Capolupo, Rosa, Schrimpf, Andreas, John G. Favero Carlo A. Journal of Macroeconomics , De Gruyter, vol. Rao, B. David E. Finlay, Barry R. West, Andrew T. Young, Andrew T. Matthew J. Young, Parmeter, Fedderke, Johannes W. Fedderke, J. Hanushek, Eric A. Eric A. Cognitive skills, economic outcomes, and causation ," Journal of Economic Growth , Springer, vol. Gary, Koop, Gary Koop, Sousa, Raghuram G.
Synonyms and antonyms of endogène in the French dictionary of synonyms
John W. Dawson, Cuaresma, Jesus Crespo, Rudiger Ahrend, Richard S. Yohe, Galimberti, Jaqueson K. Ravallion, Martin, Will Data Tell? Feldkircher, Martin, Michael Kiley, Kiley, Prarolo, Mehmet Ugur, Urban, Razzak, Weshah, Acs, Zoltan J. Robert Reed, Durlauf, Steven N. Rivers, Michael S. Delgado, Michael S. Department of Economics. Enrique Moral-Benito, Moral-Benito, Enrique, Siemers, Wright, Jonathan H. William Easterly, David Castells-Quintana, Castells-Quintana, David, Ulubasoglu, Mehmet A.
De Luca, G. Blaise Gnimassoun, Ourens, Guzman, Comunale, Mariarosaria, Ingrid Stein, The impact of cognitive skills on economic growth ," Journal of Macroeconomics , Elsevier, vol. David I. Stern, Evren Damar, Marcelo Soto, Dalgaard, C. Dijkgraaf, Lamla, Michael J. John M. Asongu, Potrafke, Niklas, Niklas Potrafke, Saxena, Eicher, Theo S. Kumar, Calhoun, Gray, Korobilis, Dimitris, Mundaca, Gabriela, Peter Huber, Aviral K.
Salimans, Tim, Oberdabernig, Doris Anita, Doris A. Oberdabernig, Brock, William A. Osterloh, Steffen, Travis J. Berge, Bloom, David E. Steel, Mark F. James C. Rockey, Strachan, Raftery, Liu, Chu-An, Fernando M. As in other countries, the urban landscape of Guadeloupe today 13 Source: J.
Historial antillais, tome IV, p. Apparently, if it is true that Guadeloupe amounts to 34 urban districts, according to the French classification, questions remain about the meaning of such a classification.
This is particularly true when many contrasts appear amongst these districts in terms of population, building density or urban equipment, etc. Most of the thirty-two other towns of Guadeloupe oscillate between country- side and urban centre s that are more or less developed, between sections and village centres, the latter being known as bourgs. The village centre in itself symbolizes this urban duality quite well. It remains in contact with the rural world through certain practices of its inhabitants, even if they are not the general rule, such as having goats and chicken at street corners.
Nonetheless, these centres also gather a relatively high density of population and urban works, whereas the scale of the built space determines its status of not yet being a city. Within the cadastral division of the commune, like its sections, the bourg is a unique entity though the way it has been originally created combining parish and institu- tions and by its historical settlement. It is system. Subsequently, there is an urban or pre-urban historicity in difficult to find the exact translation of this world the bourg that does not exist in the sections.
Today, the bourg ap- in English. Thus, the aim is to analyze the small towns in Guadeloupe and more precisely their centres through an approach that combines historical and contemporary views: how has the small town evolved in terms of urbanization? What have been the urban modernization processes? But perhaps it is time to introduce Guadeloupe a bit more. Its closest neighbours are the islands of Antigua, Barbuda, and Montserrat to the north, the islands of Dominica to the east and Martinique to the south, to name just a few Fig. With an area of km2, the archipelago includes contrasting landscapes due to the geographical relief and the resulting uneven precipices Fig.
Currently, Guadeloupe is a tourist and services-oriented island of , inhabitants,15 a French Overseas Department since , and also a European region, offering a surprising array of urban infrastructure compared with the nearest non-French Caribbean islands. Source: Giordani, J-P. Figure 2: Relief of Guadeloupe. There is reason to stress this feature because it explains to a large extent how the population settled in Guadeloupe, on which geo-physical principles the urbanization has been based, and finally, how the development of the island has been planned.
