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Global Environmental Change 39, pp. DOI Biermann, F. Down to Earth: contextualizing the Anthropocene. Baum, G. Under pressure: investigating marine resource-based livelihoods in Jakarta Bay and the Thousand Islands. Marine Pollution Bulletin. Ramesh, R. Land-ocean interactions in the coastal zone: past, present and future. Anthropocene 12, pp. A Of exploited reefs and fishers - a holistic view on participatory coastal and marine management in an Indonesian archipelago.

Ocean and Coastal Management , p. Ferrol-Schulte D. Suhren, E. Regional Environmental Change 14 6. Ferse, S. Eroding long-term sustainability in an Indonesian coral reef fishery. Ferrol-Schulte, D. Wever, L. Coastal Management. Deswandi, R. Transcript Publishers. Pinckney, J. Halliday, A. Human Ecology review 18 1 : Our coastal regions, a focus for sustained human development or a future battleground?

Glaeser, B. People, Fish and Coral Reefs in Indonesia. A Contribution to Social-Ecological Research.

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GAIA 20 2 Maddusila, A. Human Ecology Review 17 2 : Diele, K. Leaf gas exchange characteristics of three neotropical mangrove species in response to varying hydroperiod. We determined how different hydroperiods affected leaf gas exchange characteristics of greenhouse-grown seedlings and saplings of the mangrove species Avicennia germinans L. Hydroperiod treatments included Metal release from contaminated leaf litter and leachate toxicity for the freshwater crustacean Gammarus fossarum. Industrialization has left large surfaces of contaminated soils, which may act as a source of pollution for contiguous ecosystems, either terrestrial or aquatic.

When polluted sites are recolonized by plants, dispersion of leaf litter might represent a non-negligible source of contaminants, especially metals. To evaluate the risks associated to contaminated leaf litter dispersion in aquatic ecosystems, we first measured the dynamics of metal loss from leaf litter during a h experimental leaching.


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We used aspen Populus tremula L. Then, toxicity tests were carried out on individuals of a key detritivore species widely used in ecotoxicology tests, Gammarus fossarum Crustacea, Amphipoda , with uncontaminated and contaminated leaf litter leachates, using a battery of biomarkers selected for their sensitivity to metallic stress. Leaf litters collected on polluted sites exhibited not only significantly higher cadmium and zinc concentrations but also lower lignin contents.

All leaf litters released high amounts of chemical elements during the leaching process, especially potassium and magnesium, and, in a lesser extent, phosphorus, calcium, and trace metals copper, cadmium, and zinc but not lead. Toxicity tests revealed that the most important toxic effects measured on G. Small additional toxic effects of leachates from contaminated leaf litters were only evidenced on gammarid lipid peroxidation, indicating that contaminated leaf litter leachates might be slightly more toxic than uncontaminated ones, but in a very reduced manner.

Further studies will. Plant litter is a major source of soil organic carbon C. This litter is not homogenous, but instead primarily composed of fine root and leaf litter that adapted to different physiological functions. These unique functions suggest that root and leaf litter likely have different biochemical traits, and thus different decomposition patterns. However, few studies have compared their substrate quality and contributions to soil C. Also, much less attention has been given to fine roots although they can represent a substantial litter production.

Here we hypothesize that 1 leaf litter and fine roots have different substrate quality as they are highly different in biochemical composition; 2 the biochemical composition of leaf litter and fine roots responds differently to the simulated nitrogen N deposition. To test these hypotheses, we collected leaf litter and fine roots of Acer saccharum the dominant species in the northern temperate ecosystems we studied in both ambient and N addition treatment plots at four sites of Michigan N deposition gradient study.

We quantified ten biochemical components thought to be important on decomposition. Strikingly, we found a consistently three-fold higher lignin concentration in fine roots than that in leaf litter P leaf litter was Lignin has been considered highly recalcitrant and hypothesized as the major precursor of humus substance. Condensed tannin CT concentration in fine roots Leaves intercepted by bromeliads become an important energy and matter resource for invertebrate communities, bacteria, fungi, and the plant itself.

The relationship between bromeliad structure, defined as its size and complexity, and accumulated leaf litter was studied in 55 bromeliads of Tillandsia turneri through multiple regression and the Akaike information criterion. Leaf litter accumulation in bromeliads was best explained by size and complexity variables such as plant cover, sheath length, and leaf number.

In conclusion, plant structure determines the amount of litter that enters bromeliads, and changes in its structure could affect important processes within ecosystem functioning or species richness. A climatic and taxonomic comparison between leaf litter and standing vegetation from a Florida swamp woodland. One method to determine past climate has been the use of leaf morphological characteristics of fossil leaves quantified using modern climate and canopy leaf characteristics.

