The footwear is industry leading - comfortable, reliable and equipped with all of the required safety features irrespective of terrain. HAIX has a proud history of working with firefighters for firefighters. Training only takes 3 to 5 days. While the competition is looking for parts you will have the job done. It saves clients time and money. You will be an independent contractor. You will follow a simple business model. This model has yielded a minimum of 25 jobs per , residents 4 years in a row. Fan Whisperer Questions? Call now toll free! In addition, this concept allows for easy cleaning.
Before getting into the fire engine, the outer shell is simply placed in a dissolvable washing bag. Contained in the bag, any residual particles on the garment surface are effectively cut off from close contact with firefighters and their physical environment during transport, washing, storage and other routine tasks. Firefighter comfort received special attention, with features such as pre-bent knees and elbows, a removable hood, and superior, adjustable flexibility to handle many different work situations.
Attention to detail is evident throughout the design, making it easier, for example, to don communications equipment. A strategy behind the multi-piece design was the ability to extend the lifetime value of components. Making it possible to purchase a new lining or outer shell separately rather than discarding the entire suit if only part of it is damaged or worn. This training ensures they are competent and prepared to work within the hazardous environments that they may encounter.
Therefore we are providing our fire fighters with a training environment that is conducive to the largest type of aircraft that they are regularly likely to encounter. Sensors inside the facility also allow trainers to monitor the exposure of firefighters to heat, ensuring the area is as realistic but safe as possible. In the external areas firefighters can tackle fires on replica engine fire and undercarriages as well as fuel leaks, using live fire.
Meanwhile, the internal side of the facility simulates a structural collapse in an aircraft, allowing them to practice search and rescue techniques and use thermal imaging technology in the most realistic surroundings possible. The use of live fire - using kerosene lit with a pilot light - means firefighters can train in the kinds of fire, smoke and heat conditions they would encounter in a real emergency.
Specific to Warton, we train our firefighters around the military fast jets. A lot of what we do at Warton is cutting edge. This includes auto alarms that are connected to thermo-couples within the training simulator, which means that we can accurately monitor the exposure of our firefighters to the effects of heat, therefore providing a safe yet realistic and challenging environment. The use of Avtur kerosene as a fuel for burning is the most accurate and realistic available.
The 39 tonne vehicles can deliver 6, litres of water every minute. They can also carry 1, litres of foam and secondary media, including kg of dry powder. Also recently completed is an off-road Argo Cat training area, ensuring firefighters can train on operation of their all-terrain Argo Cat vehicle and prepare their ability to handle the potentially difficult terrain which sits at either end of the Warton runway.
The team operates in four watches Monday to Friday and they are on duty at the same time from 7am until 8pm. On Saturdays and Sundays they have one crew which is on duty from 7am to 8pm. We will the go into our training period from 8am until 9. It could be theoretical, such as lectures on aircraft or radiation for example, and we also do practical training on our fire ground. We carry out daily checks on that and we respond to medical incidents and fire alarms across the site. It is a varied role. T The XN allows firefighters to fully interpret a fire scene and make better, safer, more tactical decisions.
Already a global leader in the design, manufacture and supply of respiratory protective equipment, recently Scott Safety acquired two companies whose design, technology and product creation capabilities complement and enhance those of Scott Safety: thermal imaging company ISG and gas detection specialist 1ST Group GMI, Oldham, Simtronics and Detcon. In bringing these two world-class companies together, and with the launch of this new X camera, Scott and ISG customers now have an exciting new range of thermal imagers from which to choose. For firefighters entering the unpredictable environment of an inferno, the latest X thermal imaging camera powered by ISG Technology, now utilises Subscribe at www.
Using this technology, firefighters can instantly see and create paths through cooler spots and avoid the highest risk areas such as floors or ceilings likely to collapse in the blaze. The cold spot tracker enables first responders to locate and pin point thread or valve gas leaks as gas in general will be colder in temperature than the environment surrounding it.
The X-Series XN camera which is NFPA compliant, provides the perfect combination of technology, lightweight design, and robust features to enhance situational awareness. The XN allows firefighters to fully interpret a fire scene and make better, safer, more tactical decisions. The standard also defines performance requirements around image quality and fixed location of onscreen symbology to enable training and facilitate mutual aid situations.
ISG has more than 20 years of thermal industry firsts and has always manufactured cameras to its own tough standards. Many of its original models like the Talisman and K-Series are still in operational use around the world today. In , the company has gone from strength to strength, taking extensive market share from its competitors and traditional UK incumbents. Both brigades, plus many others, have made the recent move to ISG to improve firefighter pre-emptive ability and safety. UK brigades are calling the X-Series a tactical camera. Scott Safety has had great feedback from many of its UK customers who tell them firefighters are getting a much clearer understanding of a fire scene using the X-Series, compared to traditional thermal cameras.
The X-Series enables firefighters to make better tactical decisions because it has a unique ability to provide clear and precise image data during firefighting. Advancing the capabilities of these technologies, robotic technology is now working to reduce the exposure of human firefighters to fires. Get the bright big picture and tactical advantage you need to see under the most challenging conditions.
The K2 helps firefighters find their way through thick smoke, assess situations with confidence, and expedite decisions. Imagine this scenario: A building containing potentially explosive cylinders is engulfed in flames, the sound of fire sirens drown out voices, and firefighters are putting their lives on the line close to the blaze. But what if, hours before, the Incident Commander had deployed a small robot with a built-in thermal imaging camera and gas detector to gain a close-up view of the building?
And what if those images were logged into a database and accessed by firefighters planning to tackle the fire? Also used by the police force as a counter terror device, the robot will soon incorporate gas detection technology. Going one step further, the ROV1 now uses the latest Cobra Cold Cutting Extinguisher which can break through a wall to extinguish or calm the fire, making it significantly safer for firefighters to enter.
Items including gas detectors and thermal imaging cameras could then talk to each other. For example, location and gas detection data could be overlaid to enable the mapping of gas concentrations across an area in real- time, providing insight into the developing situation inside. In the case of robotics like the ROV1, future wireless capabilities could enable firefighters to access buildings from even further away.
Currently operated via an optical cable with a reach of up to m, the ROV1 is limited in the distance it can be deployed. Previously, this technology has only been used on perimeter cameras outside of a fire scene. For the first time, firefighters will be able to view images of the inside of a burning building, providing an even deeper insight into the individual risks presented.
