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Boiten Gerda Jeannette, Wijsheid in context. Een onderzoek naar de reto-. Chang Sok-Chung, Yhwh's Land. A Composition Analysis of 2 Kings 17,. Claremont, Ph. Christian Exegesis, Virginia, Ph. Cole H. DM Corley Thomas J. Den Hertog Cok, Het zonderlinge karakter van de Godsname. Literaire, psy-. Diop A. Dozio Paolo, Fonetica efonologia dell'ebraico tiberiense. Principi per una. Duggan Michael W. Hosea , p. Coniectanea Biblica. Fischer Alexander A. Studien zur Komposi-.

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Wie gehe ich mit Zweifeln um?

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Friedhelm Jung

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Christakis Christos, Parthenia. The Teaching ofthe Cappadocian Fathers. Brill, Jahrhunderts, Marbourg, D. Das Zeugnis der christlichen Quellen, p. Forschungen zur antiken Sklaverei , Stuttgart, Steiner Verlag. Haley Judy, The Politics of Unity. Envoy and Audience in the Letters of. Ignatius to Smyrna, Harvard, D. Letsch-Brunner Silvia, Marcella. Discipula et magistra. Das Leben einer. Ein Beitrag zur Kirchengeschichte des 4. Jahrhunderts, Zurich, D. Loessl Josef, Intellectus gratiae. Die erkenntnis-theoretische und herme-. Vigiliae Christianae. The Tea-. Die verschiedenen Betrachtungsweisen der Heilsverwirkli-.

Early Fifth Century Minorca. Stramara Daniel, Unmasking the Meaning of Prosopon. Prosopon as Per-. Louis, Ph. Eine Schrift. Wallraff Martin, Der Kirchenhistoriker Sokrates. Untersuchungen zu. Aspetti antropologici, Rome, Santa Croce, Teol. Voir aussi les nos , , Accrocca Felice, L'immagine di san Francesco d'Assisi in scritti dei.

EccL, , Fois M. Auffarth Christoph, Mittelalterliche Eschatologie, p. A Systematic Study ofPerson. Victor tll73 , p. Thomas Aquinas on God's. Theologische Relevanz. Bibliotheca Victorina , Turnhout, Brepols. Klaassen A. Geor- gen, D. Murray Ellen, Tears. Symbol of Conversion in the Writings of Catherine.

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Victor, p. Williams Anna N. Yale, Ph. Zas Friz Rossano, La teologia del simbolo de san Buenaventura, p. Voir aussi les nos , , , , , Atwood Craig D. Life and Liturgy in Zinzendorfs. Bethlehem, Princeton, Sem. Flugschriften der fruhen Reformation, Goettingue, D. Die Ablasstheologie Kardinal. Ihr Verhaltnis. Kirchenzucht und. The Controversial. Reformer, p. Untersuchungen zu seiner. Deutung im deutschsprachigen Protestantismus des Morales Martin Maria, Los comienzos de las reducciones de la Pro-. Die Christologie des Thomas de Vio. Cajetan, p. Cornelio Musso. Pauls R. Melanchthon en de kunst van de herhaling.

Spruyt B. Eucharist , Leyde, Ph. Udovic Edward R. Washington, Ph. Der Reforma-. Voir aussi les nos , , , , , , , , , , The Bible. Revista Internacional de. Ein Lebenfur Kirche und. Gemeinschaftsbewegung, Bethel, D. Henry Newman. A Basis for his Phenomenology of Belief, p. Heap N. Towards the Restoration of a Portrait, Oxford, Ph. Eine refor-. Johnson Kathryn L. Avoiding Lessing's Ditch.

Ein konservativer Kir-. Meiattini Giulio, Sentire cum Christo. La teologia deli 'esperienza cris-. Neenan Benedict T. Cultura y religion. Noss Peter, Martin Albertz. Wirkungskreise eines Theologen und Kirchen-. La teologia del. Pagani, P. Mola, L. Aliprandi, L. Tosi, G. Giudici, L. Lodigiani, G. Vertua , p. Raupp Werner, Christian Gottlob Barth. Studien zur Biographie und. Jahrhun- derts, p. Fonti e sviluppo nell'insegna-. Ereignisse, Strukturen, Personen, Francfort, Skt. Schweda Torsten, Kirchliche Strukturentwicklung in der Stadt. Die Evan-.

