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Pearl Harbor, 1941: From a Sailor’s Perspective

It is unknown if the two piano players were with the band at this time. The exact time is unknown, but the musicians later moved to the boat deck level where they played before moving outside onto the deck itself. Part of the enduring folklore of the Titanic sinking is that the musicians played the hymn " Nearer, My God, to Thee " as the ship sank, but this appears to be dubious. George Orrell, the bandmaster of the rescue ship, Carpathia , who spoke with survivors, related: "The ship's band in any emergency is expected to play to calm the passengers.

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The one which appealed to all was 'Nearer My God to Thee'. Several witnesses support this account including A. Barkworth, a first-class passenger who testified: "I do not wish to detract from the bravery of anybody, but I might mention that when I first came on deck the band was playing a waltz. The next time I passed where the band was stationed, the members had thrown down their instruments and were not to be seen.

Bride heard the band playing as he left the radio cabin, which was by now awash, in the company of the other radio operator, Jack Phillips. He had just had a fight with a man who Bride thought was "a stoker, or someone from below decks", who had attempted to steal Phillips' lifebelt. Bride wrote later: "I did my duty. I hope I finished [the man]. I don't know. We left him on the cabin floor of the radio room, and he was not moving. He gave up on the idea of going aft and jumped into the water to get away from the crowd.

The ship's designer, Thomas Andrews, was reportedly last seen in the first-class smoking room, having removed his lifebelt, staring at the painting above the fireplace. At about , Titanic ' s angle in the water began to increase rapidly as water poured into previously unflooded parts of the ship through deck hatches. Lightoller opted to abandon his post to escape the growing crowds, and dived into the water from the roof of the officers' quarters.

He was sucked into the mouth of a ventilation shaft but was blown clear by "a terrific blast of hot air" and emerged next to the capsized lifeboat. As first-class passenger Jack Thayer [] described it:. Occasionally there had been a muffled thud or deadened explosion within the ship. Now, without warning she seemed to start forward, moving forward and into the water at an angle of about fifteen degrees. This movement with the water rushing up toward us was accompanied by a rumbling roar, mixed with more muffled explosions.

It was like standing under a steel railway bridge while an express train passes overhead mingled with the noise of a pressed steel factory and wholesale breakage of china.


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Eyewitnesses saw Titanic ' s stern rising high into the air as the ship tilted down in the water. He attributed it to "the engines and machinery coming loose from their bolts and bearings, and falling through the compartments, smashing everything in their way". After another minute, the ship's lights flickered once and then permanently went out, plunging Titanic into darkness. Jack Thayer recalled seeing "groups of the fifteen hundred people still aboard, clinging in clusters or bunches, like swarming bees; only to fall in masses, pairs or singly as the great afterpart of the ship, two hundred fifty feet of it, rose into the sky.

Shortly after the lights went out, the ship split apart. The submerged bow may have remained attached to the stern by the keel for a short time, pulling the stern to a high angle before separating and leaving the stern to float for a few minutes longer. The forward part of the stern would have flooded very rapidly, causing it to tilt and then settle briefly until sinking.

Thayer reported that it rotated on the surface, "gradually [turning] her deck away from us, as though to hide from our sight the awful spectacle Then, with the deadened noise of the bursting of her last few gallant bulkheads, she slid quietly away from us into the sea. Titanic ' s surviving officers and some prominent survivors testified that the ship had sunk in one piece, a belief that was affirmed by the British and American inquiries into the disaster.

Archibald Gracie, who was on the promenade deck with the band by the second funnel , stated that " Titanic ' s decks were intact at the time she sank, and when I sank with her, there was over seven-sixteenths of the ship already under water, and there was no indication then of any impending break of the deck or ship".

The sudden deceleration caused the bow's structure to buckle downwards by several degrees just forward of the bridge.

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The decks at the rear end of the bow section, which had already been weakened during the break-up, collapsed one atop another. The stern section seems to have descended almost vertically, probably rotating as it fell. The decks pancaked down on top of each other and the hull plating splayed out to the sides. Debris continued to rain down across the seabed for several hours after the sinking.

In the immediate aftermath of the sinking, hundreds of passengers and crew were left dying in the icy sea, surrounded by debris from the ship. These injured and possibly killed some of the swimmers; others used the debris to try to keep themselves afloat. Second Officer Lightoller described the feeling of "a thousand knives" being driven into his body as he entered the sea.

That I should be caught in this death trap? It was horrifying, mysterious, supernatural. The noise of the people in the water screaming, yelling, and crying was a tremendous shock to the occupants of the lifeboats, many of whom had up to that moment believed that everyone had escaped before the ship sank. As Beesley later wrote, the cries "came as a thunderbolt, unexpected, inconceivable, incredible. No one in any of the boats standing off a few hundred yards away can have escaped the paralysing shock of knowing that so short a distance away a tragedy, unbelievable in its magnitude, was being enacted, which we, helpless, could in no way avert or diminish.