This advancement in technology will enable fire officers to more accurately predict hazards such as flashovers and brief their team accordingly. Greater situational awareness is the future of firefighting and will help to ensure that every fire fighter comes home after the job is done. Scott Safety is breaking new ground as recent acquisitions have enabled the company to discover connections between seemingly unrelated technologies or concepts to create brand new solutions.
This innovative approach opens up a world of new thinking. Could we be looking one day at headgear for example, that integrates a plethora of traditionally handheld technologies such as thermal imaging or gas detection, freeing up safety professionals get on with their jobs more efficiently? Bronto Skylift has the experience and expertise to be right beside you at any altitude.
As our partner, your safety and efficiency are backed by a leading global manufacturer of aerial platforms and rugged equip- ment. Your performance can rest upon the most reliable solutions to get you where you need to be. There are a number of elements which contribute to the overall capability of a supplier to deliver to the world class standards widely accepted as essential to ensuring safe working for firefighters whether involved in structural, wildland or technical rescue operations.
The purpose of this article is to look at each of these to demonstrate their respective contributions to overall service delivery. As a manufacturer, the process begins with having a team of skilled professionals with a combination of technical and design expertise and experience. Within this skill set will be an in-depth understanding of materials, their characteristics and behaviour during both the manufacturing process itself as well as the testing procedures carried out on completed garments where two, or more, layers are involved in the construction. Given the primary purpose of firefighter garments to protect the wearer from external risks associated with exposure to heat, flame lick, flashovers, water ingress and, where appropriate, blood borne pathogens, it is essential to design garments in a way which will minimise skin and body exposure through the optimal reduction in transmission through the garment.
Coupled with this is the need to alleviate the known health risks from the physiological responses of the human body to being enclosed within the garment and its ability to allow heat and moisture vapour to escape to minimise operational heat stress and discomfort from sweating.
Designing garments to address the complex combination of risks emanating from outside and inside the garment is key to creating high performance PPE. Firefighter garments are bespoke items of clothing with every coat and trouser being made to measure. Optimal protective performance can only be assured through using a comprehensive sizing procedure which ensures the individual wearer has well-fitting garments.
In addition, the operational requirements of individual fire and rescue services will be reflected in the detailed specifications drawn up by their procurement team. The wide variety of options available to meet these particular preferences include alternative types of trouser front and leg openings and knee pads as well as cuff styles on fire coats. Other options include detachable linings and knee and elbow reinforcements. Operational safety features such as integrated safety harnesses and drag rescue devices are sometimes specified. Breathable reflective tape is used to improve the overall moisture transmission out of the garment whilst Trimsaver is a thread encapsulating technique used to protect the thread from abrasion and reduce garment wear and repair.
Firefighter accessories including tools, 1 lighting and communications equipment all have to be carried safely requiring ia the provision of a wide range of loops, straps, D-rings, glove hooks as well as pockets and flaps which add further to the large number of permutations which form part of the bespoke nature of PPE design.
A further consideration is the need for fire services to present a professional and clearly recognisable identity to their communities. Colours and badging feature increasingly in procurement specifications. Whilst blue and gold have been the traditional dominant colours for PPE, reds, yellows and greens are becoming more popular and frequently used in combination for emergency services protective garments. Firefighter PPE is offered in a wide range of styles. Each manufacturer designs garments in a range of models which they consider most appropriate for their served markets. Available options should recognise the need to offer specifications to meet the budgets available to fire and rescue services in different countries.
In some parts of the world, single performance standards prevail whilst in others, for example in Europe, structural firefighter kit can be offered at two levels - EN Level 1 and 2. Additionally, the broadening scope of firefighter activities, including technical rescue and wildland firefighting, has seen the introduction of more specialised garments specifically designed for different operational environments.
Given the current level of choice in firefighter garments meeting the relevant standards requirements, the procurement process should seek to exploit the innovative capabilities of alternative suppliers. Now available! Working with the finest fabrics available, and to International Standards for structural garments, Bristol constantly innovates to protect the world's firefighters and USAR teams.
With world-class design, specification and manu- facture of an extensive range of PPE, Bristol is the first choice of firefighters in over countries. This will ensure that they fully meet the performance standards firefighters expect, and rely upon, to protect their health and safety whatever front line conditions they encounter. Special test rigs have been designed to carefully measure the performance of garments.
Which cities are liveable without air conditioning?
Fire tests are carried out using special manikins which simulate a variety of fire ground scenarios and measure heat and flame penetration. Reference was made earlier to the importance of standards in connection with the various types of garments manufactured to protect firefighters across all areas of activity.
Australia and New Zealand. Standards are developed by working groups comprised of experienced and technically qualified representatives drawn from all parts of the industry including fibre manufacturers, fabric weavers, PPE manufacturers, independent test houses and fire and rescue services. Bristol, through contributing the expertise of its technical teams, has been involved in this work from the time of the original UK standards in the s and in European standards since the inception of EN standards in Bristol, as a global supplier, has developed a range of styles to suit operational environments ranging from cool temperate to tropical regions of the world.
Clearly, given the 3-layer construction of structural garments, the issue of minimising wearer heat stress is more critical in warm temperate, sub-tropical and arid climates as well as tropical and equatorial climates. Using a layered approach, the lower levels of protection needed for technical rescue and wildland firefighting are provided for through the use of an under coat which is boosted to structural EN Level 2 by the addition of an over garment.
In this way, and by incorporating the latest lightweight fabrics, body heat build-up can be minimised. It is clear that, in order to optimise the improved comfort and performance offered by the latest designs in firefighter PPE, suppliers and procurement teams should work increasingly closely to ensure that specifications, particularly in tender documents, provide scope for suppliers to discuss the various options available. Innovation brings with it opportunities to improve overall performance and deliver cost savings. Extending the service life of PPE through the use of managed services can bring further economies at a time when public sector budgets in many countries around the world are under close scrutiny.
Eventually, the US located massive amounts of natural gas within our own borders. So much so, that we will now be exporting this super cold product instead of importing. Facilities are being converted to now export LNG and many more new facilities are under construction or consideration. His company Marine Firefighting Inc. Many innovative fire detection, prevention, and suppression systems have been incorporated in these facilities. Firefighters and other first responders needed extra specialized training to deal with the hazards found at these facilities.
For the remainder of the first responders who were not located near these facilities there has been little or no need for LNG training. But that is changing. Another result of the new deposits of natural gas, both in the US and also around the world, is that because the supply is now greater than the demand, the price of this clean burning fuel has dropped to half its former price.