Jahrhunderts bis , p. Harburger Jahrbuch, 20 , Theologische Zeitsdiagnose. Wall Richie Monroe, Jr. Yorty Thomas H. Zimniak Stanislaw, Salesiani nel Mitteleuropa. Zitt Renate, Zwischen innerer Mission und staatlicher Sozialpolitik. Voir aussi les nos 6, 13, 15, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , Theological and Ecclesial Argument , 2 vol, et p. Ambadam Rappai, From Vicariates to Hierarchy. A History of the Syro-. Connell William L. Christian Front, Washington, Ph. Ihre Sichtung und kritische Wurdigung, Erlan- gen, D. Une recherche sur le Vicariat apostolique du Haut- Congo , 3A1 p.

Kasabula Tadeusz, Ignacy Jakub Massalski jako biskup wilenski Laine Esko, Yksimielisyys - Sota - Pietismi. Tutkimuksia suomalaisesta. Studies in Society and Clergy in Finland , p. Link-Wieszorek Ulrike, Inkarnation oder Inspiration? Analyse und Dis-. Jahrhundert bis zur Gegenwart, Heidelberg, Hab. Church Architecture Society. Nino Francisco Antonio, La Iglesia en la ciudad. Pellicciari Angela, L'attacco alla Chiesa condotto dalle aule. Schade Herwarth Frhr. Hamburgische Gesangbuchgeschichte, p. Lateranense, Strahm Dons, Vom Rond in die Mine.

Christologie aus der Sicht von Frauen. Voir aussi les nos , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , Dobbs J. Reiss Wolfram, Die Grundlage der Erneuerung in der koptisch-orthodoxen. Die Geschichte der koptischen Sonntagsschulbewegung und ihres Beitrags zur Erneuerung der koptisch-orthodoxen Kirche in der Gegen- wart, p. Sharam E. The Corporate Identity of Christ in. Voir aussi les nos , , , , , , Haro , et 86 p.

Harrell Charles, St. Basil the Great as Icon. A Study in Late Antique and. Iacobone Pasquale, Mysterium Trinitatis. Dogma e iconografia nell'Italia. Voir aussi les nos , , , , Histoire de la liturgie. Henner Jutta, Fragmenta liturgica Coptica. Editionen und Kommentare. Jahrtausends, p. Johnson Todd, In Spirit and Truth. Pneumatology, Modernism and their. Knodt Gerhard, Leitbilder des Glaubens. Hagiologisch-liturgische Stu-. Syrian Liturgy, xlvi p. L 'eucologio bizantino di Porfyrio Uspensky, lv p.

Lara James R. Stational Liturgy. Ouwens K. Missen en Gezangen De basis. Messes et chants La base du chant vieux-catholique aux Pays-Bas , p. Oud- kath. Boekenhuis, Isbn Pentkovsku Aleksej, La versione russa del Typikon del patriarca Alessio. Ruth J. XI-XII, p. Stackhouse Rochelle A. Change in the Early Republic, Drew, Ph. Wrr Zbigniew, Troska liturgiczna o czlowieka chorego w swietle polskich.

Zur mittelalterlichen Ge-. Voir aussi les n08 , , , , , Assisi, p. Angle Siddika Patricia, Angel to Apostle. Models of Spirituality for Single. Babjak Jan, P. Michal Lacko, s. Hoe de franciskaanse. L'introduzione dei trappisti. XI, Castellon Covarrubias Jaime A. La espiritualidad del Padre Alberto Hurtado Cruchaga, s. De praktijk der godzaligheid TA. Tekstuitgave met inleiding, vertaling en commentaar Gisbertus Voetius. A Theology of. Hope, p.

Luther ans, the New. South, and Cultural Change, , Duke, Ph. Agostinoper i laici. Park T. Marco Marulic, p. Pauli Judith, Menschsein und Menschwerden nach der geistlichen Lehre. Ottilien, EOS Verlag, Robinson Richard D. Eliot' s. Srtjerna Kirsi, St. Birgitta of Sweden. A Study of Birgitta's Spiritual.