From another specific point of view, this territorial division is also apparent in the way each section of Guadeloupean land resists natural disasters differently, and to varying levels; thus affecting the extent to which they can offer protection to the urban settlements. Basse-Terre is the name of the main town of the island, founded in , and currently the administrative centre of Guadeloupe Fig. The other wing of the butterfly, Grande-Terre, has less dramatic landscapes and has had more sugar cane cultivation.
Such a dichotomy is also visible on a larger scale. Guade- loupean territory is indeed dominated by inequalities in develop- ment and the location of its population. The town of Gosier on Grande-Terre Island was chosen. Source: Tourist Office of Guadeloupe. Note: POS stands for economic change that was to modify its urban status.
In it was only modified its activities but also its town landscape. Today, replaced by the Plan Local Gosier is part of the most important urban area of Guadeloupe. Source: In conclusion, although an attempt was made to select both Ministry of Equipment. Indeed, in this study, what was specifically examined was not the regularities found while com- paring the two towns, but rather the enunciation of the growth principles. One aspect that has been deliberately reconsidered in this study is the physical perimeter of observations. Indeed, one specific reason has motivated this choice: it relates to the rigidity of cadastral surveys.
A cadastral survey is above all an administrative document, dependent on the Tax Office in France since , and therefore cannot be expected to take into account the historical changes and the spatial practices of the in- habitants even if in its divisions and subdivisions this document tries to refer to as many of them as possible.
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And there is obvi- ously a problem when considering the present urban configura- tion of the bourg. The cadastre, delineated at a certain time, is less relevant today for this particular matter because its divisions, definitively fixed, no longer reflect the urban reality. A common consensus exists, established as much by the inhabitants as by the municipal officers, that instead provides a more or less strict perimeter to the bourg.
Rather, these another, for example. Figure 4: The chosen contour for the bourg of Gosier. Source: Based on the Cadastre. Source: symbolic borders for the studied territory Fig. Carpentier, J. Histoire de France, Seuil, , p. In this sense, the chosen time span is justified by the aim to study some of its influence on a small territory like Guadeloupe, whose population almost dou- bled in less than 80 years, expanding from , inhabitants in to , in But, on top of the disas- ter itself, it is its major consequence - the reconstruction - that was to have a significant role in the built space of Guadeloupe, since it brought about the use of new building material e.
Inevitably, all these new features slowly trans- formed the designing and building processes, reshaping the urban landscape as well as the way of life, which in turn was also influ- enced by the global political and socio-economic climate. Indeed, the Great Depression of the s and, on a more national level, the beginnings of changes in the colonial French policy22 during the same period were also to play their part in the post-hurricane re- construction. Urbanization, tive aspirations on the part of the majority of Guadeloupeans as Planning and Development in the Caribbean, Mansell, well as by an assimilative policy from the French government, , p.
The impact of large blocks of apartments is still evident in the Guadeloupean urban landscape nowadays, even though their spatial congruity is called into question more than ever. Today local architects try to find their way out of stereotypes. Thus, the chosen time span offers many opportunities for considerations. Finally, the choice to work on the contemporary period is also justified by the paucity of studies that exist on this period.
French History, as a methodological science, has faced important changes over the last 80 years, which has considerably modified its relationships to time and to its field of analysis. Febvre and M. Bloch announced, among other features, the end of a descriptive and narrative History, devoted to the com- pilation of facts, in favor of a History that questions its object. The new emphasis on the role of the historian in relation to History provided another opportunity to broaden the field.
Hence rural history, and then urban history, opened new fields of explo- ration that were particularly interesting for the new historians.
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However, the s again marked a turn, for the results from the interdisciplinary studies appeared to be disappointing when hegemonic ideologies were questioned. Since then, the discipline 24 This present chapter is directly inspired by the of history remains in crisis, yet the profound mutations of the late lectures on History given 20th century have not been fundamentally denied. This is visible in by Professor D. Now they not only describe the document content, 25 Topolski, J. Methodology of History, Reidel Publish- origin, author, date but are also able to take a distance from it and ing Company, , p.
Indeed, the comparison between Cuba a , p. Spanish colony , Jamaica an English colony and Guadeloupe a 30 The lack of a specialized office or administrative French colony in the same period 17thth century , quickly re- service in charge of the veals how Guadeloupe presented an undeveloped urban land- development of cities on the island for a long scape. With a more qualitative approach, the comparison between period is further evidence the main cities of the three aforementioned islands La Havana, of the lack of interest in urban thinking.