Due to this cheaper LNG it is therefore now a viable and cost effective alternative to standard heavy fuels. Because of the price reduction LNG is now not only being used to power our ships and smaller vessels, but also our buses, trucks, locomotives, and even construction equipment. Consequently, many first responders who did not have to worry about dealing with LNG fires and emergencies will now have to learn and equip themselves to deal with this issue.
Many Fire Departments may not even be aware of LNG re-fueling stations in their response area or that LNG may be traveling through their districts on railroad tank cars and tractor trailers. But, for now, lets get back to the ships and boats. The marine industry has another reason, other than cost, for looking to LNG as a vessel fuel. Very strict environmental regulations have been, and are continuing to be placed on vessel emissions. The marine industry does not have too many alternatives to the heavy fuel oils and diesel fuels it has been using in the past.
It can attempt to clean up the emissions by treating the flue gasses being emitted from their vessels which are using the current fuels but this is very costly and it may not meet the expected, more restrictive, future regulations. Several forward thinking companies have realized that LNG is the only viable alternative and they have been building ships, ferries, and service vessels that will be fueled by LNG. It was a brave step because for many years there has been a, "chicken or the egg" equation which has stymied the advancement of LNG as a fuel. The shipper said, "If I build LNG fueled ships and there is nowhere to fuel it up I will not be able to use my ships".
The re-fueling will eventually be done at a dedicated LNG bunkering facility to be constructed in Jacksonville. Until that facility is completed the first re-fueling operations will be done from an LNG tanker truck and later from an LNG bunkering barge which will be brought in until the permanent facility is completed.
Another shipping company, Crowley is constructing two of their own ships to also operate out of the Port of Jacksonville and run to Puerto Rico. Marine Firefighting Inc. It will be a 2,cubic meter about , gallons LNG barge that will be deployed in early in Tacoma, where it will serve the 2-TOTE-owned vessels. The bunker barge will eventually be moved to the Port of Jacksonville, Florida, where it will also serve the two new TOTE vessels mentioned before.
All of the companies involved in this Jacksonville project wanted to insure that LNG bunkering would be carried out in the safest manner possible. To this end my company, Marine Firefighting Inc. The program was developed specifically for Port of Jacksonville area stakeholders, especially local first responders, and included firefighters from the Jacksonville Fire Rescue Departments, the U. Coast Guard Sector Jacksonville, and local area law enforcement agencies.
This training was the first step in the future LNG specific training for both mariners and First Responders dealing with the LNG bunkering and storage facilities planned for Jacksonville. Very often first responders are either not considered in the training or may have to set up their own training programs. For LNG emergencies to be handled safely all stakeholders should be trained and drilled in a coordinated manner. This program was an awareness level class dealing with the properties of LNG.
The first responders received detailed descriptions of the characteristics of LNG which not only make it a great choice for the marine industry but which will also require specific knowledge, training, tools, and tactical changes to normal firefighting operations. In fact, all first responders will need to make some procedural changes. In part 2 of this article we will discuss exactly what changes the Jacksonville, Florida first responders were instructed to make. Dealer Inquiries Welcome. When responding to chemical incidents, fire services must be prepared to encounter a growing number of potentially hazardous substances, each with their own bespoke handling procedures.
However, while the chemical industry is growing many fire services are finding their budgets shrinking, requiring crews to reduce the time and cost of deployment for each incident. Maria Stearn Supporting global supply chains Fire services play a dual role in the global chemical supply chain. With one hand they fulfil their primary duty of protecting members of the public from the risks of hazardous chemicals transport and use. With the other, they provide security to the markets that connect manufactures, distributors and end users across the world. Today, the value of emergency response is recognised as a core component for stability and growth in chemical export, not only for developed nations but in emerging regions around the world.
However, the immediate impact of this globalisation is that potentially hazardous products are emerging onto the market at a faster rate than ever before. When attending a chemical incident, emergency response crews must be prepared to encounter a vast number of substances with a range of different chemical names, brands and formulas, each with diverse hazards and handling procedures.
Emergency responders must also balance this commitment to rigorous response with the need to reduce the time of deployment. Adapting chemical databases to deliver more practical and proportionate advice has been identified as an effective way to help crews reduce the time and cost of chemical incident response while maintaining the safest procedures possible. The value of proportionate advice The hazards posed by a chemical substance vary significantly depending on the volume and nature of the spill.
By considering hazards not only in terms of chemical properties but also in relation to spill volume, fire services are able to select precise response procedures and avoid unnecessary deployment of personnel or equipment. In responding to a nitric acid spill, NCEC recommends a range of personal safety precautions and handling procedures. These include standing up- wind of the incident to avoid toxic inhalation and never pouring water into concentrated nitric acid, as the resulting vapour pressure will create a serious explosion hazard. It also recommends the personal protective equipment PPE necessary for handling an incident: liquid tight suits for spills of less than 25 litres and gas tight protective clothing for anything larger.
Large spills of nitric acid therefore pose immediate risk to members of the public, the environment and emergency responders. However, while fire services must be prepared for a major incident they are statistically more likely to be called out for smaller spills.
In many cases, this significantly changes the level of response required. When responding to a spill of nitric acid less than 1 litre in volume, NCEC recommends using a fire kit, breathing apparatus and protective gloves and boots rather than a chemical protective suit. The advantage of this is clear; the level of PPE preparation is less time intensive for a very small spill and less restrictive on the movement of the responder.
Such proportionate advice therefore improves response times at each stage of the incident handling lifecycle, particularly during decontamination. Knowing when to thoroughly decontaminate equipment and collect run off water or simply wipe down a dry suit translates to a significant saving in time, freeing resources for more valuable deployment. Designed for use in moments of emergency, Chemdata is a global, multilingual service that provides instant access to detailed information on over 58, chemical substance and , product names. Available on desktop, iOS and Android operating systems, the tool provides practical and proportionate advice to help fire services make split second decisions in hazardous chemical environments, whether implementing snatch rescue operations or responding to minor or major spills.
Chemdata is developed with the direct input of fire service and emergency responders from around the world. For over 30 years the system has provided industry leading information on the chemical hazards and reactivity, necessary PPE, precautionary actions, environmental priorities and essential first aid required to handle chemical substances.
Chemdata also provides general advice on contemporary topics in incident response. This includes advice on emerging trends in the chemical industry, including fuel cell and clean transport technology, and guidance on handling incidents of chemical misuse, such as explosives or narcotics manufacture.