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Fossil assemblages are composed of abscised leaves, and climate may be more accurately determined by using leaves from leaf litter instead of the canopy. To better understand whether taphonomic Litter mixture dominated by leaf litter of the invasive species, Flaveria bidentis, accelerates decomposition and favors nitrogen release. In natural ecosystems, invasive plant litter is often mixed with that of native species, yet few studies have examined the decomposition dynamics of such mixtures, especially across different degrees of invasion. We conducted a 1-year litterbag experiment using leaf litters from the invasive species Flaveria bidentis L.

Litters were allowed to decompose either separately or together at different ratios in a mothproof screen house. The mass loss of all litter mixtures was non-additive, and the direction and strength of effects varied with species ratio and decomposition stage. During the initial stages of decomposition, all mixtures had a neutral effect on the mass loss; however, at later stages of decomposition, mixtures containing more invasive litter had synergistic effects on mass loss.

Importantly, an increase in F. These results highlight the importance of trait dissimilarity in determining the decomposition rates of litter mixtures and suggest that F. Our findings also demonstrate the importance of species composition as well as the identity of dominant species when considering how changes in plant community structure influence plant invasion. The role of leaf litter in hydrological processes and soil erosion of forest ecosystems is poorly understood.

Two common types of litter in North China from Quercus variabilis, representing broadleaf litter , and Pinus tabulaeformis, representing needle leaf litter , four amounts of litter , and five rainfall intensities were tested. Results revealed that the litter reduced runoff and delayed the beginning of runoff, but significantly reduced soil loss p litter decreased considerably. Runoff yield and the runoff coefficient increased dramatically by The period of time before runoff appeared decreased approximately In contrast, litter mass was probably not a main factor in determining runoff and sediment because a significant correlation was found only with sediment in Q.

Finally, runoff yield was significantly correlated p leaf litter in runoff and erosion processes was crucial, and both rainfall intensity and litter characteristics had an impact on these processes. The effect of leaf litter cover on surface runoff and soil erosion in Northern China. Experimental evidence that the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model best describes the evolution of leaf litter decomposability. Leaf litter decomposability is an important effect trait for ecosystem functioning.

However, it is unknown how this effect trait evolved through plant history as a leaf 'afterlife' integrator of the evolution of multiple underlying traits upon which adaptive selection must have acted. Did decomposability evolve in a Brownian fashion without any constraints? Was evolution rapid at first and then slowed? Or was there an underlying mean-reverting process that makes the evolution of extreme trait values unlikely?

Here, we test the hypothesis that the evolution of decomposability has undergone certain mean-reverting forces due to strong constraints and trade-offs in the leaf traits that have afterlife effects on litter quality to decomposers. In order to test this, we examined the leaf litter decomposability and seven key leaf traits of 48 tree species in the temperate area of China and fitted them to three evolutionary models: Brownian motion model BM , Early burst model EB , and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model OU. The OU model, which does not allow unlimited trait divergence through time, was the best fit model for leaf litter decomposability and all seven leaf traits.

These results support the hypothesis that neither decomposability nor the underlying traits has been able to diverge toward progressively extreme values through evolutionary time. These results have reinforced our understanding of the relationships between leaf litter decomposability and leaf traits in an evolutionary perspective and may be a helpful step toward reconstructing deep-time carbon cycling based on taxonomic composition with more confidence. Despite litter decomposition is one of the major process controlling soil C stores and nutrient cycling, yet C dynamics during litter decay are poorly understood and quantified.

Here we report the results of a laboratory experiment where 13C depleted leaf litter was incubated on a 13C enriched soil with the aims to: i partition the C loss during litter decay into microbial respired-CO2 and C input into the soil; ii identify the soil compounds where litter derived C is retained; iii assess whether litter quality is a determinant of both the above processes.

Three 13C-depleted leaf litter delta13C ca. Despite its essential role in carbon and nutrient cycling, the temperature sensitivityof leaf litter decay in tropical forest ecosystems remains poorly resolved, especially in tropical Rainfall interception by tree crown and leaf litter : an interactive process. Rainfall interception research in forest ecosystems usually focuses on interception by either tree crown or leaf litter , although the 2 components interact when rainfall occurs.

A process-based study was conducted to jointly measure rainfall interception by crown and litter and the interaction between the 2 interception processes for 4 tree species Global synthesis of the temperature sensitivity of leaf litter breakdown in streams and rivers.

Jennifer J. Follstad Shah; John S. Dodds; Mark O. Gessner; Natalie A. Griffiths; Charles P. Hawkins; Sherri L.

Johnson; Antoine Lecerf; Carri J. LeRoy; David W. Manning; Amy D.

Rosemond; Robert L. Sinsabaugh; Christopher M. Swan; Jackson R. Webster; Lydia H. Streams and rivers are important conduits of terrestrially derived carbon C to atmospheric and marine reservoirs. Leaf litter breakdown rates are expected to increase as water temperatures rise in response to climate change.

