Introduction Premenstrual dysphoric disorder PMDD is characterized by the cyclical occurrence of negative mood symptoms in the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle [ 1 ]. Methods Participants Twenty women were recruited for the study; twelve fulfilled the criteria for PMD and eight had no premenstrual mood symptoms. Subjects with PMD Of the twelve women fulfilling the PMD criteria, five were recruited through our gynaecological clinic and seven had participated in an earlier treatment trial [ 27 ].
Imaging The study was carried out in a stepwise fashion and the subjects were therefore subdived into three cohorts for PET registration. PET scanning protocol PET data were collected using identical acquisition protocols: 15 O-H 2 O scans were recorded in 15 frames of 10 s and [ 11 C]5-HTP scans were recorded in five frames of 60 s, five frames of s, five frames of s and six frames of s. Post-imaging processing All the images for each subject were lined up, as described by Andersson [ 42 ].
Open in a separate window. Fig 1. Fig 2. Statistical analysis The data consisted of brain activity measurements in the left and right sides of four brain regions during two phases, for patients and controls. Results Subject characteristics PMD and control subjects did not differ significantly in age, height, number of pregnancies, number of children born, menstrual cycle length, duration of menstrual bleeding or MADRS score at study entry Table 1.
Table 1 Subject characteristics. Table 2 Group characteristics at PET registration. Table 3 Outcome of linear mixed-model analysis. Fig 3. Fig 4. Fig 5. Fig 6.
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Discussion The main finding of this study was the clear and obvious difference in premenstrual right-to-left-sided asymmetry in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [ 11 C]5-HTP-derived brain activity between asymptomatic control women and women with PMD. Conclusion It is well known that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is crucial for impulse control and for inhibition of affect and aggression [ 23 , 74 ].
Supporting Information S1 File Subject characteristics. PDF Click here for additional data file. S2 File Hormone data. S4 File VAS ratings for 14 variables. S5 File Metadata file. Data Availability All relevant data are available in the paper and its Supporting Information files.
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