Visions and Theology ofLove, Boston, Ph. Voir aussi les nos , , , , , , , , , , , Histoire des missions. Galumbulula F. Mas son et A. Apartheid South Africa, p. Das Inkulturations-. Sun Xiao-Ping, Dao fur Logos. Histoire des religions. Its Text and. Zoroastrism in Greek and Latin Lite-. Elmore Gerrald T. Jaffe Richard M. The Laicization ofthe Japa-. Weinstein S. A History ofHindu. Ein Kommentar zu den. Schwartz Detlef, Begegnung mit Gott. Der Ertrag von Rudolf Ottos Arbeit.


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Voir aussi les nos 39, 64, , , , , , Erlangen, D. Felten Engelbert, Die Sicht der Kirche. Fundamentaltheologie der Gegenwart, p. Grzywacz Krzysztof, Urzeczywistnianie swietosci w Kosciele. Studium na. Hayes Michael W. Thought of Rosemary Haughton, Washington, Ph. Huang Daniel P. Henry Newman , Washington, S. Expertinnen in Kirche und. Bamberger theologische Studien , Francfort, P. Korfmacher Klaus, Romano Guardini. Ekklesiologische Aspekte eines. Lapoorta Japie Jimmy, Unity or Division? The Unity Struggles of the. John Zizioulas, p. Studio sul. Lateranense, , xxm p. Rice Patrick, Social Transformation.

The Ecclesiology of Juan Luis. Segundo, Fordham, Ph. Sonnberger Klaus, Die Leitung der Pfarrgemeinde. Eine empirisch-theo-. Henri de. Lubac, 2 vol. La position de Henri de Lubac, dans E. Bauerochse Lothar, Gemeinsam leben lernen. Zwischenkirchliche Part-.

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Beuker G. Leben und Wirken. Henricus Beukers , p. Chapman Mark E. The Ecclesiology ofthe Faith and. Order Movement , Washington, Ph. Dam H. Zur Strukturver-. A Case Study in. American Adventist Worship Renewal , p. C, McFarland Ian A. A Proposai for an Eccle-. Study ofthe Problem of Doctrinal Development, p.

Vaverek V. Baptist Thought and Practice. Ecumenical Possibilities from a Roman. Catholic Perspective, Rome, Angelicum, S. Voir aussi les nos , , , Buntfuss Markus, Tradition und Innovation. Die Funktion der Metapher. Luthers Erfahrungsbe-. Diekmeyer Gerhard, Wort Gottes und christ liche Gewissheit. Zum Schrift-. Brock- haus. Du Ton S. A Dialogue between. Fundamental Theology and Contemporary Science, p.

Zur Korrelation von Offenbarungsgehalt und Vermittlungsgestalt im Kontext der entfalteten Moderne, p. Adam Anton, Ku personalistycznemu rozumieniu iaski. Studium z charyto-. Vincent Granat , xxi p.


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Context, Yale, Ph. Ekklesiologische Aspekte des Laute-. Bauke Jan, Die Allmacht Gottes. Beelecki Jerzy, L'uomo corne figlio adottivo di Dio in Cristo per la grazia. Thomas Aquinas Sources. A Transfor-. Project ofJuan Luis Segundo. A Study of the. Four Pre-Modern Christian. Frascati Marta, The Kenosis of Feminism. An Exploration of Christian. Freudenberg Matthias, Historia vitae magistra. Corona Lateranensis, 40 , Rome, Pont. Gray A. An Analysis of Some Twentieth Century. Groves P. Heggen Bruce, A Theologyfor Earth.

Herrmann Christian, Unsterblichkeit der Seele durch Auferstehung. Der Weg. Un chemin vers la. Irigaray Ricardo Luis, Tolkien y lafe cristiana, p. The Destiny of the Saints. Johnson Steven D. Narrative, Drew, Ph. Jordan Shirley F. Genesis, Yale, Ph. Kaggwa Robert, Koinonia. The Triune God and Mission. A Critical Study.