The magnitude of increase in breakdown rates is uncertain, given differences in litter quality and microbial and detritivore community Leaf litter bags as an index to populations of northern two-lined salamanders Eurycea bislineata. Concern about recent amphibian declines has led to research on amphibian populations, but few statistically tested, standardized methods of counting amphibians exist. We tested whether counts of northern two-lined salamander larvae Eurycea bislineata sheltered in leaf litter bags--a relatively new, easily replicable survey technique--had a linear correlation to total number of larvae.

Using experimental enclosures placed in streams, we compared number of salamanders found in artificial habitat leaf litter bags with total number of salamanders in each enclosure. Low numbers of the animals were found in leaf litter bags, and the relative amount of variation in the index number of animals in leaf litter bags compared to total number of animals in stream enclosures was high.

Consequently, we cannot recommend using leaf litter bags to index populations of northern two-lined salamanders. Mercury in leaf litter in typical suburban and urban broadleaf forests in China. To study the role of leaf litter in the mercury Hg cycle in suburban broadleaf forests and the distribution of Hg in urban forests, we collected leaf litter and soil from suburban evergreen and deciduous broadleaf forests and from urban forests in Beijing.

The Hg concentrations in leaf litter from the suburban forests varied from 8. The average Hg concentration in evergreen broadleaf forest leaf litter The estimated Hg fluxes of leaf litter in suburban evergreen and deciduous broadleaf forests were The Hg concentration in organic horizons O horizons These results indicated that leaf litterfall plays an important role in transporting atmospheric mercury to soil in suburban forests.

For urban forests in Beijing, the Hg concentrations in leaf litter ranged from 8. The Hg concentrations in surface soil in Beijing were Therefore, the distribution of Hg in Beijing urban forests appeared to be strongly influenced by anthropogenic activities. Microbial decomposition is highly sensitive to leaf litter emersion in a permanent temperate stream. Drought frequency and intensity in some temperate regions are forecasted to increase under the ongoing global change, which might expose permanent streams to intermittence and have severe repercussions on stream communities and ecosystem processes.

In this study, we investigated the effect of drought duration on microbial decomposition of Populus nigra leaf litter in a temperate permanent stream Oliveira, NW Portugal. Specifically, we measured the response of the structural assemblage composition, bacterial and fungal biomass and functional leaf litter decomposition, extracellular enzyme activities EEA , and fungal sporulation parameters of fungal and bacterial communities on leaf litter exposed to emersion during different time periods 7, 14 and 21d.

Emersion time affected microbial assemblages and litter decomposition, but the response differed among variables. Microbial biomass and fungal sporulation were reduced after 21days of emersion. The structure of microbial assemblages was affected by the duration of the emersion period. The shifts in fungal assemblages were correlated with a decreased microbial capacity to degrade lignin and hemicellulose in leaf litter exposed to emersion.

Additionally, some resilience was observed in leaf litter mass loss, bacterial biomass, some enzyme activities and structure of fungal assemblages. Our study shows that drought can strongly alter structural and functional aspects of microbial decomposers. Therefore, the exposure of leaf litter to increasing emersion periods in temperate streams is expected to affect decomposer communities and overall decomposition of plant material by decelerating carbon cycling in.

Leaf litter breakdown of native and exotic tree species in two Hawaiian streams that differ in flow.

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Riparian leaf litter is a major source of allochthonous organic material to temperate and tropical streams, promoting primary and secondary productivity in lotic and nearshore habitats. In tropical island streams, where native leaf -shredding macroinvertebrates are absent, physical fragmentation from stream flow is an important factor affecting leaf litter breakdown and Can species-specific differences in foliar chemistry influence leaf litter decomposition in grassland species?

The influence of litter quality on its rate of decomposition is a crucial aspect of C cycle. In this study we concentrated on grassland ecosystems where leaf litter is one of the major sources of C input. To quantify the contribution of initial leaf chemistry within different plant species, the decomposition of chemically different leaf litter of three grassland species Lolium perenne, Festuca arundinacea and Dactylis glomerata was monitored, using the litter bag technique.

Litter of different maturity stages i. Samples were taken at different time intervals 0, 2, 4, 8, 20 and 44 weeks and were analyzed for mass loss, organic C and N contents and stable isotopic signatures C and N. Changes in litter chemistry were addressed by determining lignin-derived phenols after CuO oxidation and non-cellulosic polysaccharides after acid hydrolysis followed by gas chromatography. Green litter was chemically different from brown litter due to higher initial N and lower lignin contents.

While in grassland species, both L. Green litter showed higher rate of degradation. Constant Acid-to-Aldehyde ratios of lignin-derived phenols vanillyl and syringyl did not suggest any transformation in lignin structures. In conclusion, due to the differences in initial chemical composition initial N and lignin contents , green litter decomposition was higher than brown litter in all.