The changing face of industry As the chemical industry expands, governments, emergency services and private sector organisations across the world are coming together to improve safety provisions for chemical supply chains. Access to proportionate chemical advice plays an important role in helping fire services accommodate this expansion while preserving efficiency, whether responding to spills the size of a lorry load or those no larger than a pin drop. This advice must only be provided by a credible and trusted source, as mishandling even a pin drop of some chemical substances can have tragic consequences.
For more than 40 years, NCEC has worked with emergency responders and industry experts to provide comprehensive information on industrial and household chemical emergency response. By expanding the Chemdata solution to offer a greater degree of proportionate response, fire services are now able to optimise each step of the incident lifecycle, without a trade-off in rigour or security. Join attendees and exhibiting companies from around the world for a week of informative fire-focused meetings, workshops tours, an extensive program and exhibition.
Translators, conference and event information local area information, etc. For firefighters, such an event can be the difference between life and death. What steps should services take to keep firefighters safe on the road? Dan Lamb irefighting is a tough job; so it goes without saying that anything associated with the profession needs to be equally tough: protective equipment, helmets, ladders, hoses - you name it.
The same is true of the fire appliances the public rely on in their time of need - and of the tyres those vehicles roll on. These trucks are put under stresses that other heavy vehicles employed by road haulage firms will simply never face. While this makes finding and maintaining optimum tyre pressures easier for fire services in the long term, it also throws up a unique set of challenges. Dan Lamb is a Technical Manager at Michelin covering the north of England and Scotland, alongside fire and rescue and government contracts. Previously an Account Manager working with truck fleets, Lamb is a regular visitor to fire services and road transport firms, using his 22 years of experience within Michelin to ensure customers get the best from their tyres.
In fact, when it comes to tyre pressure management for fire and rescue services, the difficulty lies not in total weight, but weight distribution. Fire services frequently aim to standardise the positioning of vital, life- saving equipment across vehicle types. With time always of the essence in an emergency, finding that vital bit of kit in an unfamiliar vehicle could be key.
However, such a practice can also leave individual vehicle axles overloaded or underutilised, putting too much load or too little on their accompanying tyres. Fire services should work with their tyre provider and vehicle manufacturer to examine weight distribution from an early stage. This issue of weight distribution is often more acute for services operating smaller vehicles, such as those rural services that are regularly faced with country lanes, mud-splattered corners and miles of track without a lamp post in sight.
These vehicles still have to carry large amounts of equipment, and therefore tend to operate closer to their maximum gross vehicle weight. This then means that they have less spare capacity on the individual axles. However, away from the vital need to find and maintain the correct tyre pressures and weight distribution on vehicle types across a fleet, consideration should also be made for selecting the appropriate tyre sizes, tread patterns and fitment policies.
Five years on, the fitments are still fitted after more than 58, km in service and are projected to achieve in excess of 71, km - an approximate 94 per cent increase in mileage performance over the previous fitment. Previously, even urban-based appliances on all-position tyres could struggle for traction in challenging conditions.
The new X Multi Z tyres stand out for being safer, more fuel-efficient, quieter and longer-lasting than the previous generation Michelin XZE2s they replace. This promotes even wear, with a high degree of tyre stability for improved vehicle handling - vital for blue light work. These larger tyres also help with the weight distribution issue. Previously, when using the smaller tyre, these appliances could suffer from excessive understeer when the front axle loads were at the limit.
The Michelin approach to this tyre selection conundrum is a focus on ensuring the optimum tyre pressure is established and maintained for all axles, using a dedicated calculation specially derived for emergency response vehicles by the Michelin Technical Team. This ensures optimum traction, handling and stability. This, where possible, is accompanied by dynamic handling assessments, to fine- tune the vehicle handling characteristics.
Fit the pattern Historically, UK fire services fitted identical tread patterns to both axles, as this offers the best handling balance. Then - following some particularly challenging winters - some services, particularly in the north of England and Scotland, instead opted to fit drive-pattern tyres to the drive axle, and steer-pattern tyres to the front. While this compromise had a marginally negative impact on vehicle handling balance, it provided improved traction on snow- covered roads, ensuring appliances made it to the call safely, quickly and reliably.
Today, tyre technology has advanced to a point where fitting the same tread pattern to both axles can again be considered, even for challenging conditions. The 3PMSF symbol, meanwhile, is only applied to tyres which meet the requirements specified within ECE regulation for traction and braking in defined snow conditions - all of which adds up to a better vehicle handling balance when fitting multi-position tyres on each axle, and with minimal impact on traction in bad weather. As a bonus, fitting only one type of tyre means storing only one type of spare, ultimately cutting costs and streamlining the supply chain.
Once this has been established, the manufacturers can provide suggested tyre sizes for the vehicle as well as an appropriate tread pattern. The Michelin technical team collectively has more than one hundred years of tyre industry experience with the company. Paying a little more at the point of purchase can bring multiple benefits in terms of increased tyre life, improved fuel economy, reduced downtime and, particularly in bad weather, enhanced mobility and safety. Advances in tyre technology, combined with proactive, in-depth analysis and regular maintenance, can help fire services get to the call quicker and safer than ever before.
Generally this will consist of full firefighting kit or rescue kit, helmet with visor, eye protection, gloves with medical gloves underneath , dust mask and boots. He has been a member of the Royal Berkshire Extrication Team for nearly 20 years and led the team to three successive World Rescue Challenge titles from So, what is right! I suppose that is predominantly down to you and your service but as we discuss this further, I would hope that this will promote discussion and encourage some of you to get more involved with kit procurement.
PPE is an area that is often discussed and it is also an area that has evolved greatly in recent times is. However, most FRS now have procured contracts that are managed for you and generally last for a number of years and so regular change is not always an option. As technology has moved on in all areas of equipment, so it has in clothing and now we have specific designs in wildfire, USAR and of course rescue.
In my 28 years on the run as a firefighter and officer as well as the 20 years as a member of the RBFRS Rescue Team, I have seen many types of kit used. However, it always promotes good discussion and especially abroad will lead you into discussions with manufacturers that are often exhibiting at these events. This has led to me being directly involved with some of the major PPE companies assisting their research and development. Also, these manufacturers assist in promoting some of these challenges so if you get a chance it is always worth having a discussion.