Only a few of those in the water survived. Around 12 crew members climbed on board Collapsible B, and they rescued those they could until some 35 men were clinging precariously to the upturned hull. Realising the risk to the boat of being swamped by the mass of swimmers around them, they paddled slowly away, ignoring the pleas of dozens of swimmers to be allowed on board. In his account, Gracie wrote of the admiration he had for those in the water; "In no instance, I am happy to say, did I hear any word of rebuke from a swimmer because of a refusal to grant assistance Its occupants had to sit for hours in a foot of freezing water, [] and many died of hypothermia during the night.

Boat No. Collapsible D rescued one male passenger who jumped in the water and swam over to the boat immediately after it had been lowered. In all the other boats, the occupants eventually decided against returning, probably out of fear that they would be capsized in the attempt. Some put their objections bluntly; Quartermaster Hichens, commanding lifeboat No. After about twenty minutes, the cries began to fade as the swimmers lapsed into unconsciousness and death. Lowe then took a crew of seven crewmen and one male passenger who volunteered to help, and then rowed back to the site of the sinking.

The whole operation took about three-quarters of an hour. By the time No. Lucy, Lady Duff-Gordon , recalled after the disaster that "the very last cry was that of a man who had been calling loudly: 'My God! My God! For an entire hour there had been an awful chorus of shrieks, gradually dying into a hopeless moan, until this last cry that I speak of. Then all was silent. Otherwise, all they could see were "hundreds of bodies and lifebelts"; the dead "seemed as if they had perished with the cold as their limbs were all cramped up".

In the other boats, there was nothing the survivors could do but await the arrival of rescue ships. The air was bitterly cold and several of the boats had taken on water. The survivors could not find any food or drinkable water in the boats, and most had no lights. As dawn approached, the wind rose and the sea became increasingly choppy, forcing those on the collapsible boat to stand up to balance it.

Some, exhausted by the ordeal, fell off into the sea and were drowned. The 30 or more men on collapsible B finally managed to board two other lifeboats, but one survivor died just before the transfer was made. Those on Carpathia were startled by the scene that greeted them as the sun rose: "fields of ice on which, like points on the landscape, rested innumerable pyramids of ice.

As the lifeboats were brought alongside Carpathia , the survivors came aboard the ship by various means. Some were strong enough to climb up rope ladders; others were hoisted up in slings, and the children were hoisted in mail sacks. They were all on Carpathia by Carpathia had been bound for Fiume, Austria-Hungary now Rijeka , Croatia , but as she had neither the stores nor the medical facilities to cater for the survivors, Rostron ordered that a course be calculated to return the ship to New York, where the survivors could be properly looked after.

Even before Carpathia arrived in New York, efforts were getting underway to retrieve the dead. The prevailing public reaction to the disaster was one of shock and outrage, directed against several issues and people: why were there so few lifeboats? Why had Ismay saved his own life when so many others died? Why did Titanic proceed into the ice field at full speed? In places closely associated with Titanic , the sense of grief was deep. The ship had been a symbol of Belfast's industrial achievements, and there was not only a sense of grief but also one of guilt, as those who had built Titanic came to feel they had been responsible in some way for her loss.

In the aftermath of the sinking, public inquiries were set up in Britain and the United States. Neither inquiry found negligence by the parent company, International Mercantile Marine Co. The US inquiry concluded that those involved had followed standard practice, and the disaster could thus only be categorised as an " act of God ", [] and the British inquiry concluded that Smith had followed long-standing practice which had not previously been shown to be unsafe [] the inquiry noted that British ships alone had carried 3.

The British inquiry also warned that "What was a mistake in the case of the Titanic would without doubt be negligence in any similar case in the future. The disaster led to major changes in maritime regulations to implement new safety measures, such as ensuring that more lifeboats were provided, that lifeboat drills were properly carried out and that radio equipment on passenger ships was manned around the clock.

Titanic ' s sinking has become a cultural phenomenon, commemorated by artists, film-makers, writers, composers, musicians and dancers from the time immediately after the sinking to the present day. The wreck is steadily decaying, turning to oxide at a rate of 0. The number of casualties of the sinking is unclear due to several factors, including confusion over the passenger list, which included some names of people who cancelled their trip at the last minute, and the fact that several passengers travelled under aliases for various reasons and were double-counted on the casualty lists.

Less than a third of those aboard Titanic survived the disaster. Some survivors died shortly afterwards; injuries and the effects of exposure caused the deaths of several of those brought aboard Carpathia. The figures show stark differences in the survival rates between men and women, and of the different classes aboard Titanic , especially among women and children.

Similarly, five of six first-class and all second-class children survived, but 52 of the 79 in third class perished. Of the pets brought aboard , three survived the sinking. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Course traveled by the bow. Course traveled by the stern. Distress signal. The ship's time had been set at midnight, 13—14 April , and was based on the expected position of Titanic at local apparent noon on 14 April, which in turn was based on the star sights of the evening of 13 April, adjusted by dead reckoning.

Due to the unfolding disaster, Titanic ' s clocks were not adjusted at midnight of 14—15 April. Even though she did not have enough lifeboats for all passengers, they were all saved because the ship was able to stay afloat long enough for them to be ferried to ships coming to assist. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved 2 January Retrieved 7 January The New York Times. Retrieved 15 April Coast Guard Navigation Center. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 4 July In a review of Patten, Louise Good as Gold. Quercus Publishing.