Decomposition of oak leaf litter and millipede faecal pellets in soil under temperate mixed oak forest. The millipedes Glomeris hexasticha Diplopoda, Glomerida were maintained under laboratory conditions and fed on oak leaf litter collected from a mixed oak forest Abieto-Quercetum in South Bohemia, Czech Republic. Every fourth day litter was changed and produced faecal pellets were separated and afterwards analysed. Content of organic carbon and C:N ratio lowered in faecal pellets as compared with consumed litter.

Changes in content of chemical elements P, K, Ca, Mg, Na were recognised as those characteristic for the first stage of degradation of plant material. Samples of faecal pellets and oak leaf litter were then exposed in mesh bags between the F and H layers of forest soil for up to one year, subsequently harvested and analysed. A higher rate of decomposition of exposed litter than that of faecal pellets was found during the first two weeks. Different micro-morphological changes were observed in exposed litter and in pellets although these materials originated from the same initial sources.

Comparing to intact leaf litter , another structural and functional processes occurred in pellets due to the fragmentation of plant material by millipedes. Both laboratory and field experiments showed that the millipede faecal pellets are not only a focal point of biodegradation activity in upper soil layers, but also confirmed that millipede feces undergo a slower decomposition than original leaf litter. Monitoring Phytophthora ramorum in soil, leaf litter , rain traps, and watercourses in an historical cornish garden.

Phytophthora ramorum was identified as the cause of a leaf blight on rhododendrons in an historic garden in Cornwall in A programme of measures was set in place to eradicate the disease from the garden and several sites were selected to monitor the effect of these measures on the recovery of P. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activities extracts of mangrove leaf against the growth of some pathogenic bacteria.

In this study, the effects of water, ethanol, methanol and glycerin at five levels 0, The antimicrobial effect of the extracts on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecium and Klebsiella pneumoniae was evaluated using disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration MBC methods. Phytochemical analysis alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavone and glycosides were evaluated based on qualitative methods. Maximum antimicrobial effect was observed in Enterococcus faecium and highest resistance against mangrove leaf extract in Enterococcus faecium and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively.

The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity was related to optimum extract of mangrove leaf and ethanolic extract respectively. The results of phytochemical screening of Avicennia marina leaves extract showed the existence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavone and glycosides. The results of non-significant lack of fit tests, and F value In addition, the coefficient of variations All rights reserved.

Increasing shrub abundance and N addition in Arctic tundra affect leaf and root litter decomposition differently. Changes in global climate have resulted in a ';greening' of the Arctic as the abundance of deciduous shrub species increases. Consequently, not only the living plant community, but also the litter composition changes, which in turn can affect carbon turnover patterns in the Arctic.

We examined effects of changing litter composition both root and leaf litter on decomposition rates with a litter bag study, and specifically focused on the impact of deciduous shrub Betula nana litter on litter decomposition from two evergreen shrubs Ledum palustre, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea and one graminoid Eriophorum vaginatum species. Additionally, we investigated how decomposition was affected by nutrient availability by placing the litterbags in an ambient and a fertilized moist acidic tundra environment.

Measurements were carried out seasonally over 2 years after snow melt, mid-growing season, end growing season. We measured litter mass loss over time, as well as the respiration rates standardized for temperature and moisture and temperature sensitivity of litter respiration at the time of harvesting the litter bags. For leaves, Betula litter decomposed faster than the other three species, with Eriophorum leaves decomposing the slowest. This pattern was observed for both mass loss and litter respiration rates, although the differences in respiration became smaller over time.

Surprisingly, combining Betula with any other species resulted in slower overall weight loss rates than would be predicted based on monoculture weight loss rates. This contrasted with litter respiration at the time of sampling, which showed a positive mixing effect of adding Betula leaf liter to the other species.

Apparently, during the first winter months September - May Betula litter decomposition is negatively affected by mixing the species and this legacy can still be observed in the total mass loss results later in the year. For root litter there were fewer effects of species identity on root. Experimental manipulation of leaf litter colonization by aquatic invertebrates in a third order tropical stream. Through a manipulative experiment, the colonization of leaf litter by invertebrates was investigated in two sections of a tropical stream spatial scale that differed in function of the canopy cover, one with the presence closed area and another without riparian vegetation open area , during one month of the dry and one of the wet season temporal scale.

The work aimed to verify differences related to four variables: season, canopy cover, leaf type and leaf condition. Litter bags containing arboreal and herbaceous leaves leaf type variable , non-conditioned and preconditioned leaf condition variable were placed at the bottom of the stream in each area canopy cover variable and season dry and wet , and removed after day colonization. The analysis of the remaining litter dry mass per leaf bag emphasizes differences related mainly to seasonality, canopy cover and leaf type, although leaf condition was also important when combined with those three factors.