Kingston and Basse-Terre also shows the absence of systematic 31 , persons in planning in the Guadeloupean case, even though some traditional and , in Source: Arch. Thus, urban thinking was not a priority for those in power who, almost exclusively, needed plantations and ports,30 even in the midth century when the population started to increase consider- ably and constantly. This event had a great impact on the island, for it symbolically and concretely signalled the acceleration of the assimilation process, which aimed at raising the Guadeloupean way of life to that of mainland citizens.
The attempt to plan the territory of Guadeloupe as an urban territory was viewed as one way to achieve this. In this sense, even though the time span of this study is re- stricted to the contemporary period, it is evident that some knowl- edge of the local history is essential, for the great or factual History of France cannot be taken for granted. The historical basis is then required to evaluate the production, practices, and uses related to the built space. Sanoli, or Giordani, J-P. Saint-Claude, Histoire ground. The analysis omits tial one found on this topic. Pressplay, La Guade- Furthermore, although the geographical analysis of G.
Gosier, thus escaping from bonds of traditional interests main 39 Doctoral dissertation cities. Third, by its obvi- ously intimate knowledge of the commune, Casimir brings a unique insider perspective, rich in anecdotes and thus distant from cold reports. In the same way, the lack of context or comparison with other communes does not give space to judge whether the case study is exceptional or part of wider phenomenon.
Furthermore, despite the focus on urbanization, the work is totally lacking from the architectural point of view. Flohic, or from the building heritage viewpoint, which seldom pays atten- , proposes a compila- tion to domestic architecture. Buisseret, Histoire 41 Ed. Gravette, Architectural Heritage Publishers, In logical Studies seminar, Tampere University of this work, thirty pages are devoted to the architecture of the bourg, Technology, Sept. This is considerable when one looks at the paucity of literature on the subject.
However, one can also discern the influ- ence of the second book, J. Berthelot and M. In their book, Berthelot and Gaume essentially focused on the wooden house la case , proposing a fine typology in various Carib- bean countries, describing material, form and evolution, as well as a brief historical context. Nevertheless, it is unfortunate that the concept broadly applied in this work tended to reduce all local architecture to the case.
Furthermore, it viewed the case as the start- ing point of all further housing developments, which reflects more of an ideological perspective than anything else. Despite this, and perhaps above all else, one must acknowledge that all the works cited above nevertheless have the merit of exist- ing. But this is perhaps a matter for another debate. Alnwick, Northumberland, a combine more precisely historical and contemporary views in re- study in town-plan analysis, lation to urban forms.
Institute of British Geographers Publication, No. Philip One of the goals of typomorphological studies is to propose an and Son, Conzen , a German geographer who 49 Whitehand, J. His pur- Morphological Approach, pose was to study the development of society through the evolu- London: Routledge, Starting by defining the urban landscape as the combination of a town plan, a pattern of building forms and a pattern of urban land use, Conzen narrowed down the notion of the town plan by characterizing it as the topographical arrange- ment of a built-up urban area including three complexes of plan- ning elements: streets and their arrangement in a street-system, plots and their aggregation in the street-block and buildings and their block-plans.
This concept describes the progressive infilling of plots with buildings, resulting in a climax phase of maximum coverage, terminating in the clearance of the plot, preparatory to redevelopment. In other words, the context is conceived as a major part of the analysis of the town plan because it represents a bridge between morphological and functional approaches in urban geography. Similarly, another scholar, the Italian architect Caniggia , developed urban morphology studies on the theoretical ba- sis that urban form can only be understood historically because it is continually transforming.
French transla- tion , Ville Recherche mations or in several cultural areas but within a chosen time span Diffusion, , p. This has been particularly developed at elements are bricks … ; structures are individual the scale of individual buildings, seen as a historical individualiza- associations of several tion both spatially and temporally , whereas the geographical elements, such as the floor, wall … ; systems are ideas focus more on how the forms make urban areas fit together. Space and Urban. A built space in a certain area and at a certain time.