I am going to have a look at some of the PPE that is available to us and what we wear on the road and at challenges and what could work and offer us. I am also going to look at what equipment we should also have at incidents that is not directly PPE but is vital in our operations that provides safety to us and the patients we are rescuing.
Fire Kit or Overalls In this case you are limited to what your FRS provides, but as your service looks to procure new kit, in my opinion the way forward is overalls. A number of services use these already and from my discussions with them, they are much preferred. Generally they are much more lightweight and less bulky, ensuring that if the need requires you can squeeze into that tight space before time is available to create space. There are many designs available and you can have what you need added such as pockets, knee pads and built in loops and I also like a method of pulling in the end of the sleeves and legs such as elastic or Velcro.
We have found these to be an excellent addition to our PPE and our crews like them and having worn them myself I fully agree with them! Pan sweeps us off our feet, mesmerizing us with words that roll off our tongue and imagery that transcends the pages. It deals with loss, love, and family all while grappling with suicide as well. So much so that the second I found out it was based on a book, I bought it. The size of the book left me little daunted, taking me over a year to get around to reading it, but when I eventually did I was enthralled, devouring its pages in less than 4 days.
She impresses the Detective Chief Inspector Len Bradfield and is allowed to work on a murder case that is baffling the the team. With her desperation to learn, her knowledge and ability to accidentally come across vital evidence, Jane becomes a key player in the murder case and later on a connected bank robbery. I adored Jane and her awkward yet bold nature for standing up for herself when sexism was rife.
I think she is someone I would love to be friends with. This book works so perfectly as the first in the series as the reader learns the police lingo along with Jane. I have never previously read a book with time jumps where all events are so well interlocked yet all the events had their own place and made perfect sense upon finishing the book. This is by far the most intelligent thriller I have read and I am so glad that I discovered this gem. More than anything, she wants to go to medical school and become a doctor, but as a woman in 18th century England, that path is forbidden to her.
Discouraged and angry, she sets off across Europe with a mysterious companion in hopes of meeting her medical idol and fulfilling her dream. Felicity is a woman who will not be told to compromise her dreams, though. Fierce, prickly, and rightfully angry, she is determined to carve out a place for herself in a world that refuses to accept her. Felicity is also what we now understand as aromantic asexual, which is a huge part of her character story. Mackenzi Lee says no thanks to your completely straight white historical fiction! The writing is witty and engaging, the story is full of adventure, and overall this is basically a perfect book.
Please go read it. You deserve to exist. You deserve to take up space in this world of men. However, this book is one that I keep thinking of and coming back to. It tells a story of grief in such a raw, emotional way. The characters are all so relatable and unique, and the book has great representation- on top of dealing with grief, Rumi is also discovering her sexuality.
Would we have done it anyway?? If I could find the guys who were with me, I would tell them: Thank you for helping make the war a lot more bearable. There I met a young woman Vietnamese interpreter who I struck up a friendship with and we continued correspondence after returning home. The following year I returned with my wife again on the wheelchair mission. We reunited with the young woman and she gave us what was supposed to be the remains of an American soldier including one dog tag.
After returning home with these items we verified the dog tag as that of an MIA. In his remains were returned to his family in Ohio and buried with full military honors. Would be honored to play Taps at this event. Since I worked in administrative support functions, work weeks were 60 hours.
I flew an "IBM Selectric" typewriter. Working in Personnel did, however, have some interesting and satisfying moments. The best was being able to schedule Air Force personnel on their "freedom birds". The absolute worst part of the job was being so far away from family and home. Recalling other fun parts involves remembering the Saturday night parties at the Tan San Nhut clinic.
It was similar to a modern MASH. The medical staff were outrageous and outstanding and the "network" and cooperation of numerous base-wide individuals combined with their influence and access to resources allowed extensive partying. Those brief escapes seemed to provide enough diversion to make it through the next week. I obviously scheduled myself on the very first "bird" available in my set departure month. The very next morning, I was standing at attention in Ft. Lewis, Washington. I arrived in Vietnam on Dec.
I spent all but three days in the jungle around Plecu in the central highlands of Vietnam until after five months I was hit with shrapnel from a R. I spent the next 5 months in military hospitals. I was discharged on April 13, Fast trip! If you have to go to war, going as a medic is clearly a great way to go. Those activities involved a wide variety of opportunities ranging from drug use and trafficking, to black market activities, self inflicted wounds, unexplained shootings, AWOL and unusual disappearances, and anything else that might have come up.
It was a rather interesting opportunity at the time.
It’s Winter… Get Out and Enjoy it!
I was there during the Tet Offensive. For me, it is still hard to talk about it. My best friend was killed at that time. His name was Michael Kolarov. He was from Akron, Ohio. He was killed in Hua Nghia with the st Airborne. He was killed Sept. I guess I will have that with me until the day I die.
To me, it's important to tell his story rather than mine. I'm still here, but he's not. Rest in peace, my friend. Liking it in the Corps, I extended my enlistment 1 year then re-enlisted for six more years. Upon return, I was one of twelve enlisted Marines selected to attend yet another school, this a factory school on an experimental computerized air defense system. In , I was promoted to 2nLt. Retirement followed a year later in August My attempt to avoid school failed me but I had a very rewarding Marine Corps career because of my military schooling.
My marriage has thus far survived over 50 years and we have raised two wonderful children. Semper Fi to all my Marine friends! Come with me, my Brother. John G. I enlisted in May of in the Marines hoping my best friend Paul Evans would join me. Unfortunately he did and was killed in December of Camp Evans just outside Quang Tri was named after him, this was an unheard of honor in the Marines as he was an enlisted man.
I flew as a gunner and crewmember while working in maintenance control. Luckily, I was not wounded but our squadron took many casualties. I would meet Larry Winterton who was later killed in a rocket attack. He was from Sioux Falls also. My commander was Col. Darrell Bjorkland from Volga, SD. In , I joined the SD Army National Guard and served in various positions in an ordnance company, and combat engineer. I retired from the State in and live in Rapid City where I stay involved in the veterans' community spending winters in Mesa, AZ at our winter residence. Captain Thomas George distinguished himself by extraordinary achievement while participating in aerial flight as a C pilot for the 21st Tactical Squadron at Kontum, Republic of Vietnam, on 17 May On that date, Captain George flew an emergency night resupply mission of critically-needed ammunition and supplies to the besieged defenders of Kontum.