Comparing the abundance of invertebrates per treatment, there was a tendency of high predominance of Chironomidae during the dry season and greater taxa diversity and evenness during the wet season, when the water flow increase could alter the availability of microhabitats for local fauna. Even though canopy cover alone was not a significant source of variation in the abundance of invertebrates, the results showed a tendency of a combined effect of canopy cover with seasonality and leaf condition.

Bleaching of leaf litter and associated microfungi in subboreal and subalpine forests. Fungal decomposition of lignin leads to the whitening, or bleaching, of leaf litter , especially in temperate and tropical forests, but less is known about such bleaching in forests of cooler regions, such as boreal and subalpine forests. The purposes of the present study were to examine the extent of bleached area on the surface of leaf litter and its variation with environmental conditions in subboreal and subalpine forests in Japan and to examine the microfungi associated with the bleaching of leaf litter by isolating fungi from the bleached portions of the litter.

Bleached area accounted for Leaf mass per area and lignin content were consistently lower in the bleached area than in the nonbleached area of the same leaves, indicating that the selective decomposition of acid unhydrolyzable residue recalcitrant compounds such as lignin, tannins, and cutins enhanced the mass loss of leaf tissues in the bleached portions.

Isolates of a total of 11 fungal species 6 species of Ascomycota and 5 of Basidiomycota exhibited leaf-litter -bleaching activity under pure culture conditions. Two fungal species Coccomyces sp. Shifts in leaf litter breakdown along a forest-pasture-urban gradient in Andean streams. Tropical montane ecosystems of the Andes are critically threatened by a rapid land-use change which can potentially affect stream variables, aquatic communities, and ecosystem processes such as leaf litter breakdown. However, these effects have not been sufficiently investigated in the Andean region and at high altitude locations in general.

Here, we studied the influence of land use forest-pasture-urban on stream physico-chemical variables e. We found that pH, water temperature, and nutrient concentration increased along the land-use gradient. Macroinvertebrate communities were significantly different between land uses. Shredder richness and abundance were lower in pasture than forest sites and totally absent in urban sites, and fungal richness and biomass were higher in forest sites than in pasture and urban sites.

Leaf litter breakdown rates became slower as riparian land use changed from natural to anthropogenically disturbed conditions and were largely determined by pH, water temperature, phosphate concentration, fungal activity, and single species of leaf -shredding invertebrates. Our findings provide evidence that leaf litter breakdown in Andean streams is sensitive to riparian land-use change, with urban streams being the most affected.

In addition, this study highlights the role of fungal biomass and shredder species Phylloicus; Trichoptera and Anchytarsus; Coleoptera on leaf litter breakdown in Andean streams and the contribution of aquatic fungi in supporting this ecosystem process when shredders are absent or present low abundance in streams affected by urbanization. Finally, we summarize important implications in terms of managing of.

Carbon redistribution during interrill erosion in subtropical forests: Effects of leaf litter diversity and soil fauna. Soil erosion is crucial for degradation of carbon C from their pools in the soil. If C of the eroded sediment and runoff are not only related to soil pools but also resulting additively from decomposition of litter cover, the system gets more complex. The role of these amounts for C cycling in a forest environment is not yet known properly and thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of leaf litter diversity, litter cover and soil fauna on C redistribution during interrill erosion.

We established 96 runoff plots that were deployed with seven domestic leaf litter species resulting in none species bare ground , 1-species, 2-species and 4-species mixtures. Every second runoff plot was equipped with a fauna extinction feature to investigate the role of soil meso- and macrofauna. Erosion processes were initiated using a rainfall simulator at two time steps summer and autumn to investigate the role of leaf litter decomposition on C redistribution.

C fluxes during 20 min rainfall simulation were C fluxes and C contents both were affected by soil fauna. C fluxes were higher with presence of soil fauna due to loosening and slackening of the soil surface rather than due to faster decomposition of leaves. In contrast, C contents were higher in the absence of soil fauna possibly resulting from a missing dilution effect in the top soil layer. Leaf litter diversity did not affect C fluxes, but indirectly affected C contents as it increased the soil fauna effect with higher leaf litter diversity due to superior food supply.

Initial C contents in the soil mainly determined those of the eroded sediment. For future research, it will be essential to introduce a long-term decomposition experiment to get further insights into the processes of C redistribution. Microbial succession during leaf breakdown was investigated in a small forested stream in west-central Georgia, USA, using multiple culture-independent techniques. Red maple Acer rubrum and water oak Quercus nigra leaf litter were incubated in situ for days, and litter breakdown was quantified by ash-free dry mass AFDM method and microbial assemblage composition using phospholipid fatty acid analysis PLFA , ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis RISA , denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis DGGE , and bar-coded next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons.