Retrieved 6 October Retrieved 1 May Titanic: A Night Remembered.

Eleanor Widener, first class passenger". Archived from the original on 22 August A Night to Remember. National Geographic Channel. Retrieved 17 February The Telegraph. Retrieved 20 January Books [ edit ] Aldridge, Rebecca The Sinking of the Titanic.

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New York: Infobase Publishing. Ballard, Robert D. The Discovery of the Titanic. New York: Warner Books. Barczewski, Stephanie Titanic : A Night Remembered. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. Barratt, Nick London: Random House. Bartlett, W. Titanic : 9 Hours to Hell, the Survivors' Story. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Amberley Publishing.

‘Shattered’ the Inside Story of What Sunk Hillary Clinton’s Campaign

Beesley, Lawrence []. Titanic ; its Story and its Lessons". The Story of the Titanic as told by its Survivors. London: Dover Publications. In Bergfelder, Tim; Street, Sarah eds. The Titanic in myth and memory: representations in visual and literary culture. London: I. Brown, David G. The Last Log of the Titanic. Butler, Daniel Allen Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books. Chirnside, Mark Stroud, Gloucestershire: Tempus. Cox, Stephen Chicago: Open Court Publishing. Eaton, John P. Wellingborough, Northamptonshire: Patrick Stephens. Titanic : Triumph and Tragedy.


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  • Everett, Marshall Wreck and Sinking of the Titanic. Chicago: Homewood Press. Foster, John Wilson The Titanic Complex. Vancouver: Belcouver Press. Georgiou, Ioannis Atlantic Daily Bulletin. Southampton: British Titanic Society. In Halpern, Samuel ed. Stroud, Gloucestershire: The History Press. Gleicher, David Research in Maritime History, No. Gracie, Archibald The Truth about the Titanic. New York: M. Also published as: Gracie, Archibald Titanic: A Survivor's Story.

    The History Press. Halpern, Samuel Halpern, Samuel; Weeks, Charles Hoffman, William; Grimm, Jack New York: Beaufort Books. Howells, Richard Parton The Myth of the Titanic. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Hutchings, David F. Sparkford, Somerset: Haynes. Kuntz, Tom The Titanic Disaster Hearings. New York: Pocket Book. Lord, Walter London: Penguin Books. Lord, Walter []. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. The Night Lives On. Lynch, Donald Titanic : An Illustrated History. New York: Hyperion. Marcus, Geoffrey The Maiden Voyage. New York: Viking Press. Marshall, Logan Sinking of the Titanic and Great Sea Disasters.

    Philadelphia: The John C. Winston Co. New York: Citadel. Mills, Simon Dorset: Waterfront Publications. Mowbray, Jay Henry Sinking of the Titanic. Parisi, Paula Titanic and the Making of James Cameron. New York: Newmarket Press. Regal, Brian Radio: The Life Story of a Technology. Richards, Jeffrey Imperialism and Music: Britain, — Manchester: Manchester University Press.

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    Turner, Steve The Band that Played On. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson. Verhoeven, John D. Steel Metallurgy for the Non-Metallurgist. Winocour, Jack, ed. Zumdahl, Steven S. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning. Journal articles [ edit ] Foecke, Tim 26 September Materials Today. Retrieved 4 March Maltin, Tim March Smithsonian Institution. Ryan, Paul R.

    Powell told Congress that he doesn't think a return to the gold standard in the U. CNBC unveils its 13th annual America's Top States for Business ranking, scoring all 50 states on more than 60 measures of competitiveness across 10 broad categories. Labor Secretary Alex Acosta — who as a prosecutor cut a deal that spared financier Jeffrey Epstein of federal charges a decade ago — is answering reporters' questions for the New York Sen. Washington, D. IAC Chairman Barry Diller said that Netflix has such a large head start that competing streaming services won't be able to catch up.

    The announcement comes amid growing investor concerns that assets are priced insecurely because of certain climate risks that are not being factored in.


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    Rate cuts can be a great thing for the stock market, or a sign of trouble ahead — depending on the timing. William Rudin, head of his family's New York City property development empire, told CNBC on Thursday that the political pressure that led Amazon to withdraw its plans to build a Queens headquarters was borne out of a lack of understanding of the benefits. New York State Sen. Michael Gianaris , along with fellow Democrat U. Ironically, Rudin said in a "Squawk Box" interview, about 65 percent of those incentives were already on the books to encourage any company to bring operations to one of the city's four boroughs outside Manhattan — Queens, Brooklyn, the Bronx and Staten Island.

    That's why these extra incentives were needed to try to get them here. Despite Amazon's decision, Rudin believes New York City will continue to thrive, citing the growing presence there of technology giants Facebook and Alphabet 's Google. He also pointed to Estee Lauder 's decision to move employees to the same Long Island City area that was supposed to house the Amazon headquarters. In the heart of Manhattan, a group called the Job Creators Network, put up a billboard slamming liberal firebrand and freshman lawmaker Ocasio-Cortez, whose nickname is AOC, over Amazon.

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