In spite of heavy antiaircraft fire and intense small arms activity, Captain George was able to offload his cargo and safely evacuate two dozen allied soldiers. The aircraft took ground fire on takeoff and battle damage inspection after successful mission termination showed ten hits.
The professional competence, aerial skill, and devotion to duty displayed by Captain George reflect great credit upon himself and the United States Air Force. I have lived in South Dakota longer than I have lived anywhere and four of our six children were born in Sioux Falls. I am now retired and loving Mitchell, South Dakota.
The rd Airborne Brigade was the most highly decorated combat unit in the Vietnam War. I ordered all his medals and our whole family was there. He was very happy. As he looked at all the medals he asked how I did this. So I told him it was a lot of hard work but worth every moment. He cried and he and I became closer than ever. My brother-in-law, another Vietnam vet, attended and he made the comment that he wished someone would do this for him too.
I know that he plans to attend this event, so please welcome him home too. My brother died at age Very proud to have served my state and country. They were already in Vietnam. Since I had been in the Marines, my duty was to walk night combat patrols searching for Viet Cong. I was also a Construction Mechanic.
I retired from the Navy SeaBees in April I went on active duty because of the "war protesters" at that time. I believe in this great country and am a flag-carrying American!
Sydney's bushfire season starts in winter: 'We may have to rethink how we live'
I'm 74 years old and would still go to war to serve the country if they would let me. The most disturbing thing that happened during my enlistment was hearing a Navy Corpsman belittling one of these brave men. Needless to say, this only happened ONCE! But, seeing the hurt in the eyes of that Marine has stayed with me for all these years. Our service men and women did a hell of job, we just didn't have a country then that recognized it.
I'm glad to see that we do now. Our unit was the basis for the movie named "Rumors of War. Karst, Peever, SD After the many years, recollections of the sights, sounds and smells of certain "events" in the Saigon District and IV Corps are as vivid and clear as if it was this morning. I trust that the sacrifice of everyone that the Vietnam Memorial dedication honors, including the veterans' families at home and the countless unnamed civilian casualties, will be remembered long after the event.
Kean, Pierre, SD The mail going home was real slow and my mom was praying for me and all the other men and women over there. She asked the Lord to send her a robin to let her know I would make it home.
- Décharges (Domaine français) (French Edition)?
- In Country.
- Florida Keys Fish Stories.
- Leave a Comment & Be Entered to Win a “3-day Emergency Kit!”!
- The End of Autumn: A Dark Fantasy, Young Adult Novelette;
- Torah Commentary Course - Exodus/Shmot (Torah and Glory Schools Torah Commentary Course Book 2)!
When my mom was finished praying, she went to the window of our home. There in the yard were 30 robins. So now as I pray for the men and women at war. I ask the Lord to touch each and every mother and father with kids there. We are all proud Marines. When I joined, women were trained separately from men and were not sent to combat areas, except for nurses and a few other exceptions. Like many young people, I could not wait to leave home and prove myself. I worked in an orthopedic ward and almost all of our patients had been wounded in Vietnam.
I changed thousands of dressings, hung traction, rolled skin grafts, did pre-op and post-op care. I also folded probably tons of laundry, emptied urinals, took TPR's, made beds and listened It was hard work, it was sometimes heartbreaking work, but most of all, it was rewarding work. I still think of that time in my life and wonder what happened to my patients. I hope that I eased their pain a little because it was the most responsible and rewarding job I have ever had, and I tried my best to be good at it. All I knew was trust in everyone I was around.
We lived together 24 hours a day and lived as one. Oh, what a black-out in my life. I was discharged at Travis AFB and told to put my civilian cloths on for fear of trouble and go home. They asked me a few questions and then asked if I had just returned home from Vietnam. I said yes, and the man quickly told me, "We are not hiring Vietnam vets. One night about 9pm I was called to company headquarters, I was told that there would be a plane at the dark end of the runway warming its engines at 11pm, the door would be open.
I was in Vietnam from November through October My duties involved supervision of the load crews for all tactical airlift originating and terminating at TSN during my 12 hour shift for around flights daily. This was a dangerous and demanding duty, operating in often very difficult weather conditions, heat, and rain, where oppressive humidity was the norm, and often in blackout conditions on what was, at the time, the world's busiest airfield.
We were occasionally fired on by mm rockets and large mortars. These remains were usually in a body bag or wrapped in a rubber "poncho", neither of which were barriers to the blood, gore and smell of recently killed humans. I helped handle over 2, such remains during my tour. In that capacity, I had the fortune of working very closely with many wonderful people who still influence my life even today.
I owe my very life to many who were not as fortunate as me. Six of the commanders I worked directly with became four-star generals. The War Gods had essentially called a "time out. The three gals and two guys slaughtered the Christmas carols we knew and remembered but we all joined in, never-the-less, in a surrealistic celebration of Christmas Eve.
Weapons, helmets and flak jackets were hung on the pegs in the wall by the door and the evening was transitioning to a pleasant state of melancholy. All of a sudden the familiar sounds of M and M machine gun fire broke out in the northern sector my sector of our compound. The officers scrambled for their weapons and gear and returned to their respective sectors of the defensive perimeter. I'm sure the Filipino band hit the deck, but I didn't turn back to check. By the time I reached my company's position, the sky was lit up like the 4th of July. Flares hung in the sky everywhere.
Tracer rounds streaked out over our wire into the valley between our compound and the FLC compound a half-mile away. My Battalion S-3 was shouting over the radio asking where the fire was coming from. Nobody knew. All of the fire seemed to originate from our side of the barbed wire and no fire was being returned. A call out for a report of casualties was made. No casualties. I've seen many people suffer the horrors of war, yet at the same time, I made life-long friends.
We as SeaBees were largely made up of skilled building tradesmen that did a lot of construction work that still is in use today, such as bridges, airports, roads, powerlines, railways and water systems. We were lucky in that much of our service in Vietnam was a contribution both to the U. Military and to the people of Vietnam. Nupen was awarded his first Distinguished Flying Cross for extraordinary achievement during the Tet Offensive of On Feb.
He was able, along with another gunship, to lift-off and see that an entire city block, containing Marines, was completely surrounded and was sure to be overrun. With extremely accurate rocket launches and repeated mini-gun passes, through heavy automatic weapons fire, Nupen and the second gunship were able to drive the enemy from the area and were given full credit for saving the lives of the U. Nupen's second Distinguished Flying Cross was awarded while flying in support of a long range reconnaissance patrol. The patrol came under heavy attack by hostile forces. Nupen didn't realize that the mini-guns were malfunctioning until in full attack position.