Leaf breakdown was faster for red maple than water oak. PLFA revealed a significant time effect on microbial lipid profiles for both leaf species. Microbial assemblages on maple contained a higher relative abundance of bacterial lipids than oak, and oak microbial assemblages contained higher relative abundance of fungal lipids than maple. RISA showed that incubation time was more important in structuring bacterial assemblages than leaf physicochemistry.

DGGE profiles revealed high variability in bacterial assemblages over time, and sequencing of DGGE-resolved amplicons indicated several taxa present on degrading litter. Our results suggest that incubation time is more important than leaf species physicochemistry in influencing leaf litter microbial assemblage composition, and indicate the need for investigation into seasonal and temporal dynamics of leaf litter microbial assemblage succession.

The composition of yeast and macroinvertebrate communities was studied on black alder, blue gum eucalyptus and English oak leaves decaying in a stream during a six-month period. ANOVA analysis showed significantly different values p leaf litters. Some yeast species such as Cryptococcus albidus Saito , C.

Other yeasts were restricted to a specific type of litter. Macroinvertebrates were dominated by collectors-gatherers on oak and eucalyptus leaves. Shredders reached highest densities in alder leaves. Leaf litter breakdown, microbial respiration and shredder production in metal-polluted streams.

If species disproportionately influence ecosystem functioning and also differ in their sensitivities to environmental conditions, the selective removal of species by anthropogenic stressors may lead to strong effects on ecosystem processes. We evaluated whether these circumstances held for several Colorado, U. Benthic invertebrates and chemistry were sampled in five second-third order streams for 1 year. Study streams differed in dissolved metal concentrations, but were otherwise similar in chemical and physical characteristics.

Secondary production of leaf -shredding insects was estimated using the increment summation and size-frequency methods. Leaf litter breakdown rates were estimated by retrieving litter -bags over a day period. Microbial activity on leaf litter was measured in the laboratory using changes in oxygen concentration over a 48 h incubation period. Dissolved Zn concentrations varied eightfold among two reference and three polluted streams. Total secondary production of shredders was negatively associated with metal contamination.

Secondary production in reference streams was dominated by Taenionema pallidum. Results of previous studies and the current investigation demonstrate that this shredder is highly sensitive to metals in Colorado headwater streams. Leaf litter breakdown rates were similar between reference streams and declined significantly in the polluted streams. Microbial respiration at the most contaminated site was significantly lower than at reference sites. Our results supported the hypothesis that some shredder species contribute disproportionately to leaf litter breakdown.

Furthermore, the functionally dominant taxon was also the most sensitive to metal contamination. We conclude that leaf litter breakdown in our study streams lacked functional redundancy and was therefore highly sensitive to contaminant-induced alterations in community structure. We argue for the necessity of simultaneously. Fungal decomposers of leaf litter from an invaded and native mountain forest of NW Argentina. The impact of plant species invasions on the abundance, composition and activity of fungal decomposers of leaf litter is poorly understood.

In this study, we isolated and compared the relative abundance of ligninocellulolytic fungi of leaf litter mixtures from a native forest and a forest invaded by Ligustrum lucidum in a lower mountain forest of Tucuman, Argentina. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between the relative abundance of ligninocellulolytic fungi and properties of the soil of both forest types. Finally, we identified lignin degrading fungi and characterized their polyphenol oxidase activities.

The relative abundance of ligninocellulolytic fungi was higher in leaf litter mixtures from the native forest. The abundance of cellulolytic fungi was negatively related with soil pH while the abundance of ligninolytic fungi was positively related with soil humidity. We identified fifteen genera of ligninolytic fungi; four strains were isolated from both forest types, six strains only from the invaded forest and five strains were isolated only from the native forest. The results found in this study suggest that L. Lucidum invasion could alter the abundance and composition of fungal decomposers.

Long-term studies that include an analysis of the nutritional quality of litter are needed, for a more complete overview of the influence of L. Lucidum invasion on fungal decomposers and on leaf litter decomposition. Controls on mass loss and nitrogen dynamics of oak leaf litter along an urban-rural land-use gradient. Using reciprocal leaf litter transplants, we investigated the effects of contrasting environments urban vs. Differences in earthworm abundances and temperature had previously been documented Citizenship by Investment. No Federal agency has judged the merits or value, if any, of this property.

Prices, plans, products, and availability are subject to change without notice. Longer, shorter, taller or faster? Marcus Krall interviewed many top designers and was able to filter out three key issues. Nauta "Edge 72": a project for a design contest organized by Benetti. The form and shapes of the yachts of the future will be more and more influenced by concepts found in shorebased architecture as well as the automotive industry, as clearly more and more professionals from these industries are attracted to yacht design.