So, from this Italian viewpoint, the developed la barre, op. Paris IV, unpublished, Vol. It developed a methodology that consid- ers the analysis of types and urban forms and that of social contents of equal importance. Perhaps one of the best reflections of this understanding of typomorphology and closer to the case in point, is the work of Letchimy, a geographer56 and urban planner from Martinique. A Study in Town-Plan as a physical perimeter readable on a plan, but rather exists in Analysis, op. Rossi and C. See The scholar Carter has challenged typomorphological studies by comments on their contri- developing a branch of studies in urban landscape management, in bution in Castex, J.
Finally, although typomorphological studies developed in op- position to Modernism,62 external criticism towards typomor- phological methodologies were few because typomorphological studies developed relatively independently. Besides, as far as I know, there has never been any morphological study precisely focusing on the territory of Guadeloupe, even less on the bourgs of Guadeloupe. At its modest level, this case study can international seminar on urban forms ISUF, Italy, propose a complementary view to what has been usually studied, cannot be consi- by covering a different functional type of town, as well as towns of dered as properly reflecting the studies on different cultural areas.
Source: The 2. Still, it is important to bear in mind that this is the work of an architect, and thus certainly lacks a truly historical approach. Concerning the methodology, the first step consisted in collect- ing different material. These collected materials are essential because they compose the necessary basis to set out the human context, bring out the historical context, as well as provide the foundation for the typomorphological analysis.
A large part of this work has been dedicated to interviews. If this way of collecting material is surprising in light of the topic, it nonetheless proved to be indispensable because it provided a re- markable shortcut to knowledge about the commune. In tute one example. It is regretful that IGN has not the same way, interviewing the urban actors such as architects, updated its data in its urban planners, politicians and town council officers was consid- recent edition of Guade- loupean maps, particular- ered important because it provided insight into fields in which the ly on Gosier: public author is not specialized.
Unfortunately, few of these interviews buildings from are still missing and others, will show up as such in this dissertation, yet they underlie the work long-since destroyed by as a whole, and thus need to be acknowledged. Hurricane Hugo in , are still shown. First of all, the and to name only the most recent and destructive ones , researcher has to under- thus provoking the disappearance of archives if they ever existed , stand the particular History and then to be able but unfortunately, contemporary practices do not fill the gap.
Moreover, the fact that people do not always apply for building permits when constructing or expanding their houses represents another factor that can explain the difficulty of finding reliable sources: they are either non-existent or not updated. Ultimately, enough data were accumulated to start the analysis process. The analysis itself consisted of several phases, for working in the West Indies field is a real challenge66 and implies the elabo- ration of specific tools.
At first, the idea was to analyze the bourg from a historical point of view. Seuil, ; Lefebvre, comparative analysis. Nonetheless, very quickly, the need for H. Yet, because of its global approach, the Conzenian methodol- ogy alone would have been restrictive considering the small scale of this study in terms of time span and site scale , for an analysis limited to urban forms would have left out some essential urban realities, which are only visible at the building scale.
Thus, a com- plementary methodology was sought that could offer this typo- logical insight, and in this sense, the Caniggian methodology appeared to be the most appropriate. Finally, it became evident that the combination of the three methodologies historical, morphological, typological would be crucial to conduct this analysis. From the collected material, the aim was to question whether - it could test the hypothesis that there is a duality in moderniza tion, and whether the actions of various actors such as institu tions and individuals can be visible on a plan; - it could reveal the factors, which produced those contempo rary urban forms.
Lefebvre space as a social production and as a social product , and P. Bourdieu space as an economical instrument. In the scale of these case studies is far from being comparable. While Conzen had the great opportunity to work with available docu- ments, this has not been always the case in this study, which has made it necessary to produce conjectural plans, with all the rela- tivity that it entails.
The physical particularities of a parcel size, shape, length, lo- cation in the urban fabric , and its historical qualities owner s , use, transformation or not during the time period , will be evalu- ated to link them with the building. Practically, this leads to de- scribing the population growth, occupation , as well as the institutions of the town.
Thus, the evolution of the plan through its processes of different origins within its context may be analyzed. A reading of the different urban forms will be proposed as well, while keeping in mind their relationship with the social aspect. In the second task, attention is given to the decision-makers and the scales at which decisions affecting urban forms have been made.