Despite the malfunction, he flew in over the enemy making it look like he was going to fire and drew the attack towards him. These dry firing passes diverted the attention of the enemy away from the patrol. Learning that the hostile force was within meters of the troops, Nupen made a highly accurate rocket pass that disorganized the hostiles and allowed another helicopter to rescue the patrol. Nupen completed over sorties, including assisting in a rescue of a downed F pilot in Cambodia.
In , the Nupen brothers initiated a memorial scholarship fund at SDSU honoring the school's graduates killed in Vietnam. This scholarship is still in existence today. Nupen My South Vietnamese friends had next to nothing in material goods, but enjoyed life and loved their families and friends. I'm happy that we were able to help them, but they already had the most important things in life.
One of the guys who knew I was from Rapid City brought me a copy right away. Since my family lived next to Rapid Creek, I immediately sought help from my Commanding Officer to find out if my family was okay. The Red Cross in DaNang was notified by my unit, and two days later they relayed the message that my family had lost their home, but survived the flood by clinging to the roof of our house. I wanted to go home to help, but we were in the middle of the Eastertide offensive and no one was going anywhere. Looking back on this, I sometimes wonder if I cheated death by being in Vietnam.
Overby, Tracy, CA These memories are still hard today: Mud, mosquitoes, red ants, hot temps, humidity, rain, mud, sweat and more mud. Three weeks prior, we had been notified that Dave was missing in action. The Army was there to tell my parents the news they had dreaded: Dave had been killed. As long as I live, I will never forget the grief my parents suffered over the loss of their son. They taught my brothers, sisters and I to honor and respect the sacrifice of the American soldiers and their families.
My family and I are very proud of Dave and all veterans that answered their call to duty and served this great country of ours. You will never be forgotten. Scott also happened to be the TB control center of the AF. I trained as a , to work beside the RNs. As a , we could apply for flight status and go on the flights supplied by our base. Our unit was part of the Operation Baby lift at the end of the war. At MAC headquarters, we had a very large runway to accommodate some of the larger planes. Some tincluded the C5 Starlifters, Cs, and, towards the end of my stay, Harriers, which while living on base, we definitely knew when they landed and taken off.
Scott has a large hospital, and it wasn't unusual at that time to deliver up to 12 babies in 24 hours. Midway through my years, we were assigned one of the AF's neonatologists in our nursery. Needless to say, we got a lot of problem pregnancies and dealt with a lot of very small, critical newborns. The smallest newborn I assisted with was 1 lb. I thank God everyday for my own healthy children.
The oldest, Jamie, was born at Scott. After getting out of the service, I had Buck, Sammie, and later Zane. I still think about these years and the experiences yes, we saw the Thunderbirds every year. I still use the "chain of command", can still tell military time, have a memorized social security number, and still use my medical training even on the ranch animals.
After having a TB test every six months for four years, still to this day, I react to the standard TB test. Schaffer We arrived in Vietnam in the middle of the night and the aircraft shut off all its lights. Upon disembarking from the plane, we were instantly under a mortar attack. We were instructed to get low and run for the bunkers besides the runway. That night, I heard rockets, mortars, gunship fire, and jet aircraft taking off and landing. Flares lit up the night sky. I was scared to death. I was sure I would die my first night there. After my one year in Vietnam, the flight out was such a relief.
There was total silence on that plane until the pilot announced we were out of Vietnam air space. Then there was a roar and applause. Yes, that night and others I will never forget. Schmidt , Tehachapi, California I had the honor of being a pilot of a Huey helicopter, the old B and C model gunships, and the H-model. We flew the two corps area in the Central Highlands. I spent one tour from Apr to Apr It was the period of "Vietnamization" where we got to train Vietnamese pilots. Very interesting. I saw much in that short year, but only a few occasions seem to have remained with me over the years.
We were covering a convoy one day, the trucks were going one way and Vietnamese refugees were headed the other way. Everything they owned was on their backs or on their bicycles. I suppose either the Viet Cong or the Americans had torched their village. The image of all those poor souls going down the road has stuck in my memory. Another occasion was when the Koreans were involved in combat. A sister helicopter was hauling back dead bodies from the combat area and unloading them at the little landing zone where we were.
Rigor mortis had already taken place and the bodies were in different positions. They simply pulled them off the helicopter onto the ground. It was a stark reminder that there were actually people losing life. One of my crew chiefs was wounded on a mission that I was also involved in.
He managed to live for several weeks. I visited him several times in the hospital at Quin Honh. I took him some letters one day, but he was unable to read them. He asked me to read them. I remember that large quonset building filled with guys that were not expected to make it. Paul Nolen died the day I left Vietnam. Vietnam was a very beautiful country.
We actually had good times too. We saved lives as well as took lives. It was much better when we could save them. The task, it seems, is to remember the good times and not dwell on the bad times. Sometimes we manage to do that. Other times we are not that successful at not remembering the bad. I was told at that time that I was their first Vietnam veteran. I took a job in Spearfish, SD and received my notice to take a physical within 30 days.
All my friends were enlisting in the Navy or Air Force. I said two years would not be too long, and let myself get drafted. Benning, GA. I then got orders for Vietnam it then seemed like a bad dream until I returned to Ft. Lewis and received an early out because my time remaining in active service was less than five months. I did not get called up for reserves and did not have any contact with the Army until I received my discharge.
I did not look back on my experience or talk about it until I attended a Vietnam veterans' reunion in Ft. Collins, Colorado. The City of Rochester gave us a real "Welcome Home" celebration that really made me feel like that year in Vietnam was something I should be proud of. I went back to college when I got out in and did not feel comfortable with the protests and demonstrations, but accepted the freedom that those people had to express their views.
When I was drafted, I believed we should be patriotic and do our duty. Today, I have two sons that are of draft age and I hope to Hell they do not get drafted! I think it is time for this nation to take care of business at home and get rid of the war mongers that want to fight for oil. The National Guard should be at home to deal with the hurricanes, tornados, earthquakes and the flu crisis that faces this nation. Then, most of the time, we would sit off the shore for days and then go pick up what was left. The Marines were always glad to see us and were glad to get hot food and a warm shower.
