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Connected to the list of manuscripts and editions is a dossier of illustrations, as well as a list of eighteenth-century translations of the text. A digital edition would avoid this seemingly arbitrary distinction between variants based on length, but in a print edition, it makes most sense to give these longer variants their own space. While obviously not part of the text, they do shed light on different aspects of it.

For example, Condorcet wrote:. People sought to set him against Mr de Voltaire. Comment les atteindre? Seul un petit nombre de gens de lettres, y compris — fait remarquable! Many individuals owe their participation in the Enlightenment to their membership in intellectual groups and institutions: the philosophes , the salons, the academies… the list goes on.

Authors examine anew some of the pre-eminent networks of the Enlightenment, drawing on digital methods and Social Network Analysis SNA to pioneer historically driven methods for thinking about networks in early-modern societies.

Data-driven approaches provide a more comprehensive and granular understanding of the many different types of networks that formed the intellectual and cultural infrastructure of the Enlightenment throughout Europe. At the most fundamental level, a social network is a system of actors nodes and the ties between them edges.

Social Network Analysis can be applied to virtually any type of network, and an SNA study relies on both information about the nodes and the relational ties between them. Reconstructing complete historical networks, however, is not only difficult and messy, but near impossible in most cases due to the quality of historic sources. The mathematical and statistical metrics typically used for SNA studies, which rely on complete or representative samples, would thus produce results that would distort reality when applied to historical data.


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As such, the adoption of SNA methods by historians requires creativity to tailor SNA methods to the object of inquiry, the data available, and the research questions at hand. The authors of the essays in this volume do precisely that: they elegantly combine traditional humanistic inquiry with innovative digital methods to offer fresh perspectives on important networks and issues of the Republic of Letters.

At this intersection of Enlightenment historiography, data capture, and social network analysis, the essays in this volume take advantage of new data sources, configurations, and modes of analysis to deepen our understanding of how Enlightenment sociability worked, who it included, and what it meant for participants.

This conference, which brought together an international group of scholars, demonstrated the exciting possibilities that can ensue when technological advancements are leveraged in the service of the humanities. The above post is reblogged from Liverpool University Press. In his defence, he never claimed to be one, and his histories are all the more interesting for it.

His authorial voice and his distinctive style were dominant, as was his constant insistence on philosophical readings of history, attempting to extract moral lessons from the past at every turn.

A collaborative blog for those interested in the Enlightenment

Voltaire leaned towards what we would today term popular history, writing a series of accessible, enjoyable books that delivered a wealth of historical knowledge and philosophical reasoning in an appealing package. Must laws with manners jar? Must every mind In France, be made by superstition blind? Wherefore should England be the only clime, Where to think freely is not deemed a crime?

Over his lifetime, no one wrote more or better for the theater than Voltaire, and he did not stop at writing. He was often involved in rehearsals, even playing key roles in his plays. But it is his private correspondence that puts his writing style best on display and reveals most about the man.

Many scholars have pored over this mountain of letters, about 15, of which have been collected for the Foundation project.

Online Library of Liberty

About another 15, are believed to have been lost. Frequently on the move-to London, to Lorraine, to Geneva-Voltaire used letter writing to spread his ideas and to maintain contacts. His correspondence leaves a valuable record of his times. These letters, says Mme. Three years in the court of Frederick in Berlin ended in a bitter break in their relations in His next stop was in the neutral city-state of Geneva, then known for its tolerance and freethinking ways.

It was here that he experienced a creative burst, writing another tragedy for the theater, a series of poems, and publishing Candide.


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Nevertheless, his ridiculing of French national heroine Joan of Arc has kept a debate going in France about his influence for good or evil. And in the modern Anglo-Saxon world, some right-leaning academics have written recently of Voltaire as the embodiment of the liberal consensus they oppose. Voltaire — the arch libertarian — would be amused at the redefinition of labels. About Authors Events Contact Submissions. Politics Americana. Blog Donate. Emmett Tyrrell, Jr. Hot Off The Press. Another Perspective. V oltaire, that ultimate freethinker and lifelong iconoclast, has never quite lost his audience.

He had it made in the shade, said my complacent conservative friends. The result was brutal. But we do not have to look back 32 years to see how unruly the leftwing mob can be. Recall the recent fate of Judge Brett Kavanaugh. Only his courage and unscotchable determinate saved him. The simple fact is that the conservatives are often slow on the draw against the American left.

Voltaire Foundation | A collaborative blog for those interested in the Enlightenment

It is time for the conservatives to rally around him. He can probably win with the President on his side. He apparently has the votes. Buy the Book. Tracy Mehan III. Immigration Laws. Inclusivity and the End of the Political. Political Hay.