Once again, one has to realize however, that the choice of time span does not allow the definition of an original to be understood as the first basic type, for this study starts at a period which has already inherited almost years of settlement. Particularly here, in this study, the basic type can only illustrate a basic predominant type at a certain and precise time.
Here, they have been restricted to crite- ria covering the elements of typomorphological analysis, that is: access to street, electrical and water networks, the use of recent technologies for building both in the building methods and in the material , hygiene and comfort. At the same time, this examination will be confronted with urban planning regulations, which should reveal the degree of institu- tional or individual implication. Finally, the modernization processes should be discussed with regard to previously accomplished work as well as to archives that specifically focus on this theme.
Only the comparison of the two case studies makes it possible to draw conclusions, to test the hy- pothesis and the above-mentioned assumptions, and furthermore, allow the opportunity to reveal some typomorphological phe- nomena of general significance as well as those peculiar to itself. Figure 6: The diagram of the methodology. This is even more flagrant when regarding the period preceding the hurricane of it seems that few docu- ments have survived to provide insight into the built space of the bourgs at the dawn of the twentieth century.
However, even minimal information can be indispensable in trying to understand the consequences of the hurricane of in terms of reconstruction, ways of building and settling in the bourg. Consequently, the aim of this first part is to provide a brief context concerning the architectural features and history of Guade- loupe shortly before the hurricane, followed by a presentation of the impact and the results of the reconstruction. Figure 7: Map of Guadeloupe, Terre by Sainte-Maure or those made under Berryer, state 73 Saint-Claude is the only town in Guadeloupe with- secretary at the Naval Corps between and Fig.
If the reasons explaining this setting and its permanency over 74 Because it represents one of the significant features the years have already been discussed,74 the question remains con- of the colonial settlement cerning the precise shape of the bourgs, their level of development, in the West Indies. More precisely on Guadeloupe, the character of their architecture, and so forth. The appearance of postcards, made official in in p. In this study, these characteristics have been Bousquet-Bressolier, C. This is, for example, the case of Trois- Figure 9: Le Moule, Jacob Street, Figure Vieux-Bourg, no date.
Source: Chopin A. HC, , p. Figure The bourg of Deshaies, c. Figure Baillif, Inventory of the goods Nonetheless, nuances need to be added, for if the alignment of depending on the Fabrique of the parish church of the houses on each side of the colonial road, which simultaneously Commune of Gosier, on serves as the main street, is rarely questioned, the scale of density 2. The postcards of Vieux-Bourg Fig. It even underlines the spatial separation between the church in the newspaper La and the presbytery, unlike in other cases e.
Source: Guide entrance of the bourg by the same name, on a square, at the du Tourisme, Paris: I- Larose, , p. Concerning the urban characteristics observable in the bourgs, such as the way of organizing the buildings with regard to the street alignment of the facades, homogeneity of the building size, presence of public square, etc. Indeed, if the postcards of Le Moule Fig.
Figure Le Moule, La rue Jacob, Capesterre, Fig. Port- Louis, Fig. In the same way, from one bourg to the other, disparities exist. In both places, the omnipresence of veg- etation, the mango trees breaking the alignment of the outnum- bering single-storey houses and the grass growing around the buildings give a strong feeling of the rural world. Buildings are equally simple, increasing the same impression: small rectangular shape, rough wood planking, wooden shingles essentes as the major element for the roof, and some rare sheet-metal sheets, used for roofing or wall coating.
Yet, the presence of gas lampposts in Bouillante reveals well how the impression can also be contradicted within the bourg. Ex- tra postcards of Le Moule are evidence of this phenomenon on the scale of districts, where the level of urbanization obviously differs. Jacob Street Fig. Certainly, Le Moule possesses several spatial specificities, which are not always in agreement with one another. Finally, neither general features nor a type, as far as the bourgs are concerned, can possibly be drawn from the documents due to the wide variety displayed.
Nevertheless, despite such variety common elements exist, and the choice of wood, as building mate- rial, seems to be one of them. There, instead of raw planking or wooden shingles for the walls, it is the tongue-and-groove matching technique which is evident, producing a standardization of the pieces of wood, a transforma- tion of the way of building and finally creating the aesthetic vis- ible on the facades. Figure The church of Gosier, no date. Source: Fabre, C. Furthermore, elaborated details in wood, offering protection the opening such as skirting boards around the windows, or the against rain, heavy sun, etc.