Not only Dickie Bannenberg is of that opinion. Even on his new metre project he has designed the layout to be open, to feature balconies and to provide a view of the sea wherever possible. The concept of an all-surround stern quarterdeck, which can be fully! The doyen of yacht design in Italy, responsible for. Even on his new metre project he has designed the layout to be open, to feature balconies and to Zuccon "m": the latest gigayacht from Giovanni Zuccon reflects his vision that interiors have to have a strong connection to the sea.

Balconies, open spaces and huge windows are essential from him. On this m he even reduced even the superstructure. Hydrotec "55m Explorer": Sergio Cutolo believes that future owners will travel to new territories. His Explorers are ice capable, strong as a commercial ship and - most important - equipped with enviromentally friendly systems. Giorgio Vafiadis "Extravagant Concept": the Italian-based designer believes in designs that will be more distintive and totally free from conservative lines.

Nevertheless they have to be equipped with high efficiency propulsion systems, with green engine concepts for both main engine and gen-sets. Jacob Jensen's Envury catamaran incorporates solar panels to generate energy and a small garden in her stern to ensure a basic level of provision on board. Ecological and environmental requirements will drive changes too. I think that solid teak decks and cap rails will become as unfashionable as leopard skin coats are now. But that does not work with fast and furious planers. A new generation of owners will cast the Las Vegas lifestyle aside and display environmental correctness as a status symbol.

Ecological and enviromental requirements will drive changes", says top-designer Francis Martin. Hike through the island circular routes of different length make it suitable for all ages and spot these strange creatures, as well as water buffalo and more. Biras Creek For enquiries and reservations please contact us at reservations biras. Oil Nut Bay On the secluded eastern tip of Virgin Gorda lies Oil Nut Bay, where freehold legacy ownership opportunities and unparalleled resort experiences are offered in a distinctly refined setting.

Closer to the coast, Whitehaven Beach on Whitsunday The area is well equipped for superyachts too - Abel. Sailing in a super yacht, cruising is likely to offer the best holiday ever. Settled into a comfortable, attractively appointed space, travelling along, taking in the beauty, sights and sounds there wafts from the galley; a delicious aroma. The chef is busy preparing a meal. Chef Darryl Leatthart prepares his main course of rum and jerk marinated duck breast and enoki mushrooms herbed ravioli on a citrus marinatde scallop, served with pineapple balsamic reduction and infused basil oil aboard Passion.

Unlike a hotel or restaurant where you may have a menu running for a week or month with yachting cuisine what ever you find in the market or the supplier brings you that. The reason? To make the family dog feel at home! We even had to buy a lawn mower and employ a gardener! Tim Hodgdon, President of Hodgdon Yachts Over the years we have had many requests to add unique features to their projects.

If we put her cabin on the other side of a wooden floored alleyway I will hear her coming and prepare myself. The Owner of Ambrosia III had a passion for astronomy and wanted a planetarium inside the sky lounge. He wanted it to simulate a real night view of the stars, planets and constellations. It had to be able to change and rotate and open according to the real boat position in terms of latitude and longitude. We did it of course, gaining at the same time a deep knowledge in complex astronomy! Francis Lapp, President OF Sunreef Yachts I remember once a client coming with his laptop and showing me a video simulation of one of our big catamarans literally walking out of the water on giant legs and walking up the beach.

He said it was his dream to have such kind of boat and wanted Sunreef Yachts to build it. Happily we managed to get away with a sequence of four 0. Not easy at all. The dinning room sole is now level with the sea surface, so it feels like you could almost walk out onto the water.

Jonny Horsfield. Owner and Design Director OF H2 Yacht Design The sweetest request we had came from a couple who wanted a window between the bathroom and the bedroom so that they could talk to each other whilst the other was in the bath! We had another client who did not want to waste space with clothes storage.

Every night he simply threw all his clothes on to the floor and would find what he wanted the next morning from the pile around him! The brief called for a high speed, had to have Kevlar armour plating craft capable of surviving chemical, biological, nuclear and rocket attacks. Even a mounting position for an anti aircraft gun system on the upper deck had to be investigated. Unfortunately due to international quarantine laws this idea never really got off the ground further than the paper it was designed on!

Tim Saunders, Tim Saunders Yacht Design I remember joining a client on board his private aircraft for a trip to Turkey to visit a yacht he was planning to convert. On the way, he asked me what I would design for him if he were to build a new yacht. I took out my sketchpad and began draw. I gave him my first thoughts, 3 hours later as we landed in Turkey. At the meeting in the shipyard he stunned everybody, including me, when he scrapped the conversion project and held my drawings in the air. Luca Bassani Antivari, President of Wally I recall one occasion that clashes somewhat with the laws of physics where an owner asked for at least two metres of cabin headroom using only one and half metres of height!