Moltmann's andJ. Kallen Werner, In der Gewissheit seiner Gegenwart. Dietrich Bonhoeffer. Kasjaniuk Elzbieta, Rekapitulacja chrystologiczna w nauczaniu Jana. This kind of doubt, according to Zimmermann, is that doubt which is expressed by the verb zweifeln an to doubt about, to doubt in, to doubt of, or to doubt on, rather than to doubt that.

The object of this doubt, he says, is some other person X. Fiducial doubt is similar to belief in some person X glauben an or jemandem glau- ben in that it expresses a certain attitude Haltung, Einstellung, pp. In the case of fiducial belief, this attitude is emotionally positive. Fiducial doubt, on the other hand, consists partly of a negative emotional attitude. However, as we have seen in our treatment of doxastic doubt, this cannot be the whole story.

It seems to be a necessary condition for doubt that the cognitive subject in question feels inclined to at least one other attitude than the attitude she has, say, trust, or distrust. At several places for instance, on p. It is evident that one cannot have at the same time fiducial doubt concerning God in the sense of Def. If that were possible, one could simultaneously believe and not believe some proposition and this seems infeasible if not conceptually incoherent. First, at several places Zimmer- mann offers an explanation of fiducial doubt that contradicts Def.

Second, besides cases of belief in something glauben an Zimmer- mann seems to treat cases of believing someone jemandem glauben as cases of fiducial belief as well cf. But, certainly, to believe some person X does not imply having a positive affective attitude toward X. It may be that often when one believes someone, one has a positive affective atti- tude toward that person, but the latter does not follow from the former.

This means that Zimmermann has either to give up his idea that believing someone is a subcategory of fiducial belief or deny that fiducial belief and fiducial doubt imply having some sort of affective attitude. If he were to do the latter, however, it would seem that fiducial doubt can almost 17 be re- duced to doxastic doubt, which Zimmermann will certainly want to avoid. Therefore, I shall assume that he will drop his claim that to believe some- one is a case of fiducial belief. Third and most importantly, particular cases of fiducial belief do not imply having a positive affective attitude toward the person or thing in ques- tion, in the same way as certain cases of fiducial doubt do not imply having a negative affective attitude toward the person or thing in question, al- though both of these attitudes might imply an emotional or existential involvement of some sort.

However, if this attitude does not imply any emotion toward the person in question, it will be hard to explain why this attitude toward that person cannot be reduced to an attitude toward some specific proposition. This issue is crucial, because the same thing applies to fiducial belief in and fiducial doubt about God. But he did not. Hence, I feel strongly inclined to think that he could not have done any such thing and that, there- fore, God is not omnipotent. At the same time, the bible tells me that God could indeed do such a thing, so that I simultaneously feel inclined to believe that he could.

Anyway, no matter what the truth about this is, I believe in God. I love him more than anyone else, I trust him, and I do everything to honor him by my thoughts, words, and deeds. There is nothing incoherent in the way this man describes his own situation. He has fiducial belief in God he has Christian faith , and at the same time he has certain fiducial doubts.


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In the same way one can have fiducial doubts about, for instance, divine revelation in the scriptures or in nature. Now that we have seen that some fiducial doubts do not imply having a negative attitude toward the person in question, we can turn to two important questions that Zimmermann raises in the course of his article.

Zimmermann answers the first question by responding to the second. The relation between fiducial and doxastic doubt, so he says, is that fiducial doubt always implies doxastic doubt. Unfortunately, the latter does not establish the truth of the former, since, as we have seen above, there are fiducial beliefs that do not imply believing that the person in question makes true assertions.

A good reason to think that fiducial doubt entails doxastic doubt, as it seems to me, is that it is hard — extremely hard, indeed — to conceive of a situation in which one has fiducial doubt concerning some person or thing without doubting whether some specific proposition is true. I would think that there is another reason why fiducial doubt is not completely independent from propositional attitudes which was the first question asked above.

That is because fiducial doubts do not only imply doxastic doubts, but also doxastic beliefs although toward different pro- positions. One might even wonder whether fiducial doubts can be reduced to doxastic doubts, which would imply that all doubts are doxastic doubts assuming that the only candidates for doubt are doxastic and fiducial doubts. This is a difficult topic that I cannot in any way satisfactorily address here. Price see above, n. There is something more here than assenting or being disposed to assent to a proposition, no mat- ter what concepts the proposition contains. Again, I am inclined to believe and do in fact believe that this will be person dependent.