Stone is most often employed for the foun- Inventory of the goods dation or the ground floor of at least a two-storey house, while the depending on the Fabrique of the parish church of the upper floors are made of wood e. It can also be used for the construction of 2. The sacristy is in wood, covered with metal sheets; the bell- tower is in masonry, covered with metal sheets.
Its common use from simple to more elaborate houses may suggest it was not. On the other hand, the appearance of a house is not limited to its building material, for its general form volume, shape of the roof , and its final decorations are important attributes as well. Similarly, it is not facades ornamented with iron balco- nies Le Moule, Fig. Figure Case de Cultivateurs, The specificity of the bourgs of Guadeloupe is per- shutters displaying diffe- haps to be found in their diversity. Indeed, synthetically, even if rent shades.
Furthermore, the different photographic angles do not consist- ently allow for accurate appreciation because the reality of the bourg is occasionally masked by the choice of picture to be taken, by the vegetation Fig. Yet, some characteristics could also be assumed to be non-existent for example, is it possible to believe in a more devel- oped street pattern and buildings for Baillif?
Therefore, the hypothesis of differences among the bourgs seems quite realistic, especially when considering the economic characteristics of each bourg as well as the specificities concerning their immediate surroundings e. In the frame of the picture.
From Slavery to Freedom
Finally, if all the previous postcards indicate the communal wealth Description of the parish e. Historial antillais, tome IV, or barely sixty houses, most of them closed during the week. Fallope, J. Even if many of those events interests of the dominating class may not have been might be significant in the general picture, as far as the time span of exactly concomitant with the study is concerned, four main events stand out because they those of the former slaves.
These events are the abolition of slavery in work it will not be discus- sed more extensively. Guadeloupe in , industrialization, and the emergence of a po- 89 Attention should be litical consciousness by a group which had until then silent, in given here to the fact that this situation, in compari- parallel with a steady increase in population. All of these simulta- son with Martinique, is neously provoked social and spatial changes. Une partie notable de la veloped at a more or less important level.
Clearly the post- its territorial unity in favour of small and middle-sized proper- emancipation period was ties;89 or to leave the plantation.
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Source: Lawson-Body, G. Besides representing an attempt to e. Source: people in search of work, for those factories were usually located Schnakenbourg, C. Duchassaing factory in Le , op. Marseillaise de Sucrerie Furthermore, industrialization, on the scale of the Guadelou- Colonial. Along des Communes, Gosier, op. Buffon, A. For a more detailed approach, see Sainton, J-P. An official rale des Colonies, Melun: imprimerie administra- report from described the situation: tive, , p.
However, on the so- for the Motherland. Source: Farrugia, L. Historial Antillais, tome V, assimilation. To sum up, it becomes evident the changes in Guadeloupean For more on this topic, see Erbs, P. Then came the hurricane of Source: CAOM, 2fi Nine-tenths of the houses were damaged, without roofs, without windows, as dilapidated as though there had been a bombing.
Others, completely destroyed, formed a pile of rubble. In fact, no one can et lamentable. Instead of providing assistance that hurricane. Muller, sent question and revive the concept of building and planning in the as the General Supervisor of the Colonies, Head of the colony.
Supervision Mission in Guadeloupe , date from December 15, Source: CAOM, fm, sg, gua And, as these priorities suggest, reconstruction was not only a mat- Only 5 days after the ter of rebuilding houses, but rather covered a large field, from law was promulgated in France on December 28th, providing infrastructure to the colony to aesthetic considerations.
Extract of the July 12, meeting not rebuilding public facilities, but rather building them. Henry considers such to be the case and finds the of dispatching subsidies and help to the victims in amounts demanded by the local government are very much Guadeloupe. Tellier, en fait, ne fait of the Hurricane. The same document drew a distinction between estates pour cette colonie. Mostly basic building materials e.
The French govern- Guadeloupe and the house in masonry, or in reinforced ment allowed the colony to take advantage of this with a reim- concrete, is the exception, bursement over 30 years.
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The proposition was accepted and thus especially in the rural agglomerations. Tur is free to design and work for technicians and the neces- the communes or for individuals. Without avril Source: Idem. It had a long-lasting Tur, sera libre de se charger des projets et travaux pour impact in Guadeloupe. Ali Tur, 4. In addition, standardization was required. But those documents mostly relate to the elaboration of Guadeloupe, Paris: Lib- roads and bridges. Only in one case do they concern buildings.