Another wanted a lift capable of going up to the top of the mast with his guests so they could drink and watch the sun set. We managed to persuade him that a chopper would do it much more efficiently and safely. My favourite however, was the guest who wanted his 50 metre yacht to have a glass bottom so that he did not need to get wet while watching the fish. He wanted it to be a sort of sailing snorkeling, or snorkeling while couch potatoing experience. And today superyachts have their own capital in Monaco. The "Monaco: Capital of Yachting" Commission. Officially formed in March , the Team have now performed more than 4, displays in 54 different countries.

For ,. The concept is to create a truly exceptional and indeed one-off piece.

The Warau Indians-of Guiana and vocabulary of their language

A combination of talents, the quest for excellence, innovation and healthy emulation between watch manufacturers, combined with impressive organisation and communication work, make ONLY WATCH an event that attracts worldwide. In a stunning masterstroke, the turquoise dial offers a panoramic view of monaco.

The ever-present sea is conjured up by the leaping waves engraved on the mother-of-pearl top dial and case back. As the day advances, a mother and daughter take a stroll in monaco, enjoying the precious moments they share together. Their silhouettes emerge from the dial, before slowly slipping away. A diamond-set bezel encircles and protects this charming scene.

The dial paying tribute to three artistic crafts — engraving, enamelling and gem-setting — illustrates the aesthetic mastery dear to the manufacture, while the world time complication embodies the technical excellence and the open-minded spirit that have been guiding the house for over years. This watch has experienced the joy of the podium and shared the spotlight with the gold and silver medals won by yohan. It is truly a piece of historic importance.

To further enhance its unique features; the case is also engraved with "Only Watch - Piece Unique". Unique piece.

Evidencia del Papel de Enfermedades Infecciosas en la Extinción y Puesta en Peligro de Especies

Bright red is the colour inaugurating this new process, in tribute to the red of Monaco for the 5th edition of Only Watch. It features a 5-day power reserve. Topped with a bezel discreetly bearing the three iconic arches of the harry winston Fifth Avenue salon in New york city, the case is crafted in 18k polished rose gold.

Its 42 mm diameter frames a mechanical automatic winding movement composed of parts, with an 18k rose gold skeletonized rotor, circular grained and hand-chamfered, visible through a sapphire-crystal display back. Presented in a specially designed leather gift box. The successful bidder will also be receiving a matching three-piece jewellery set: a delicate and attractive pendant, bracelet and matching pair of earrings.

All three pieces are finished in the same carat rose gold, creating the perfect ensemble for that special evening out. Timepiece with manual double barrel winding and a seven-day power reserve. Two tiny metal balls, isolated within grilled sapphire tubes on the left and right sides of the caseband magically move with no mechanical connection thanks to magnetic fields. C Tourbillon Only Watch Edition The one-of-a-kind platinum tourbillon features an exclusive hand-engraved dial and movement and is equipped with the 9-day power-reserve L.

C Calibre Today, breguet brings this movement to life again by offering it a unique design. The white gold case is set with two rows of diamonds, while the oscillating weight visible on the back is handengraved with the silhouette of this symbolic bird, as well as the oNly wATch signature. They are all inspired by instruments that are essential to aeronautical navigation and have, as their common and unique denominator, a touch of orange.

This exclusive box is designed to be a dashboard on which the vital instruments are laid out in a T for optimum legibility. It will give its possessor the impression of owning a piece of an aircraft cockpit. These rubies have been carefully selected, not only due to their association with love and passion, but because they are said to represent vitality, energy and health, all of which are qualities that are integral to the only watch charity event.

Thursday evenings until 10 pm. All rights reserved. Behind wood, we imagine the forest. In the forest, we envision the blossoming biodiversity. And we take great pleasure in thinking about the populations who take part in maintaining this ecological heritage. More than a concept, the Wood forever Pact is a real expertise of your wood supply chain. Tell us about it and whether you always live life in the fast lane?

It is an amazing charity and I meet incredibly brave women through. Journalists Press accreditations are granted by the press office to media representatives only. Summing up the period: what lessons can be drawn from the. New destinations, uses and experiences; technical innovations and latest trends. Under the title New Yachting, New Thinking, these will be among the subjects addressed by the panels and discussed at large.

This event is representative of the upscale image of the Monaco Yacht Show, the world's most amazing showcase for super yachting, and of the expertise of the Principality in this sector, thanks to the involvement of the Monaco Yacht Show, together with economic and government leaders for this initiative which contributes to strengthen its status as the World Capital of Yachting. Partners in the project are the Monaco Government Tourist Office and.

Monaco, which never ceases to optimise its appeal and has positioned itself as a major player in yachting, is pleased to see the launch of the Monaco Yacht Summit uniting key players in this sector. The CDE will be there to show them what an exceptional place Monaco is for doing business, and developing networks with professionals working on a global stage in many sectors.