what we already know how to do, but we learn to do by learning how other people do, and by the aid of this knowledge striving to do something better. The mere continuous doing of what we can do dulls the intellect, deadens the inventive powers, and stifles progress.
If it were true, there were no need of principal or normal school or any school. Froebel and Pestalozzi, Mann and Hopkins might be put aside, and our children be left to learn to do by doing, not by instruction, not by skillful training, not by study and reading the wisdom and historic records of the past. No, my friends, by the mere doing the generations of men would not attain to the school crayon or the ham sandwich in a thousand years.
Whatever a man has to do, be it speaking, swimming, playing, or fighting, he can learn only by doing it; this was a universally accepted maxim. The modern habit of trying to teach languages and virtues by rules, not preceded by extensive practice, would have seemed to the ancients as absurd as the notion that a man could learn to swim before going into the water. Practice first ; theory afterwards: do the deed, and ye shall know of the doctrine — so said ancient Wisdom, to which the notion that children should not be called upon to perform any act, or submit to any restriction, without having the grounds thereof explained to them, would have seemed the complete inversion of all scientific method.
It was by insisting upon a certain practice in children, on the ground of simple authority, that the ancients sought to inculcate the virtues of reverence for experience and worth, and respect for law. New York: Scribners The Solution of Social and Industrial Problems. In: Woodward, Calvin M. Boston: Heath William N. Not by walking and standing, sitting and crawling, do we learn to keep from falling; the survey of our surroundings, too, is needed. Froebel, Friedrich: The Education of Man. Parker und Lelia E. Froebel, it is true, would have skill in action imparted by practice; but he never makes skill as such an object of educational activity, deeming it of value only when it serves insight, which can come only from seeing.
He would, indeed, have doing, but always as the expression of thought and feeling, which, again, are based on previous seeing. The corresponding science grows in the measure in which we learn to see it as a living, rationally constituted whole.