Established by The Ultimately, three types were pro- Les travaux publics de la Guadeloupe, room, and type C 60m2 including two more bedrooms and di- op. Concrete deux lits, des wc, une salle de bain. Post offices and health centres are examples of this, Vieux-Habitants. Those three buildings are almost identical, including a ground and an upper floor. At the ground level, there is a floor surface of m2, and of 64 m2 for the upper floor.
At the ground level, we find: the public office, the office of the Receptionist, the living room, the kitchen and the wc, and at the upper floor there are three bedrooms. La Guadeloupe du tricentenaire, , different kinds of support provided to the colony? Bouge, Basse- Terre, Bulletin reconstruction in is far from being so positive. Rather, it seems that very little was achieved in the seven years compared to what was planned.
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In general, the critical tone of his comments and categories established by the many sentences in the conditional tense e. For out of this classification because the Act of August example, when discussing the road works, he evokes how the 20th, was not roads are classified and on whom their maintenance depends. Source: idem, p. Despite this fact, two points are worth noting: first, the loupe. Emphasis added. Budgets New works, Civil Engineering Dept. Note 1: French money was constantly devaluated in the period of study as indicated by this document, and it was impossible to state whether those numbers were given in terms of a constant Franc.
The numbers might only partially reflect the actual given budget. Indeed, after several years, the use of concrete was no longer restricted to public buildings, but had spread to include wealthy families. This was because concrete embodied a certain image of modernity and represented a certain social ascension, on top of its comforting features.
If, thanks to the introductory historical con- tp ; yet by only one-third of the district text, some of the architectural and urban characteristics have been area was built. Source: evoked and shape the understanding of the basis on which the Giordani, J-P. Although zation. For more, see e.
Sempaire, E. The repartition of the population on the island in The succession of the different laws e. For more on War an tan Sorin in Guadeloupe created a shortage of goods and this period, see the work of Sempaire, E. Kolodziej, EDCA, Source: Miles, social services, starting from the founding of basic social security W. Source: Ageron, C-R.
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For more on Sector of activity the subject, see for exam- I 36 18 8 3 ple, Michalon, T. Source: Robert, G. Les Travaux publics de la centre was already opened Guadeloupe, op. Because of the late introduction of communal land-use plans in Guadeloupe not before the s , and especially, due to their discontinuous production concerning the case studies, as well as the difficulty to find contemporary cadastral maps precisely on the period , such documents, few in number, cannot be used chronologically in comparison with one another.
They have thus intentionally been omitted in this part of the analysis. The materials used to conduct the morphological analysis are the fol- lowing: -the maps of the French mapping agency IGN that present the advantage of a synthetic view of the forms and of the street layout; but nonetheless offer too much uncertainty large scale and unreliability and no idea of the plot system besides, since the production of such documents only starts after , almost 30 years of the chosen time span remain uncovered.
In addi- tion, conjectural plans have been drawn to facilitate the readability of the study, despite the degree of unreliability they contain. Source: IGN The village has been razed and the inhabitants camp under disjointed wooden boards. Report from the French Ambassador to of Gosier may be found, on a site benefiting from relatively the US, Paul Claudel, on good access to the sea, despite the presence of mangroves and cliffs, October 18, Le the inland largely dominated by hilly lands terres morneuses.
The second and final emancipation in per- during the 17th and 18th in Guadeloupe and Marti- petuated what had begun with the French Revolution and been nique. The limits of the stopped by the reign of Napoleon who reintroduced slavery in district are almost fitting those of the parish, the , after it had already been abolished once in : namely, the religious circonscription. It is only in that Guadeloupe and search conducted by G. Renia, and M.
Troussier, and we are grateful to M. Richard Stranz for the translation of text for this publication. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Article First Online: 06 August This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. L'Inceste focal dans la famille noire antillaise.
Paris: PUF. Google Scholar. Bourdier, F. BVS, Carde, E. Guadeloupe, Guyane, Martinique: Saint-Martin. Deleuze, G. Mille Plateaux. Dozon, J. Fanon, F. Paris: Points. Farmer, P.