Our mission was rescuing downed pilots. After that, I went to Memphis, TN for electronics schooling. I was part of four cruises on the ship. We usually stayed on station for four weeks, then went to port for about six days. We flew combat missions about 12 hours a day and our shop worked 12 hour shifts, night and day. This routine continued for the next four years. During the first two years at Dakota Wesleyan University, the secretary for the local draft board, Sylvia Krick, told me that as long as I had a 2. Then in , the routine changed and I was told they were giving four years of deferment for college and that would be it.
It seems there were a whole lot of guys with 2.
- Winter Affair.
- Navigation menu?
- clairefy: The 50 Best Books of (ft. Bloggers, Booktubers, and more!)!
- Lee Bank to Attwood Green Through Time.
- Nail it Today With Both Hands;
She told me that if I didn't have my draft notice by a week from Thursday I wouldn't go in until August. I received the notice a week from Thursday and was told to report on 23 July I had made up my mind long ago that I was going to take the draft, get in my two years, then get out and on with life. No regular Army for me. This proved to be a dangerous decision. I learned later that I was lacking in wisdom. Growing up in rural South Dakota with a strong deference for authority and a patriotic spirit that was instilled by participating in the Cub Scouts and the Boy Scouts, reciting the Pledge of Allegiance each day in school, and by attending the American Legion Memorial Day Programs, the thought of going to Canada or even voicing objection to the war was not even considered.
If the Commander-in-Chief, Richard Nixon, said that "if Vietnam falls, there will be a domino effect all across Asia" who was I to question such wisdom? So off I went, naive about the possibilities that existed. McGovern brought his views to campus, but they were not accepted there or anyplace else, except Massachusetts—the only state he carried in the election. Morale among this group wasn't particularly high, to say the least. The one person I knew when I got there was Richard Rasmussen, another hometown boy.
His stint didn't last long. I met one guy, Chuck Gorman, who had just graduated from college that spring and knew some of my friends at South Dakota State University. Our friendship lasted until tragedy struck later. At the beginning of basic training, we went through a place called Classification and Assignment. Here they reviewed all your test scores, education, experience, etc. When I reached the final station, the guy told me, "With your test scores and education I don't know where you will be placed but it won't be infantry.
After several weeks, my friend Richard Rasmussen was having big-time difficulty with the physical training aspects of Basic. He was born with a foot problem which hampered his athletic career all through school. Why the induction center in Sioux Falls didn't catch it during his normal physical can be attributed to two things: One, Uncle needed anyone he could get, no matter their physical condition.
Two, Richard really wanted to join the Army and gain from the experience, so he didn't call attention to the problem. Richard was sent home, much to his chagrin. The rest of us were jealous. At about week seven of basic training, our orders came down. Every time we marched by the Classification and Assignment Building I wanted to go in and strangle that guy who had told me otherwise.
What was really depressing was that there would be 12 more weeks of combat training in an Advanced Infantry Training Company right there at Fort Lewis. I didn't see how I could take 12 more weeks of this stuff. At the beginning of AIT, another friend from home had been drafted. Bob Whites was a high school friend that I kept in contact with during college. He was in a basic training company at Fort Lewis and I was able to visit him in his barracks on several occasions. I felt bad for anyone who was going through this with a wife at home, as Bob was. Anything to delay the inevitable assignment to Vietnam.
This was a new fast track program to get people trained to lead 81" and 4. Upon graduation, you earned the rank of E-5 buck sergeant. We were placed in a casual company because our cycle wasn't starting until January. In the casual company we pulled KP and guard duty. We could either have off Christmas or the week after. We had a great week in Florida during the Orange Bowl festivities. I visited my cousin, Dave Knight, who was going to graduate school at the University of Miami, along with his parents and sister who were also visiting.
Chuck Gorman's brother was killed in a car-train accident near Tyndall. Chuck went home for the funeral and that was the last I saw of him. Upon return to Fort Benning, we got back into the military groove. The time at Fort Benning was pretty much uneventful. The highlight was meeting a couple of guys that I have stayed in contact with over the past 30 years.
I recognized him and his car immediately. We spent the day touring Vicksburg, a civil war battle ground. That turned out to be quite a reunion for Jim and I while Bill and Mark sat by in disbelief that I was able to recognize Jim and flag him down. We actually had a pretty good time leading the platoon. We took on the leadership style that we wouldn't ask the troops to do anything we wouldn't do ourselves. We led by example and the troops respected us for that. We led the forced marches carrying the same load as the trainees while the officer types' load was a canteen on a pistol belt.
One of my favorite duties was leading the physical training exercises. I picked up a lot of hardcore activities from one of the Basic Training drill sergeants I had at Fort Lewis. At Fort Polk, we visited a college friend of mine, Jim Jensen, who was stationed there. He had a place off post that was what appeared to be at one time a slaves' cabin on a large plantation.
This was a great retreat for Bill and I as we would bring food and beverage on occasion and relax from the rigors of infantry training. On Memorial weekend , Bill and I went to Galveston to hit the beach. We had a great time. Bill sunburned the tops of his feet and couldn't wear his boots, therefoe spending the first three days back at Fort Polk in bed with his feet propped up. He may have had a cold pack on his head also, but that wasn't from too much sun. Our tour of Fort Polk ended in June, and we had a couple weeks of leave before heading off to Vietnam. Bill was already there when I arrived and he shipped flew out a day or so ahead of me.
I caught up with him at Ben Hoa Airbase in Vietnam. Bill thinks to this day that I know everybody in South Dakota. We were standing beside each other when he got assigned to the st Airborne and I was sent to the 4th Infantry Division. We were both sent to units in the Central Highlands, as was Dave Whelan.
Dave was also assigned to the 4th Division also. While the three of us were all in separate units, our trails did cross while in Vietnam. The 4th Division was headquartered in Pleiku. The first night at base camp, I was put on perimeter guard duty. Three of us were assigned to a bunker. Two had to be up at all times during the night while the third one could sleep. The other two volunteered to take the whole night and told me I could stay in back and sleep. Sleep doesn't come easy your first night on duty. It soon became apparent that these two guys were dopers and spent the whole night shooting up on meth.
I was glad to see the sun rise. E, 1st Battalion of the 4th Infantry Division's 12 Infantry's heavy mortar platoon was operating. I was assigned as squad leader to a 4. One of the first things I did when I knew my assigned unit was to write a letter to my high school friend Bob Whites, who had been in Vietnam a while by now. He got bored with his assignment as a clerk typist and volunteered as a door gunner on a Huey. My letter came back a few weeks later informing me that Bob had been killed in action. As I said, my first assignment was as a squad leader of a 4.