If faith in God implies loving and trusting him, however, there are at least two fiducial doubts that are incompatible with Christian faith, viz. So far, we have worked with the rough definition of Christian faith as being an attitude of love and trust toward God, a definition that is also employed by Zimmermann. There are, however, a few passages in the scriptures on faith and doubt that suggest that Christian faith implies much more than merely loving and trusting God.

Let us, therefore, finally turn to those passages and see what they tell us about Christian faith and fiducial doubt. This might be easier in Heb 3 : 14, but even there an objective interpretation seems to make good sense of the text. Heb 6 : 18— On an objective interpretation, therefore, this text does not exclude fiduci- al doubt from the Christian life. Second and closely related to the first point, most scholars are con- vinced that Heb 1 does not give a definition of faith in the first place. Nowadays, this verse is often understood as an explanation of the function of faith, as a summary of what faith does or what one can do on the basis of faith.

And this seems right: the purpose of this chapter, which contains a long list of biblical heroes that performed certain acts on the basis of their faith, does not seem to be to define precisely what it means to have faith any reference to God or Jesus Christ, to sin, to eternal life, etc.

But if Heb 1 does not offer us any individually necessary or jointly suf- ficient conditions for having faith in God, then, obviously, this passage does not show that having faith excludes having certain fiducial doubts concerning God or his revelation. But, third, even if we were to assume that the subjective interpretation is correct and that Heb 1 does offer us a strict definition of Christian faith, this text is not in conflict with anything of what I have said.

For subjective interpretations faith as confidence, conviction, certainty, etc. Of course, there are several passages in the scriptures that speak nega- tively about doubt. Mk 23 Here, however, Jesus does not contend that Christian faith is incompatible with doubt. He only encourages his disciples to have faith and to believe that by their faith they can do things that at first may seem physically impossible. Mt 17 : 20 Even taken literally, this passage says nothing more than that Christian faith is a necessary condition for performing certain miraculous acts.

It goes back to vs. Incidental- ly, the bible even shows us some people that have trust in God, but still find themselves with strong doubts — doubts, I would say, that are not merely doxastic. Gerhard Dautzenberg, Art. Aalders, G. Sevenster Amsterdam: Uitgeversmaatschappij Holland, , 77—, here: It is remarkable how often in scripture faith is related to or even explained as love toward God, hope for the realization of what he promis- ed, and trust in him see, for instance, 1Cor 13 : 13, Gal 5 : 6, Eph 6 : 23, 1Thes 5 : 8, 1Tim 1: 5, 2 : 15, 6 : 11, 1Pet 1 : 21, 2 : 6, and Rev 2 : But this love is compatible with other doubts, such as doubts that certain things that are said about God are true or certain events that the bible predicts will indeed happen doxastic doubts , but also doubt of certain divine attributes or such things as the reliability of parts of reve- lation, doubts that imply an existential or emotional involvement i.

Let me end this section with a couple of questions. Above, I have dealt only with scriptural passages that make more or less explicit reference to the phenomenon of doubt. There are, however, also several places in the bible where people express their fiducial doubts concerning God, al- though these doubts are not designated as such. Does each of them testify of real fiducial doubts concerning God or, rather, of something else? Do the subjects in question have genuine faith in God when they utter these words? If the answer to the latter two questions is affirmative, how do fidu- cial doubts and faith in God relate to each other in the lives of these people?

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Conclusions On the basis of the three preceding sections, we can draw the follow- ing six conclusions. Fourth, other fiducial doubts, viz. Fifth, by its very nature having some fiducial doubt entails having some doxastic doubt. Subsequently, I champion the view that some so-called fiducial doubts are compatible with faith in God, whereas certain others are not. Also, I explain why by its very nature having some fiducial doubt entails having some doxastic doubt. Sodann vertrete ich die Ansicht, dass einige Formen des so genannten fiduziellen Zweifels mit dem Glauben an Gott vereinbar sind, andere hingegen nicht.

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